Did you know that immigration to America was practically unrestricted, unregulated than what we have had for the last eight-plus year? From 1819 onward there were successive milestones of legislation which, taken together, formed the background for the discussion in 1819. They were mostly emergency measures, dealing with problems of the moment and not developed through a constructive and statesman like viewpoint and policy.
The following is a background in the form of a concise chronology, intended merely for convenient reference:
- 1819 - Law regulating carriage of steerage passengers at sea and providing for recording of statistics on immigration.
- 1836 - State department directed to collect information on immigration of foreign paupers and criminals.
- 1838 - Congressional committee to report on expediency of revising naturalization laws, restriction of vagabonds and paupers, No legislation.
- 1847 - Better steerage conditions required by law.
- 1855 - Further regulation of steerage conditions.
- 1864 - Commissioner of immigration appointed. Foreign labor contracts validated to encourage immigration after Civil war.
- 1866 - Additional commissioners of immigration stationed on Atlantic coast, Congressional protests against dumping of criminals and undesirables upon the Untied States.
- 1868 - Law of 1864 favoring immigration of contract labor repealed.
- 1875 - Prostitutes excluded by law.
- 1876 - Much state regulation of immigration invalidated by Supreme court. Federal control supreme.
- 1882 - First general immigration law. Head tax 50 cents. Convicts (except political), lunatics, idiots and those likely to become public charges excluded. Provision for better steerage conditions.
- 1885 - Imprtation of contract labor forbidden. No provision for detection or deportation of contract laborers.
- 1887 - Secretary of treasury empowered to enforce contract labor provisions.
- 1888 - Allens landed contrary to law of 1885 deportable.
- 1889 - Standing congressional committee on immigration established, to investigate immigration and working of immigration laws.
- 1891 - Persons loathsomely or dangerously diseased and polygamists excluded. Soliciting immigrant labor prohibited. State immigration authority passed to federal authorities names, nationality and personal details regarding immigrants to be filed. Examination on Mexican and Canadian borders provided. Aliens landed in violation of immigration laws deportable within one year.
- 1893 - Head tax raised to $1.00.
- 1897 - President Cleveland vetoes educational test.
- 1898 - Industrial commission to investigate immigration and suggest legislation.
- 1903 - Head tax raised to $2. Exclusion of insane, or persons insane within five years, or who had had two attacks of insanity, epileptics, professional beggars, anarchists. Illegal to assist entrance of anarchists. Illegal to assist entrance of anarchists. Department of Commerce and Labor organized. Commissioner general of immigration appointed to administer immigration laws under that department.
- 1906 - Uniform rule for naturalization of aliens. Bureau of immigration called bureau of immigration nd naturalization.
- 1907 - Head tax raised to $4. Exclusion of imbeciles, feebleminded, unaccompanied children under 17, physically or mentally defective sufficient to render unable to make a living, prostitutes or prospective prostitutes. Division of distribution organized. Lists of outgoing passengers required of steamships. Immigration commission created. President empowered to call international conference on immigration and to revoke passports of aliens entering to detriment of labor conditions in United States.
- 1910 - Punishment and deportation provided for aliens profiting from prostituion.
- 1913 - President Taft vetoed literacy test.
- 1915 - President Wilson vetoed literacy test.
- 1918 - President Wilson vetoed literacy test a second time. Bill passed over veto by Senate and House.
- 1919 - Bill to suspend immigration for four years not passed.
- 1920 - Johnson bill suspending immigration for two years and setting 5 percent limit based on number of each nationality already in the United States, supplanted by Dillingham bill and passed. Alien percentage reduced from 5 percent to 3 percent. Bill passed but did not secure President Wilson's signature.
- 1921- The act of may 19, 1921, restricting immigration from all countries except British North America, Mexico, Central and South America, not subject to our laws and agreements regarding orientals to 3 percent of the number of American citizens of each nation resident in the Untied States, became operative on June3, 1921. Qutoas for this percentage restriction were based upon the census of 1910.
Have you ever heard of the "Richest Black Girl" in the World? Who was she? Why do we barely know her name? Sarah Rector by the age of 10 became the richest black child in America because of of Oil drilled on her allotted Creek Nation Property near Cushing, Oklahoma.
Sarah received a land grant from the Creek Nation as part of reparations. Soon after, oil was discovered on her property. By 1912, the revenue from this oil was $371,000 per year (roughly $6.5 million today). There were various attempts to steal her land and fortune, but Sarah resisted. Sarah went on to attend Tuskegee University and eventually settled in Kansas City, Missouri where her mansion still stands.
In The Western Sentinel, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, dated 10 October 1912, Thursday, page 3, we find these headlines: "Oklahoma Negro Girl Gets Just $475 A Day."
Washington, Oct. 8 (1912) -- "A 10 year old Oklahoma negress, Sarah Rector, is the richest colored person int he world, or soon will be, and probably have to pay more income tax than any citizen of Oklahoma," said E. M. Kerr, of Muskogee, Oklahoma, at the Ebbitt.
It seems Sarah was the owner of a quarter section of land, which the Government gave her, in a 1912 discovered oil fields near Cushing, Oklahoma, and it was reported her royalties from the oil on her land were in excess of $475 a day, or $171,000 a year. Sarah was becoming rich so fast that the Muskogee bank which handled her money had a special book engraved and lettered with gold leaf for her account.
The first oil well on Sarah's land was the biggest in the Cushing filed. It came with an initial flow of 2,949 barrels, and after 30 days it was still doing 2,000 barrels. Well No. 2 had just been brought in, and was doing 1,800 barrels a day. Sarah got one-eighth royalty from the oil, and with oil as $1.03 a barrel it could easily be figured that Sarah Rector bids fair to become the wealthiest member of her race in the world. Nine other wells were then, being drilled on the Rector land, and if they proved as productive as the two wells already drilled, Sarah would have a yearly income of nearly $1,000,000.
T. J. Porter, a farmer and stockman at Beland, Oklahoma, was guardian for the girl, who lived in a little cabin on the Porter place. Sarah naturally had no conception of the flood of wealth about to engulf her. The lease of the land was originally bought by the Prairie Oil and Gas Company, through the Probate Court in Muskogee county, and a bonus of $1 an acre was paid for it. B. B. Jones, of Bristol, Oklahoma, afterward bought the lease from he Prairie Company.
Little Sarah Rector Being Trained At Tuskegee School
In the Muskogee Times-Democrat, dated 17 march 1915, Wednesday, page 1, mentions "Little Sarah Rector Being Trained at Tuskegee School As Benefits Her Great Wealth."
We find Sarah was a scrawny, kinky-haired, twelve years old, negro girl with curly pigtails and pigeon toes. She looked like an ordinary negro girl you see playing in the street, but there was one advantage she had - she was rich.
Sarah was the owner of one of the biggest oil producing allotments in Creek County, in the Cushing oil field. When the money began to roll in, Sarah was taken from her squalid surroundings and sent to Tuskegee, Alabama, to be educated and dressed like a lady. In Booker T. Washington's school, she was making progress, as letters from there to negro business men stated.
When Booker T. Washington was there last summer (1914) he was taken by a number of negro business men to the home of Rector girl and looked her over. Before he came there arrangements had been made by Edward Curd her attorney, and County Judge Leahy and others, to send her to Tuskegee.
In 195 Sarah's wealth from her oil lands were producing 12,000 barrels of oil a day, which at the that time market price of 350 a barrel would make her income the pitiful sum of $525 a day or $188,000 a year.
It was during the past few months in 1915, the company that bought her oil had not been taking it all, but was placing about half of it in storage, according to Mr. Curd, so Sarah would have to be economical and retrenched. It would be necessary, according to Mr. Curd, for her to try and eke out an existence until times were better on the trifling sum of $94,000 a year.
Feb. 2 (1942) - War Time Replaces 'Daylight Saving"
Washington, Feb. 2 (1942) -- President Roosevelt has suggested that the term "war time" be used when the nation's cocks are advanced one hour on February 9 (1942) instead of the usual "daylight saving time," the White House disclosed today.
President Roosevelt signed a daylight savings bill today, and at 2a.m. (local time) February 9 (1942) the clocks would be turned ahead an hour for the duration of World War II. Although the bill applies only to interstate commerce activities and the Federal government it is expected to be observed by most of the nation.
Mr. Roosevelt advised Congress the past July that the Federal Power commission figured there would be a saving of 736,282,000 kilowatt-hours of energy by putting on year around daylight saving time.
The bill signed today was similar to that enacted during the first World War and presidential Secretary Stephen Early said it had the same objective of "greater efficiency in our industrial war effort."
The new act will become ineffective six months after the war ends unless Senate and House adopt a resolution to terminate it at an earlier date.
TheThe President signed it with a plain steel pen in a wooden holder and then had the pen went to Robert Garland, Pittsburgh, head of the National committee which had advocated enactment of the legislation.
Pennsylvania was all set to go on Daylight Saving Time with he rest of the nation at 2a.m. Monday, Feb. 9 (1942).
Governor James asserted the commonwealth would shift at the order of President Roosevelt.
With all the talk of "2017's Monday Night Massacre" brewing at present, let us take a look back to 1973, during the Nixon Presidency when the "Saturday Night Massacre" was a "honk for impeachment." The Lancaster Eagle-Gazette, Lancaster, Ohio, dated 12 November 1973, Monday, page 1, reported: "Saturday Night Massacre Produced Miller Mail."
Back in 1973 it took a lot to stir the average American but when they got aroused over public events they mad their feelings known in no uncertain terms.
Ohio 10th District Congressman Clarence E. Miller received over 1,200 communications. The letters, telegrams, postcards and petitions flooded Miller's Capital Hill office in the wake of the "Saturday Night Massacre" when President Nixon fired Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox and forced the resignation of attorney General Elliot Richardson.
The overwhelming negative reaction was credited with forcing Mr. Nixon to capitulate and surrender his Watergate tapes and agree to the appointment of a new prosecutor with even wider guarantees of independence than Cox had.
This was a very grave time in American history. Would our Congress be mice or men, Americans or political hacks?
Leon Jaworski was the new special prosecutor. Would he press the investigation of the White House plumbers unit begun by Archibald Cox?
The White House wanted Jaworski to forget about the plumbers, drop Cox's unfulfilled demands for documents concerning the plumbers and quickly get rid of the Kennedy Democrat still in charge of the investigation.
Nixon lieutenants wanted Jaworski to focus narrowly on the Watergate burglary and dismantle Cox investigations into other matters. If that resulted in angry resignations by Cox's task force chiefs, so much the better in the eyes of the White House.
Nixon Aides believed Merrill's investigation of the 1971 burglary of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office intended to implicate Nixon himself. Merrill's task force wanted to expose a pattern of illegitimate governmental powers.
Cox encountered special White House resistance against supplying documents about the plumbers. Cox's request on August 23, 1973 for a long list of such papers were ignored.
Jaworski would be asked by Merrill to renew demands for these papers and subpoena them if necessary. The white House hoped he would refuse, leading to public outburst by Merrill and either his resignation or dismissal. They were hoping to start a chain reaction leading to the departure of Cox's entire senior staff.
Ever since Cox's departure, the White House had laid the public relations groundwork for more dismissals or forced resignations, describing the speical prosecutor's office as a hive of national-Nixon partisans, particularly Merrill.
The curtailing investigation not directly related to the Watergate burglary and disposing of Cox's holdovers would start a new storm in Congress and among the public. To counteract that, Nixon aides hoped Jaworski would move quickly for grand jury action in the Watergate case itself.
They were hoping that would mean indictments of big names: John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman. The White House would argue that Leon Jaworski was cleaning up Watergate while Archie Cox had been fiddling around with irrelevancies in trying to bring down the President. Hoping Jaworski would quitely shut down investigation of the plumbers campaign expenditures and the ITT affair and stop prying into Nixon's personal finances.
An Aspect to Leon Jaworski was he was a man of considerable ego, fellow layers in Houston reported, proud of his many civic endeavors. Jaworski would be sensitive to accusations of coercion-up and could conceivably come around to the investigative course taken by Cox. If so, the White House would then have irrevocably lost all control of the Watergate prosecution.
View/Write Comments (count 0)
updates (0 subscribers) |
1973-Nixon Urged To Resign
Several newspapers across the nation had called for President Nixon to resign because of growing entanglements in the Water gate case, while others had challenged suggestions that the President was losing the ability to govern.
The New York Times even cited what it called "the visible disintegration of President Nixon's moral and political authority,"said Nixon should resign before the nation was forced to go through the traumatic and divisive process of impeachment.
Richard Nixon and the nation had passed a tragic point of no return. It then seemed likely that the president would have to give up his office. Nixon was irredeemably lost his moral authority, the confidence of most of the country, and therefore his ability to govern.
The New York Times said, "The deceitful manipulation of the presidential war-making powers, the deliberate violations of the law in the national security investigations and the abuse of the impoundment authority had all created in the minds of the people the enduring conviction that Mr. Nixon had little respect for the restraint of the law and no real understanding of constitutional checks and balances. [Does that sound familiar to our 2017 President Trump?]
Have you ever wondered how, when our Daylight Savings Time began? We have found it was on February 9, 1942, during "War Time" that a year-round Daylight Saving Time began in the United States.
It was passed by Congress and signed into law by president Franklin D. Roosevelt, the year-round Daylight Saving Time required that clocks removed ahead one hour for the remainder of the war as a national defense measure to conserve energy.
America first implemented a partial year daylight saving time in March 1918, during World War I, and though there was popular support of the wartime measure, There was also disapproval primarily from farmers and the railroads. The national daylight saving time was repealed after the war ended, but it continued on at the local level, especially in the North, East, and parts of the Midwest.
A national daylight saving time was again implemented during World War II, but this time, rather than lasting only part of the year, daylight saving time lasted all year. The purpose of "War Time," as this form of daylight saving time was called, was to conserve power and provide extra daylight for war industries to increase production. As with World War I, after World War II ended, the national daylight saving time was quickly repealed, but it remained a local issue, with each state, city, and even business deciding whether it would adopt daylight saving time or not.
This patchwork form of daylight saving time caused much inconvenience and confusion, and in 1966 a national law was signed calling for daylight saving time to fall from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October, with the option for states to exempt themselves. The energy crisis of the 1970s once again prompted the adoption of year round daylight saving time beginning in January 1974, but it actually only lasted 10 months, as legislation was signed adjusting yet again the time period of daylight saving time.
Another bill was signed in 1986 that moved daylight saving time to the period from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday of October. This remained the law for many years until the most recent daylight saving legislation, implemented in 1077, set daylight saving time from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November.
Daylight saving time has remained a contentious issue in the United States ever since it was first implemented during World War I, as people debate its effect on energy, safety, farming, and much more. > >
Most of the United States now follows daylight saving time, with the exception of Arizona, Hawaii, and the US territories.
View/Write Comments (count 0)
updates (0 subscribers) |