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Delbert, Did you attend Waynoka schools? Please email your name and address, and we can include the information in the Waynoka Alumni Ass'n directory. The Alumni Ass'n meets every 5 years. Next meeting is Labor Day week-end, 2005.
 ~Sandie Olson regarding Okie's story from Vol. 7 Iss. 15 titled UNTITLED

I didn't realize that NWOSU was having a spring reunion the 28th April [more]...
 ~NW Okie regarding Okie's story from Vol. 9 Iss. 14 titled UNTITLED


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NW Okie's Journey

Vol 18, Iss 30 As we continue our research into our emigrant European pioneers that settled in the Virginia area, we discover more interesting tidbits of what life was like for many of them. Our ancestry surnames settling in the Virginia area were: Warwick, Dunlap, Powell, Hull (Hohl), Keister, Roger Dyer and his wife Hannah Greene, Craig, Johnson, pray, Gwin (Guinn), Eckard, Dilley, Dever, Hamilton, Gilmore, Stephenson, Carlyle, Kincaid, etc...

There was an Alexander Hamilton, born 1615, Granshaw, Comber, County Down, Ireland, and died 26 January 1676, Killyleagh, Down, Ireland, that shows up as my 8th Great-grandfather. He married Jean (Hamilton) (1620-1699), and had a son Robert Hamilton (1665-1677). Robert's daughter Agnes Anderson Hamilton (1702-1759) shows up as my 6th great grandmother, married to John Gilmore, Sr. (1692-1759).

Knights of the Golden Horseshoe
The Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition was also known as the Transmontane Expedition. It took place in 1716 in the British Colony of Virginia. The Royal governor and a number of prominent citizens traveled westward, across the Blue Ridge mountains on an exploratory expedition.

Alexander Spotswood, with about 50 other men and 74 horses, led a rea estate speculation expedition up the Rappahannock River valley during westward exploration of the interior of Virginia. The party included fourteen rangers and four Meherrin Indians, and departed Germanna on August 29, coming within sight of the Blue Ridge Mountains on August 31, 1716.

On September 6, 1716, they rode down into the Shenandoah Valley on the east side of Massanutten Mountain and reached the Shenandoah River, which they called the "Euphrates" near the current town of Elkton. There, they fired multiple volleys and drank special toasts of wine, brandy, and claret to the King and to Governor Spotswood, naming the two peaks after them. The taller summit they called "Mount George", and the lesser, "Mount Spotswood".

Let me leave you here with a poem called "Horse-shoe Knights," concerning the Virginia settlers of the Shenandoah and Virginia Valley:

Horse-shoe Knights
The knightliest of the knightly race,
Who since the days of old,
Have kept the lamps of chivalry
Alight in hearts of gold;
The kindliest of the kindly band,
Who early hating ease,
Yet rode with Spotswood round the land,
And Raleigh round the seas -
Who climbed the blue Virginia Hills,
And planted there, in Valleys fair,
The lilly and the rose,
Whose fragrance lives in many lands,
Whose beauty stars the earth,
And lights the hearts of many
Homes with loveliness and worth.
Without they slept, the sons who kept
The names of noble sires,
And slumbering while the darkness crept
Around their vigil fires.
But still the Golden Horseshoe Knights
Their Old Dominion keep,
Whose foes have found
Enchanted ground,
But not a Knight asleep.

Good Night! Good Luck! We are stronger together! "Love conquers Hate!"
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NW Okie's Journey

Vol 18, Iss 27 Alva, OK - I'm Late! I'm late! I'm late for a very important date! Thanks for your patience, understanding. I was distracted while cleaning, fine-tuning my genealogy database on Ancestry.com. I accidentally deleted the wrong ancestor, which left a bunch of ancestors unlinked from certain individuals. I believe I have that worked out and cleaned up. We all are curious from whom we descended; where, when and why our ancestors came to America, aren't we?

My Great Grandfather John Robert Warwick (1857-1937) comes from a long line of John Robert's from the Warwicks who settled in the Virginias, connected to Lt. William Warwick (1690-1764) & Elizabeth Anne Dunlap (1716-1805), my 6th Great Grandparents from England.

What I am findings is that my Warwicks had a major part in the 1776 Revolutionary War and the French and Indian Wars. It all began with my 6th Great Grandparents:

My 6th Great Grandparents- Lt. William Warwick (1690-1764) and Elizabeth Anne Dunlap (1716-1805) emigrated from England in the mid-1700s.
5th Great Grandparents - John Robert Warwick (1744–1801) and Mary Powell (1745-1786).
4th Great grandparents - William Warwick (1780-1834) and Nancy Agnes Craig (1782-1860).
3rd Great Grandparents R- obert Craig Warwick (1801-1845) and Esther Hull (1804-1853). Robert Craig Warwick was the first son that crossed the Allegheny to pay his sister a visit, which resulted in connecting with Esther Hull, eventually marrying and settling on the Deer Creek homestead. They were the parents of 3 sons and 6 daughters.
2nd Great Grandparents- William Fechtig Warwick 1822-1902) and Phebe Anthea Pray (1833-1905).
1st Great Granparetnts - John Robert Warwick (1857-1937) and Signora Belle Gwin (1860-1934).
Grandparents - Constance Estella Warwick (1882-1968) and William Jacob Mcgill (1880-1959).

You can read more about Maj. Jacob Warwick in this weeks OkieLegacy Ezine/Tabloid.

Good Night! Good Luck!
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NW Okie's Journey

Vol 16, Iss 13 Bayfield, CO - Our journey this week is to search for powerful Women figures of the past. We did find such a women, Miss Catharing "Kate" Barnard, in Oklahoma before, during and after statehood. You can read about Kate Barnard in this week's OkieLegacy Ezine.

Jane Addams was another powerful women, who established the Hull-House in Chicago, Illinois. The Hull-House was located in the midst of a densely populated urban neighborhood peopled by Italian, Irish, German, Greek, Bohemian, and Russian and Polish Jewish immigrants.

Kate Barnard in 1914 was trying to raise funds for something similar to the Hull-House, but doing it in Oklahoma. Does anyone out there no if Barnard's Home of friendless, homeless working women ever got built? Was it also known as an orphanage for Indian wards? I know she did a lot of work protecting the Indian children who were loosing their land rights. Would love to know more abuo Barnard's Hull like Home.

The Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) is working! Congress can keep their dirty hands off of my Medicare & Social Security!

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Duchess of Weaselskin

Vol 14, Iss 47 Bayfield, Colorado - How's the mid-November 2012 going for you? Thanksgiving is just a few days away. Have you made a list of what you are thankful for?

The Hull/Hohl Family

This week's newsletter is filled with NW Okie's paternal Hohl/Hull family information concerning her 5th great grandfather, Peter Thomas Hohl. Besides that, we continue our history into Rockbridge county, Virginia.

The Hull family was of German ancestry. The name is found in records as Hole, Hool, Hohl, Holle and Hull.

Peter Thomas Hull (1), the progenitor of this branch of the Hull family was born c. 1706 in the Palatinate; died in 1776 in Augusta County, Virginia; married (1) in Germany (do not know first wife's name); Married (2) November 25, 1750 in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania to Susannah Margaretha Dieffenbach (sometimes spelled as Fieffenbach). Peter Thomas Hull came to Philadelphia from Rotterdam on the ship Frances and Ann. Thomas Coatan, Master, arriving in Philadelphia on May 30, 1741.

Last, but not least, Have you ever read or heard stories about a New York attorney, Burton W. Gibson, and a Countess Rosa Menschik Szabo, who allegedly drowned or was strangled at Greenwood Lake, New York during September 16, 1912? We found a few news article from that time period for this week's newsletter.

Give Thanks on Thanksgiving Day this Thursday!

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Giving Thanks & Genealogy Info

Vol 10, Iss 47 As a dry, cold front settled through Southwest Colorado by mid-week we encountered gas prices falling below the $2 mark in Durango, Colorado.

Also... Nugget, Quoti and Maggie were caught on film this week with friends at Clark's West Ranch in Northwest Oklahoma.

Meanwhile, NW Okie has been busy updating and moving her genealogy database to a new site. We deleted our Gencircles.com genealogy database.

NOW... Our Paris-Conover-Hurt (Geneanet.org) can be found at these two links - myheritage.com (Paris Family Site).

When you click the MyHeritage site link you will be able to pick between the "Paris-Conover-Hurt" pages and the McGill-Warwick-Gwin-Hull & Wagner-Williams-Zimmerman .

I also received this week some Louthan family history and information from Tom Fetters in Illinois. I haven't got it all transcribed yet, but I am still working on merging that information into my maternal genealogy data for the Paris/Conover/Hurt family file.

There are two different genealogy sites we are trying out, the MyHeritage site, which allows photos and comments, and the Geneanet.org site which has the traditionally, indented family tree form -- which makes for easier viewing and navigating.

See what you think and let me know which one you like the best. If you have a genealogy site that doesn't cost an arm and a leg to use, we would love to hear from you.

HAPPY THANKSGIVING is just around the corner. Take a few moments and reflect on things around you, and for what you are thankful for this year.
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Oakie's Ancestors...

Vol 7, Iss 14 A lot of Okie's ancestors on her father's side of the family were from Old Augusta County, Virginia. The McGILL's stretched down into Tennessee. We are finding out that the HULL/HOHL ancestors came down to Virginia from Lancaster & York (now Adam) Counties, Pennsylvania.

The farthest back on the HULL side of the family leads us to a Peter Thomas HOHL/HOLL born in Rhineland Palatinate (Rheinland-Pflaz), Germany. In 1741 (May 30), Peter (age 28, a miller) migrated to the Philadelphia area of America on the ship Francis & Ann, from Rotterdam, Netherlands. Next we find Peter Thomas HULL/HOHL moved to Cub Run, present day Rockingham County, Virginia prior to 1755. Our HULL side of the family married into the WARWICK clan through Esther HULL when she married Robert Craig WARWICK.

The quest for our WARWICK, GWIN/GUINN/GWINN, HULL/HOHL/HOLL has lead us to Old Augusta County, Virginia that we speak of in the next feature story. There was a lot of misinformation about the HULL/HOHL side of the family that got passed down from when our grandmother Constance (Warwick) McGill did her research. If you search through Geo. W. Cleek's book, Early Western Augusta County, you need to becareful what you use. There are some families with misplaced children and no documentations. Another path to take is to read through Lyman Chalkley's compilation of Virginia's court records.

We are hoping that when we get through refreshing, rebuilding, updating our family database, we will have an organized idea of where to continue the research. We haven't even starting putting the PARIS/CONOVER/HURT families into the database. Okie says, "Let's just work this side of the family first. Otherwise, we will be overwhelmed by all the surnames. Sometimes... when you run onto an unidentified photo, you wish you could go back in time -- ask your grandparents more about the family ancestors. All I have now are old faded notes, newspaper clippings, letters, postcards, unmarked old photos. Trying to put some order, organization into it all for the next generation keeps me preoccupied lately. It is addictive. AND... a never-ending... journey!"

Maybe someday Okie will pack this Precious Pug into the Pickup and venture back through Old Augusta County for a few weeks, month of digging for family roots.

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Our NEW Grand Niece

Vol 7, Iss 13 March 24, 2005 we received news that our NEW grand niece made her appearance known. That's our grand-niece on David's side of the family. Erin Lillian was born 0743 EST, March 24, 2005, in Atlanta, GA, weighing in at 6lb. 14 oz., 21 inches. We hear that Mother and baby Erin are doing well. Welcome, Erin, into our family!

That has spurred this family historian to dust-off the family genealogy program and do some updating. BUT... I have had to start from scratch to rebuild the family genealogy database. Since I've changed computers over the last few years, I can't seem to find any of my "gedcom" files. I've had to print out my webpages and start inputting families in from scratch -- starting with my "Family Tree Legend" -- GenCircles.com -- MCGILL Genealogy. I'm hoping to get the WARWICK, HULL/HOHL, GWIN/GUINN/GWINN, PARIS, HURT & WAGNER families added in the coming weeks. I know there are programs (ged2html) out there that translate gedcom files to gendex.txt files to use on your webpages. BUT... is there any program out there that will translate the gendex.txt files back to gedcom files? It seems like a few years ago there was something like that. It would sure help about now in the rebuilding the family genealogy database. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Sweet Silly Spunky Sadie

Vol 19, Iss 1 Remember when precinct meetings drew largest crowds in history for Democratic party in the 1960s, especially in Oklahoma? Why can't we do that again? What can we do to accomplish that? Was this about the same time the rural communities, precincts in Oklahoma was awaken to have their voices heard over the larger cities?

Found on Newspapers.com

It was in The Ada Weekly News, out of Ada, Oklahoma, dated 18 February 1960, Thursday, page 1, we found this 1960 headlines: "McGill Appears Leader Here As Precinct Meetings Draw Largest Crowds in History."

In 1960, the zany world of Democratic politics burst upon the Pontotoc county scene on a Friday evening as precinct politics scurried to their respective voting places in record numbers to organize for the impending "family feud." I suppose they were talking about the democratic party feud between Gov. Howard Edmondson and the grassroots democratic party supporting Gene McGill.

That year the State's two "Big M's" were battling it out in fifty-six precincts in the county with the results surprising few observers. Pat Malloy, Gov. Edmondson's choice for state chairman, won a few battles int eh unpredictable city precincts, but Gene McGill, outspoken administration foe appeared to have won the war with an overwhelming majority of rural boxes.

This was by far, the largest precinct organization turnout in the county's recent political history the battle lines were drawn as predicted. McGill appeared to make unexpected inroads in the city while Malloy and his supporters came up with only a few surprises int he country.

The precinct meetings were merely to select precinct chairmen and other officers who would, in turn, meet February 20th to choose county officers.

What it boiled down to in Pontotoc county was an all-out struggle between foes and friends of the controversial young governor as separate slates of candidates for county offices were announced Friday morning. J. I. Jones of Allen and Mrs. Joe Robnett of Roff were on the McGill side of the fence and Monte Bell and Dorothy Higginbotham, both of Ada, were avowed candidates who favored Edmondson and Malloy.

There was no official listing of the instructed delegations from the precincts that was released by Martin Clark, county Democratic chairman, but a representative survey by the NEWS and others came up with the following tablulation: Malloy apparently carried 11 of the city's boxes with McGill running first in 9 and 2 others completely neutral in outward appearance. In the county, the count would read something like 18 for McGill, 5 for Malloy and 10 on the undecided list.

That gave McGill an overall lead of 27 to 17. Of course, the survey taken into account some boxes whose delegations would go to the central committee meeting uninstructed, but whose officers were known to favor one candidate or the other.

The bulk of the Malloy support in Ada came in wards one and two while McGill held his own in three and four.

In the county, McGill led all the "big" precincts such as Allen, Stonewall, Roff and Latta while Malloy managed to capture a few delegates in such places as Valley View, Country Club and other precincts.

Some, or several precinct decisions possibly missed in the survey, but these appeared to be the "sure" city boxes.

In ward one, precinct three, thirteen people attended and an unusual occurrence was marked. Jake Blevins, administration official, was selected as precinct chairman and also made a motion his precinct go on record as favoring the nomination of Lyndon B. Johnson for president.

One of the sore points of the campaign had been the claim that administration forces were cool to Johnson and were for Sen. John Kennedy of Massachusetts. In fact, this was mentioned in several precincts as the prime reason the voters did not want Malloy for state chairman.

Other precincts, such as the one which met at Ada High School, also instructed its delegates to express their preference for Johnson.

The effect of the anti-administration organization was evident from the results. The "sure" boxes, the ones in which the delegates were definitely instructed were almost all pro-McGill and pro-Jones, while the Malloy-Bell supporters were mostly uninstructed. It was in Ward one, precinct one, meeting at the courthouse, Dr. Sam A. McKeel was selected chairman and Esther Turner was chosen for co-chairman. The delegation was not instructed, but precinct committeeman W. G. Massey said the sentiment seemed to favor "Local government," indicating support for Jones and McGill would probably emerge. In ward one, precinct three, at Hayes School, the trend was in the other direction as Blevins was chosen chairman and his wife was tabbed co-chairman. About thirteen people attended and the favor was definitely pro-Malloy.

The first instructed delegation encountered in the survey came from the First Presbyterian Church box, ward one, precinct six. G. G. Folger was elected chairman and Mrs. Aubrey Kerr vice chairman. Seventeen attended the meeting and the delegation would go to the central committee meeting with two votes for Jones and McGill.

In ward one, precinct five, the administration apparently gained, but no instructions were given to the delegates. J. N. King was the chairman and Mrs. Tom Watson would serve as co-chairman. The issues of the state chairman's campaign didn't arise, but at least it was not anti-administration.

Ward two appeared more solidly behind Malloy and Bell.

In W2-P2, Les Younger was chosen chairman and his wife would serve as c0-chairman. The feeling here ran favorable to Malloy.

The first case of an instructed delegation for Malloy and Bell came in W@-P5 where Homer Belew was elected chairman and Lena Yagol vice-chairman. The delegation was instructed to support the Malloy slate at the central committee meeting.

L. D. Kite became chairman in W2-P4 and the reports had it that all nine present were unanimous in support of McGill and Jones.

Few reports came in from ward three, but it was believed McGill dominated the voting there, at least in the first two precincts.

At least one ward three ballot as hopelessly divided. That one was at Irving School (W3-P3) where T. J. Jared was named chairman and Dorothy Higginbotham vice chairman.

Miss Higginbotham was not he slate with Bell, supporting the candidacy of Malloy. A vote showed the seven Democrats present were split, so no instructions were given.

Ward four saw at least on instructed delegation elected. That one came at the Ada High School box where the delegates were told to support McGill and Jones. Lester Lanier was selected as chairman and Vernon Roberts' motion to support Jones was approved by and 8-4 vote. Sixteen attended the meeting and, apparently, the main issue at stake was the question of Johnson vs. Kennedy.

One voter, Harrell Allen, urged no instructions, but the "ayes" had it by four votes. The biggest turnout was on South High School, the voting place for W4-P5. There 45 people gathered and the feeling was definitely anti-administration.

C. S. Williams, veteran chairman of the precinct, said practically all present were for McGill although the delegation would be uninstructed.

Williams commented, "I had the dubious distinction of presiding over the liquidation of the Edmondson-Malloy forces. In addition, I had the honor of presiding over the largest precinct meeting ever held in Ada. I had thought the governor should have a friendly slate chairman, but my cause was sunk without a trace."

Williams' feeling were reflected in many other areas where the anti-administration forces made their presence felt overwhelmingly. The pro-Edmondson-Malloy-Bell voters were apparently somewhat more subdued in support of their favorites.

McGill swept the countryside. Delegations from Allen's two precincts headed by the candidate Jones and Guy Pegg were instructed to cast their votes for the McGill slate. Homer's delegations, J. C. Hands and Janie Phillips, were given similar instructions, as were the Fittstown delegates headed by chairman W. E. Snyder. Those representing Roff, Stonewall and Latta would also cast their lots with the anti-administration forces.

It was believed Saturday Malloy made some headway in the Union Valley, Center, Valley View, Country Club and Colbert boxes, but this could not be verified.

At the Country Club box, Dick Roberts became chairman, Dee Burdine was chosen as chairman at Center.

The turnout Friday night ranged from 45 in the ward four precinct to a single citizen at ward four, precinct one (city hall).

That night was a rousing night of political shuffling and one thing definitely emerged from all the hullaballoo ... there was more interest in the grassroots of the party that ever before with all precincts setting up organizations of the first time in the history of Pontotoc county.

1960 "Old Guard" Not Backing McGill
The Miami Daily News-Record, out of Miami, Oklahoma, dated 10 January 1960, Sunday, page 1, reported that Carl LaGere, 4th district Democratic chairman, labeled himself as a member of the "old guard" and said not all veteran Democrats were supporting state party chairman Gene McGill.

It seems LaGere of Chandler was miffed when McGill appointed J. I. Jones of Allen as Pontotoc county chairman without first consulting him. LaGere charged that McGill bypassed him because he was the only one of three district chairman who voted for Pat Malloy of Tulsa, Gov. J. Howard Edmondson's choice for the post then held by McGill.

LaGere didn't think McGill had the support of all the "old guard."

Good Night! Good Luck!
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Walking With Sweet Silly Sadie

Vol 18, Iss 29 Oklahoma - Here is a little youtube video concerning pioneers of the women's liberation movement and the history of feminism.



It is a selection pioneers of the women's movement. who lived in the 18th to the middle of the 20th century, except In remembrance of the first International Women's Day, 19 March 1911★ Later it became the 8th of March in memory of the textile strike, 8 March 1857 in New York and textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts during January-March 1912. "Bread and Roses" poem 1911/12 by James Oppenheim; dedicated to the strikers and in 1976 set to music by Mimi Farina Baez, the sister of Joan Baez.

History Bits: Victoria Woodhull


History Bits is a series of short video history tid-bits featuring people, places and events. With running times of 40 seconds to 2 minutes they are perfect for any website wanting to upgrade its content offerings. Or for any history class wanting a short video intro to distant or not so distant times.… this bit: Victoria Woodhull, the first woman to run for President of the United States.

Good Night! Good Luck! Remember, "Love conquers Hate!"
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Walking With Sadie

Vol 16, Iss 29 Bayfield, CO - This weekend we snapped this picture of three deer grazing on our hillside around noon, Saturday, 30 August 2014. NW Okie would not let me out of the car, because she knew I would end of chasing those deer up the mountain slope.

Besides enjoying the wildlife and walking in the southwest Colorado rockies, NW Okie has been trying to run down the Charles Hull who lived in Chicago, Illinois. Was it the same Charles Carey Hull (27 Aug. 1819 - 16 Oct. 1891) who married Grace M. Kimball (1826-1895), on 1 May 1850, in Elmira, Chemung, New York?

Charles Carey Hull's funeral took place from his late residence, 4333 Greenwood Avenue, on Sunday, 18 October1891, at 2 o'clock p.m., by carriages to Oakwoods cemetery.

NW Okie has been trying to connect her HULL ancestors to the Charles Hull, whose residence was rented and used after his death as the Hull House. We have not found the connection yet.

Woof! Woof! Good Night & Good Luck View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


1850 US Fed Civil War Slave Schedules of Virginia

Vol 11, Iss 50 This is a list of people who owned slaves in 1850 in the Virginia area of Highland County. There are a few of NW Okie's paternal ancestors on the Gwin, Hull and particularly John Dever who owned slaves back then.

John Dever was the father of Ellen Dever, who married Samuel Gwin. One of their daughters was NW Okie's Great-Grandmother, Signora Belle Gwin, who married John Robert Warwick. So ? would that make John Dever my 3rd Great Grandpa?
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1946-47 W B. Hull vs. State (Criminal Case #3442)

Vol 10, Iss 21 While we are in NW Oklahoma, I did some research down in the basement of the Woods County courthouse earlier this week to see what I could find out about the 1947 W. B. Hull vs. State Criminal Case.

A few weeks ago we talked, shared an old criminal case #1091 subpoena showing a list of people subpoena to testify in the Hull vs. State case. A few of those listed were Gene McGill, Marion Gardner, Nels Nelson, and others.

What I found out at Woods County's courthouse basement dated back to December 23, 1946, but the case number was 3442 instead of 1091. Not sure why the subpoena was numbered 1091 and the court records were numbered 3442, though.

Anyway... In the W. B. "Bertie" Hull vs. State, defendant Hull waives formal arraignment on December 23, 1946 as well as the reading of the complaint. Hull pleaded Not Guilty and his bail was set $2,000.

The preliminary was original set for January 2, 1947, 10:00 a.m., but when that date came around, it (the case 3442) was continued to January 18, 1947.

On the Criminal Appearance Docket for December 22, 1946 it showed that Ken W. Greer arrested W. B. Hull. The records showed that on January 18, 1947 there was a transcript of the the testimony of McGill and Nels Nelson.

As the testimony goes... Hull allegedly shot four times at Gene McGill's airplane back in December 22, 1946 when Gene McGill and Marion Gardner were flying low to ground hunting coyotes.

We have heard rumors & stories that Gene scattered Hull's cattle and Hull took a shot at Gene's light airplane. We have also heard that Marion Gardner and Hull were not on the friendliest terms... more towards the feuding kind of neighbors.

Was it intent to kill or just an assault with a deadly weapon? AND... why did the 1947 subpeona have a different case number (#1091) instead of the criminal case #3442 that we found on the following court records in the basement of the courthouse?

You can read the news clipping that I found on old microfilm for the Alva Review Courier, December, 1946 and January, 1947. I have stuck them in the "Mailbag Section below.
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Wm Fechtig & Phebe Anthea Warwick

Vol 9, Iss 31 Last weekend we did a tribute to our Great-Grandpa John Robert Warwick.

This week we are carrying that tribute to include John's parents & NW Okie's Grea-Great-Grandparents, William Fechtig & Phoebe "Phebe" Anthea (Pray/Prey) Warwick.

I just love this photo on the left of Great-Great Grandma Phebe Anthea Warwick. The picture on the right is Great-Great Grandpa William Fechtig Warwick in his early years.

As I mentioned last weekend, John Robert Warwick was one of eleven children 911) of William Fechtig & Phoebe Anthea (Prey) Warwick. There were lots of John, Jacob, Williams listed in the Warwick family that originated (I think) from Scotland.

William Fechtig Warwick was born 11 August 1822 and died 20 December 1903, Mountain Grove, Virginia. William married Phoebe Anthea Prey (Pray). We are still need doing some genealogy work on these Great-Great grandparents.

This photo is a picture of William F. & Phebe A. (Prey) Warwick in their later years. I have also included a couple of links to our McGill/Warwick/Hull family genealogy: John R. & Signora Belle (Gwin) Warwick & Wm F. & Phebe Warwick.
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An Answer For A Nephew

Vol 8, Iss 49 We received a surprise email from a nephew this week. He was inquiring about a MCGILL family tree. His mother (our baby sister, Amber) seems to think that Gene McGill paid a professional to draw-up a MCGILL Family Tree.

If he did, a lot of those alleged records were pirated, locked away from some of us during our parents probate estates. BUT... that's another story for another day. Most of you living in northwest Oklahoma have probably heard of the "McGill Probates from Hell"... haven't you?! Maybe someday we will expand a bit more, but not now.

We have no information about Gene having a family tree chart prepared, but we believe he did send off for a McGill coat of arms. AND... we do know that our Grandmother, Constance Estella Warwick McGill, did sufficient research to qualify as a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) around April 1, 1925, using her ancestor Captain David Gwin.

Awhile back when we were just beginning our family search, genealogy webpages, we scanned several coats of arms for our HULL, GWIN, WARWICK, McGILL families and placed them on our family website over at ParisTimes Genealogy.

There have been questions about Gene McGill and his involvement with the Masons & Shriners. We do know that Gene was a "32d degree Mason" and a member of the "India Shrine" in Oklahoma City, but that's all we know about his involvement with the Masons & Shriners. Perhaps the "India Shrine in Oklahoma City" would be the place for our nephew who is doing his own research to obtain more information about his grandfather's involvement with the Masons & Shriners.

Maybe someone out there could, would have more information than we have and could point him in the right direction.
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144 Years Ago (June, 1872) - The Woodhull's Convention

Vol 18, Iss 29 We look back to another time, 144 years ago, When Victoria C. Woodhull, of New York, was placed into nomination, as "the woman's, Negroes and Workingman's Ticket for President and Fredrick Douglass, of District of Columbia, for Vice President.

Found on Newspapers.com The New Northwest, out of Portland, Oregon, dated 7 June 1872, Friday, on page 3, had this to say about Victoria C. Woodhull's Convention, where she was nominated at first women for President, June, 1872.

The party of "equal rights," who had chosen Mrs. Victoria Woodhull as their standard bearer, met again (6 June 1872) in the morning at Apollo Hall, the session of the Convention being continued over the second day for the purpose of allowing debate and discussion on various matters which were not clearly understood the previous day. They assembled at ten o'clock, and a great wight seemed to have been taken off the minds of the members, for the reason that they had a leader at last under whose banner they might fight with some prospect of success.

During the opening of the convention Judge Carter, of Ohio, offered some resolutions, which were full of "humanity' and "equal rights," "brotherly love," sisterly affection." These resolutions made the platform - a very vague and cloudy document by the way - a little more clear to the understanding of the members.

Mrs. Spear (a lady with a blazing blue eye and a heavy waterfall) - I think we ought to agree upon some ticket which we may thrust in the ballot-box election day. My idea of a ticket is soothing like this: "The Woman's, Negroes and Workingman's Ticket - Victoria Woodhull, of New York, for President; Frederick Douglass, of District of Columbia, for Vice President."

We can vote on that easy on election day. Here the old Cokney Indian, Father Peter, with white hair and shaky legs, arose and said: "I 'opes in my 'art that you will add "and the Indian's Ticket.' The old man seemed almost frantic at the thought that the noble red Indian might be left out of the platform.

A short, bandy-legged man with spectacles - "And I have another amendment to offer. Since you include the Indian, the Heathen Chinee and the negro, let us call it everybody's ticket; that will make it pleasant for everybody, and we can all vote upon it."

After this there was an exciting and tumultuous debate, every one pitching in at random. The men with the long hair and the women with the short hair bobbed up and down in the Convention like discarded champagne corks int he surf at Long Branch on a summer's morning. Order was finally revolved out this chaos, and at the close of the hurly-burly a tall lady, dressed in a black empress cloth dress, surmounted by a pink scarf covered with white lace, and wearing her back hair in the tele of 1830, having three bands on each side of her face puffed out, advanced to the rostrum, and was announced by the Chairman as Mrs. Bell A. Lockwood, of Washington, D.C. A Document was then read from a town with an unpronounceable name in Wisconsin, expressing sympathy and condolence with the Convention and its objects.

A white-headed old delegate, seventy years of age, who has six wives in Utah, then got on his legs and offered a resolution, that the party of equal rights adopt as their political banner the Goddess of Liberty, in pure white, with the words "Equal Rights," in large Roman capitols, underneath.

Another delegate, with a green cotton umbrella, said, "I think that - that our banner should be one with a dove, being a representative of peace, with the three charming words in its bid, 'Liberty, Justice and Fraternity.'"

The following resolutions were reported by the committee on platform and resolutions. it was understood they were drawn up by the long-haired Pantarch Stephen Pearl Andrews, and were like most of his productions, full of sound and fury signifying nothing:

Resolved, That the two fundamental principles of government and the life of mankind are order and freedom, which have always hitherto been in conflict, and frequently in fierce antagonism, but which are, nevertheless, destined to be married and reconciled with each other.

Resolved, That there is a crude, primitive and imperfect king of freedom, which consists of casting off the constraint of conscience and legitimate discipline along with the unauthorized invasion of foreign authority, while true freedom contributes to order; and that there is also a false and oppressive kind of order, while the higher kind of order is evolved from the very bowels of freedom.

Resolved, That the lordly arrogance of man in determining the "sphere of woman" or of any one human being in determining the sphere of any other human being, is becoming more and more adverse to the spirit of the age; that the question is not, fundamentally, of the right or wrong of any particular course of conduct, but it is one of jurisdiction, or of the deciding power over the very question whether the thing considered be right or wrong; and that the growing spirit of freedom in the work demands that this deciding over be lodged with the individual himself, or herself, whose conduct is in question; and that assumption of the right and authority to interfere with and regulate the conduct of others is becoming more distasteful to every well informed and well regulated mind.

Resolved, That it is written in the destinies now urgently pressing for fulfillment that society shall pass through the experience of the full participation of woman in political affairs; that the fact will have to be accepted, whatever the previous prejudices, speculations and theories on the subject may have been; and that the future form of society will, therefore, be such as shall be developed out of this hitherto untried condition of things; that the sooner, with the less amount of acrimony, and with the more mutual confidence and helpfulness between the sexes, the transition is effect the better for all.

Resolved, That not only the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments of the Constitution of the Untied States, but the Constitution itself, the declaration of American Independence,the spirit of all our institutions and the law of God written upon the rational constitution of the human mind and evolving itself in this age as the science of society - all concur in conferring on every citizen of a a competent age the equal rights to participation in the choice of the government which they are called upon to obey.

It was at this juncture the inevitable Maddox, of Miane, got upon the platform and commenced to saw the air with his arms, and at the same time articulate sounds came from his mouth. Maddox, of Maine, talked Communism. Maddox, of Miane, talked philanthropy. Then he made another excursion in the air with his arms. Then he condescended to explain to his audience the mode of operation by which the new party were to procure funds. He said it was their intention to issue certificates of indebtedness, to be signed by the chairman, secretary and treasurer of the executive Committee of the new party. This was to be done in the style of the Fenian bonds. Maddox, of Maine, knew that millions of americans were ready to buy the bonds, any amount of money could be procured, and in the ecstasy of the sublime thought Maddox, of Maine, metaphorically embraced the whole world in his arms. Maddox sat down at last, his eyes rolling i pious delirium.

Aged veteran named Spear, "We are going to elect our candidates, we are, and the good and the great people of the united States will crowd around our victorious President, Victoria C. Woodhull, and escort him to the White House, and our national executive committee rally in upon them in perfect showers." Here the aged veteran sat down, his heart beating like a trip hammer.

The names of this National Executive Committee of the new party were read as follows and accepted by the Convention: A. E. Robinson, Massachusetts; Mrs. Caroline H. Spear, Vice President, California; Otis J. Porter, Connecticut; Judge A. J. M. Carter, President, Ohio; Mrs. Abbie P. Ela, New Hampshire; Mrs. Bella A. Lockwood,, secretary, Washington; John F. Underswood, Virginia; Mrs. Richmond, Illinois; Jennie C. Udndee, Maryland; George D. Coleman, Pennsylvania; Mitchele, Maine; Elizabeth A. Mereweather, Tennessee; John M. Spear, Utah; Mrs. Esther Morris, Wyoming; John Helmsley, Idaho; Mrs. E. B. Curtis, Nevada; Mrs. Olympie Higgins, Washington Territory; Robert Dale Owen, Indian; Newman Weeks, Wisconsin; J. S. Graham, New York; J. B. Taylor, Kansas; Anthony Higgins, New Jersey; Mrs. Lonkham, Rhode Island; Moses Hill, Kentucky; A. W. St. Johns, Missouri; Lemuel Parolee, Louisiana; Richard J. Irevellich, Michigan; Mary F. Davis, New Jersey, Treasurer.

The resolution in substance empowered the National Executive Committee of the "Equal Rights Party" to issue certificates of indebtedness, in order that the money could be raised for the coming Woodhull and Douglass campaign. The resolution was passed. Victoria Woodhull, in a letter some three volumes in length, accepted the nomination of the Apollo Hall Convention for the Presidency.
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European Emigrants & American Colonies

Vol 18, Iss 28 Have you ever wondered why is it certain countries established the American colonies, and why certain other countries furnished many settlers, yet established no colonies?

We know that England was very far in the lead as to establishing American, English colonies. And England was the country nearer the American shore than was the case with continental Europe. England was also the foremost in breaking the power of feudalism and giving the masses of her people a will to assert themselves.

The strong religious sect in England were better able to take care of themselves than was true of other European lands, excepting Holland. We know that the spirit of the weaker sects were not broken, and they were not prohibited from leaving the country. We find the English were brave, sturdy and venturesome. They were empire builders by nature and inclination. We also know different classes of the English were impelled to go to America, and several colonies were founded instead of one colony only.

Scotland, Wales and Ireland dependencies of England, contributed to the stream of emigration, but as the interests of the Scotch, Welsh, and Irish in the new continent were identical with those of the more numerous English, these people did not seek to form colonies of their own.

We learn that Holland was then the first commercial country of Europe, who owned as many ships as all the rest of the continent. With respect to civil and religious liberty, Holland was the first of the Europeans lands. They were quite exempt from persecution and having a keen eye to business, they would expect the Hollanders to found a single colony, and primarily for the purpose of trade rather than agriculture. And that is what precisely took place. The metropolitan city of New York bears witness to Holland's good judgment with settlements such as New Amsterdam, Flatbush, etc. That is where my mother's maternal Dutch ancestors (Covenhoven/Conover settled).

It was Germany and Scandinavia who had taken no interest in American exploration. The former (Germany) was not a united country. From 1618 to 1648 it was in the throes of the most terrible war that ever desolated Europe. Germany had not time to think of founding colonies of her own.

Sweden was then a great military power. To find a haven for persecuted Protestants, her king started a little colony in Delaware Bay.

France, Spain and Portugal had been very active in the exploration of America, though. The French were not emigrants by temperament or inclination, and they had made no resolute effort to colonize our Atlantic seaboard. As for Spain and Portugal, they took little interest in lands which lay outside the tropics.

But ... In an indirect way, both France and Germany sent many of their people to our shores. There was this bigoted king who undertook to crush the strong foothold the Reformation had secured in France. His Protestant subjects, known as Huguenots, were the most intelligent and enterprising of his people. They were the mainstay of French commerce and industry. The toleration extended to them by a former king was revoked, and it was made difficult for a Huguenot to escape with his life. But 300,000 of them did get away, and they found a refuge in England and Germany. In England they joined the Puritans and in many instances adopted English surnames. In Germany they became in a large degree a German speaking people. In both countries they joined very numerously the emigration to America. In New England and South Carolina they were particularly numerous.

We also find that unhappy Germany continued to be desolated by war after war. For example, an incident in one of these was the devastation of the Palatinate, a province on the Rhine and bordering France. This was done by order of the French king, and the fine province was made a temporary desert. Villages and farmhouses were burned to the ground, orchard trees were destroyed, and wells were filled up. But William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, invited the now homeless people to join his colony, and many of them complied. This early German emigration was almost wholly from the valley of the Rhine and from Switzerland. Through research we have found our father's maternal ancestors (HOHL/HULL) were among those from the Palatinate area near the Rhine.

Until the second decade of the 18th century, America was more homogeneous than it had ever been. The volume of immigration had become relatively small, and the institutional differences among the colonies, the people were predominantly of English blood and character. And the country was a century old, and the inhabitants thought of themselves as Americans and not as Englishmen. They viewed with considerable disfavor the heavy volume of Scotch-Irish and German immigration which then set in, because of the alien appearance and speech of the newcomers.

Today, in the 21st century, we know, or should know, that these events did not justify the fears of the older population. We do know that the future of America was/is soundly influenced by the new arrivals from all parts of the world. The predominant people that settled in Highland county, Virginia were the Scotch-Irish, who really were not Irish like the Celtic Irish, but were emigrated from the Scotland area.
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Hull Family Crest & Legacy

Vol 18, Iss 27 We do not know for sure that our HULLs came from England, but we do know we have found the spelling of HOHL that derived from Germany in our ancestry lineage.

Surname: Hull This interesting surname has a number of possible origins. Firstly, it may be of English locational origin from one of the places thus called, for example in Cheshire, Somerset, and the East Riding of Yorkshire. The placenames are recorded respectively as "Hulle" in the "Inquisitions Post Mortem" (1283), as "Hilla" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Hul" in the Early Yorkshire Charters (1156).

The derivation is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "hyll" meaning hill, it may also be a topographical name for a "dweller on or by a hill". The sound represented by the Olde English "y" developed in various ways in the different dialects of Middle English and in the west and central Midlands it became a "u", thus the spelling "hull" evolved. One John ate Hulle, is noted in the "Ministers Accounts of the Earldom of Cornwall", (1297).

Finally, the surname may derive from the personal name "Hulle", a pet form of "Hugh". Hulle le Bule, appears in the Pipe Rolls of Staffordshire (1201) and Henry Hull, is noted in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, Yorkshire (1309). One Katherine Hull, aged 23 years, departed from the Port of London, aboard the "Hopewell" bound for Virginia in September 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Peter de Hull which was dated 1199, witness in the "Assize Court Rolls of Staffordshire", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216.

Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
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Hull Family Crest & Origins

Vol 18, Iss 9 Description Surname: Hull This interesting surname has a number of possible origins. Firstly, it may be of English locational origin from one of the places thus called, for example in Cheshire, Somerset, and the East Riding of Yorkshire. The place names are recorded respectively as "Hulle" in the "Inquisitiones Post Mortem" (1283), as "Hilla" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Hul" in the Early Yorkshire Charters (1156).

The derivation is from the Olde English pre-7th Century "hyll" meaning hill, it may also be a topographical name for a "dweller on or by a hill." The sound represented by the Olde English "y" developed in various ways in the different dialects of Middle English and in the west and central Midlands it became a "u," thus the spelling "hull" evolved. One John ate Hulle, is noted in the "Ministers Accounts of the Earldom of Cornwall," (1297).

Finally, the surname may derive from the personal name "Hulle", a pet form of "Hugh". Hulle le Bule, appears in the Pipe Rolls of Staffordshire (1201) and Henry Hull, is noted in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, Yorkshire (1309). One Katherin Hull, aged 23 yrs., departed from the Port of London, aboard the "Hopewell" bound for Virginia in September 1635.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Peter de Hull which was dated 1199, witness in the "Assize Court Rolls of Staffordshire," during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland," 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.

Another Origins of Hull Surname
The surname of HULL was a locational name 'of Hull' an important seaport town in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Local surnames, by far the largest group, derived from a place name where the man held land or from the place from which he had come, or where he actually lived. These local surnames were originally preceded by a preposition such as "de", "atte", "by" or "in". The names may derive from a manor held, from working in a religious dwelling or from literally living by a wood or marsh or by a stream. Following the Crusades in Europe a need was felt for a family name. This was recognized by those of noble blood, who realized the prestige and practical advantage it would add to their status.

The name is also spelt HULLE, HULLES, HULLAH, HULLS and HULSON. Early records of the name mention Elyas de la Hulle who was recorded in County Wiltshire in the year 1273. Leticia atte Hull was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) in County Somerset. Elena de Hull, of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Nicholas atte Hulle ibid. In many parts of central and western Europe, hereditary surnames began to become fixed at around the 12th century, and have developed and changed slowly over the years. As society became more complex, and such matters as the management of tenure, and in particular the collection of taxes were delegated to special functionaries, it became imperative to distinguish a more complex system of nomenclature to differentiate one individual from another. William Hull (1753-1825) was the American soldier, born in Derby, Connecticut. He fought in the American War of Independance (1775-83) and was governor of Michigan territory. In the war with Britain (1812) he was sent with 1500 men to defend Detroit, was compelled to surrender, and was courtmarshalled. He was sentenced to be shot - not carried out. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884.

The Anglo-Saxon name Hull comes from the personal name Hull. However, the surname Hull is often derived from residence in the settlement of Hull in the county of Cheshire. In this case, the name belongs to the large category of Anglo-Saxon habitation names, which are derived from pre-existing names for towns, villages, parishes, or farmsteads.
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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 50 Bayfield, Colorado - [Photo on the left is a picture of my 2nd great grandmother, Eleanor Dever Gwin, mother to Signora Belle Gwin, my great grandmother.] - In the Rockbridge History of Virginia there is mention of John Gilmore (1700-1759), my 6th great grandfather, that was killed in an Indian raid 10 October 1759, along with four members of his family and five of the ten members of Robert Hamilton's (my 7th great grandfather) family were afterward slain. The Indians did not go any farther.

The GILMOREs come into my family through the DEVER side of my paternal ancestry with John DEVER (1798-1862), who married Elizabeth GILMORE (1802-1882), daughter of Samuel Gilmore (1760-1848) and Eleanor BAILEY (1758-1832). Samuel Gilmore was a son of James Gilmore (1710-1782) and Martha B. DENNISON (1720-1785). James Gilmore was the son of John and Agnes A. (Hamilton) Gilmore that died in the Indian raid.

John DEVER and Elizabeth Gilmore had a daughter, Eleanor DEVER (1834-1896), my second great grandmother, who married Samuel Gwin (1825-1871). And that brings us to Signora Belle Gwin that married John Robert Warwick (1857-1937).

And that brings us to my paternal McGill-Warwick ancestors, where I found the following information concerning the CRAIG family: genealogical and historical notes about the CRAIGs of America, Fayette county, Ohio, which shows the Craigs and Warwick families marrying with the mention of Andrew Warwick, son of John (or William, Jr. Could this have been William John, and he used the John as his first name?) Warwick of Pocahontas county, West Virginia, married Elizabeth Anna Craig, daughter of Robert Craig 2nd, and Nancy Agnes Johnson. Do not know how accurate this information is but found some known relatives listed in these historical genealogical notes.

If I am reading this correctly, Andrew Warwick and Nancy Agnes Johnson Warwick's third son, John Warwick Esq., resided near Edray, Pocahontas county, West Virginia, and was a prominent and influential citizen. His first wife was Hanna Hanna Moffett, only daughter of Andrew Gatewood. His second wife was Caroline Craig, youngest daughter of George E. Craig, merchant, in Hunersville, and Ruling Elder. [from Southern Historical Mag. for August, 1892, page 65.]

It also shows that Andrew Warwick had a brother William Warwick (my 4th great grandfather), who married Nancy Craig, sister of Elizabeth (wife of Andrew). They settled on Bear Creek and were the parents of three children: Elizabeth (married Benjamin Tallman); Margaret (married John Hull); Robert Craig Warwick (my third great grandfather), who married Esther Hull and had three sons and six daughters. Robert and Esther's daughter Catherine Hidy Warwick married Major William Wallace Bird (Bird children were: Elvira Louisa, Robert Craig, john Henry, George Newton, William Lee). Other daughters were: Nancy Jane (married Jacob Lightner); Sarah Elizabeth (married Daniel Matheney); Margaret Ann (married Nelson Pray); Hanna Rebecca (married Capt. George Siple). [Part of sketch of William Warwick from History of Pocahontas county, West Virginia.]

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 47 Bayfield, Colorado - This week we continue with more information concerning my 5th great grandfather, Peter Thomas Hohl, born 1706, in Desloch, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, and died 19 March 1776, in Crab Bottom, Augusta, Virginia. At the age of 35 years (30 May 1741) Peter Thomas Hohl came to the New World on the Ship Francis and Ann, Thomas Coatam, master, from Rotterdam, last from St. Christophers, settling in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Those aboard the ship were Peter Hohl (Holl), Geo. Philip Clem, Johannes Immel, Jacob Kipper, Martin Bittner, Michael Bigler, Johan Peter Herbel, George Adam Koch, Hans George Koch, Samuel Georg Tossler, Johan Conrad Schmidt, Georg Adam Ernst, Johan Wendel Hornung.

Peter Thomas Hohl was a widower and miller on the Susquehanna. We do not have any records of his first wife or how she died, but believe they had a son named Peter. The son is named in his father's will and refers to Susanna Margaretha as the sons (step) mother.

The Trinity Lutheran Church records reveal, page 200, "85. Peter Thomas Hohl, a widower and miller on the Susquehanna, and Susanna Margaretha Tieffenbachin, a single person, were publicly proclaimed different Sundays and married on the 24th Sunday after Trinity, November 25, 1750."

The Hull Family Association posted the following update to the Hull Family Association website, 23 January 2010: "Notice to the German Peter Thomas Hohl/Hull Descendants: From Phyllis Hughes, HFA Genealogist - If you are carrying Francis Hull, Henry Hull, William Hull, Robert Hull, David Hull and John Hull as sons of the German Peter Thomas Hohl/Hull, your information is incorrect. Please do not be misled by multiple sites on the Internet, which state that these men are the sons of Peter Thomas Hohl/Hull. Both our research and the DNA analysis have shown that Peter Thomas Hohl/Hull had only these four sons: Peter Hull, Adam Hull, George Hull, Jacob Hull. This is confirmed, not only by DNA analysis, but also by the original land records, probate records, tax records and a wide study and analysis of the children in this family, conducted for over twenty-five (25) years. Please pass this information on to any correspondent who is listing the above incorrectly named sons."

Besides the four sons mentioned above, Peter Thomas & Susanna Margaretha had the following four daughters that I know of: Catherine (1750-1823), Margaret Catharine (1757-1820), Mary Magdelena (1762-1840), Phebe Anistasia (1768-1815).

Last Will & Testament of Peter Thomas Hohl (1706-1776) In the name of God Amen: The twenty-eighth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five.

I, Peter Hohl, of Augusta county and Colony of Virginia, being sick in body but sound of mind and Memory, thanks be to Almighty God for the same, do make and declare this my last will and Testament, in manner and form following, first to my dearly beloved wife, Susannah Margaret, I give and bequeath the third part of the estate, after all my just debts are paid any [and] my Eldest son Peter shall according to my will and desire after my decease give unto his (step) Mother the third part or share of the increase of Grain to the land produces and shall bring the same into the Barn and Thresh it for her. I likewise bequeath further unto my wife to have choice of two milk cows and the Pennsylvania Mare also a horse for her to ride and to work, which horse is to remain upon the plantation and not to be disposed of, likewise the choice of two sheep; the division of my land shall be in the following manner:

(1st) the land be surveyed from the lower end on the line up to the Dry Run.

(2nd) from the Dry Run up to the corner tree.

(3rd) from the corner tree on up to the Middle Corner tree on the upper land.

(4th) from the Middle Corner Tree on up to the upper Corner Tree.

(5th) The three of my eldest daughters shall be made equal. I bequeath unto them after my decease the sum of Twenty Pounds Current money each, and my youngest daughters shall also receive, each of them the sum of Twenty pounds Current Money, as soon as they shall attain their age.

(6th) I also desire that the three different pieces of parcels of land, viz., the first at the upper trace, the second in the (Vanderpool) Gap, third on Jackson's River, besides an entering, shall be sold at Public Vendue, and put to the estate. I empower hereby my Eldest son Peter to sell and dispose of the same as my Executor to this my last will and Testament and desire that Susannah Margaret, my wife and my son Peter shall educate my younger Children, in a Christian-like manner, as long as they behave dutiful; otherwise they shall have power to bind them out the this proviso to pay them interest on their money from the day they are bound out.

His Mark, Peter (X) Hohl (L.S. Witness present) ~ Bernard Lantz, Leonard Simon, Peter Flesher.

"Certify hereby the above is an Exact Copy Translated from the German Tongue into English this nineteenth day of March, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Six. ~ signed by John William Lee."

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 46 Bayfield, CO - I found this family history on the internet that mentions my Hull, Hohl, Diefenbach, Dyer, Kiester, Keister, paternal ancestors. It shows the timeline, chronological historical and genealogical research notes recorded while researching the paternal ancestors, descendants and collateral lines of David William BIRD (1901- ) Including the families of BIRD, BYRD, BIRT, BORDT, CALLAHAN, CURRY, DIEFENBACH, DYER, HULL, HOHL, KEISTER, KIESTER, RIDER, RYDER, RADER, READER, STEUART, STEWART, USHER, WENDEROTH, WINTEROTT. Compiled by: BILL DECOURSEY, New Brighton, MN 55112.

Timeline

  • 1750 - The first Negro slave known to be in the vicinity of present Highland County, Virginia was a girl or young woman purchased for Ann Jane USHER by her guardian about 1750. It is very possible that this slave is the one whom Mrs Loftus PULLIN (nee USHER) set free by her will in 1805. Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1979), p.99, 211.
  • 1750c. Andrew BIRD, Sr. died about 1750 at Smith Creek, Shenandoah Co., VA. See LDS St. George Temple Record #20325; DAUGHTERS OF AMERICAN COLONIST LINEAGE BOOK, (1939).
  • 1750 - Mrs. Betty Jean Clifford wrote in 1975 that a RIDER family, German in origin, came into the Shenandoah Valley from Penna. about 1750 under the spelling READER.
  • 1750 - James STUART patented, in 1750, 300 acres on Stuart's Creek. The land was sold by Robert STUART, in 1800, to Richard MATHEWS, and by him, 1802, to Joseph KINCAID. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.32.
  • 1751 - James STUART was constable in Augusta (later Bath) County, Virginia in 1751. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.54.
  • 1751 - David STEWART was Sheriff of Augusta Co., Virginia, 21 Nov 1751. He married in Wales the widow of John PAUL (died 1745 in Scotland). David STUART, an adult, was baptized by Mr. CRAIG, 21 Jan 1747. Col. David STEUART is said to have lost his life by drowning in the Shenandoah River. Waddell, ANNALS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA, pp.366-379,192.
  • 1752 - Philemon BIRD of Middlesex and Richmond County, Va died, 7 Jan 1752. He married Mary LEE, and had children, John born, 4 Feb 1739, Joanna, Philemon 1745, Abner 1735, Damarias 1737, Mary Anne, and Elizabeth. See WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY , v.7,p191 and V.13,p.131.
  • 1752 - Charles STUART and Frances WASHINGTON were married, 23 February 1752, at Orange County, Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.17, p.19.
  • 1752 - Peter Thomas HULL and Susanna (DIEFFENBACH) HULL settled on land bought from Christopher and Ludwig FRANCISCO, on Cub's Run, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 2 July 1752. This land was part of the Jacob STOVER tracts. Augusta County Deed Bk.3,pp.129-134; Deed Bk.4, p.406; RECORDS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA , v.III, p.305. The FRANCISCO family had located in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania with other Germans and Swiss as early as 1709, purchased land from Jacob STOVER in 1738, and later settled in Bath Co., Virginia.

    When Jacob STOVER died in 1740, his property was disposed of to Jacob CASTLE, Ludowick FRANCISCO, John BAUMGARDNER and others. (A Catharine DIEFFENBACH married a BAUMGARTNER and moved to Staunton, Va.)

    During the years 1751 and 1752, Jacob STOVER also sold 470 acres of land in Augusta County to Thomas LEWIS, eldest son of the pioneer, John LEWIS, and brother to Gen. Andrew and Col. Charles LEWIS. Christopher and Ludwig FRANCISCUS sold land to Thomas LEWIS, Gabriel JONES, Peter HULL, Nicholas TROUT, Patrick WILSON, Nicholas NULL, Valentine PENCE and Maurice POUND. In Feb. 1751, Henry FRANCISCUS bought of James WOOD, William RUSSELL, and William GREEN, 310 acres of land on the north and south forks of the south branch of the Potomac (near present Moorefield, West Virginia).

    VIRGINIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY , v.30,p.181; Smith, Elmer Lewis et.al., THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS OF THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY , pp.46-55,passim; John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), pp.54-56.
  • 1752 - Charles STUART and Susanna GRIGSBY were married, 9 Nov. 1752, at King George County, Virginia.
  • 1752 - James STUART and Elizabeth IRBY were married, 29 Nov. 1752, at Brunswick Co., Virginia.
  • 1753 - Part of the tract on the Shenandoah River, purchased by Peter HULL in 1752, was delivered to Nicholas TROUT on 3 January 1753. Nicholas TROUT was a friend and neighbor of Peter HULL. Not long after this land transaction between HULL and TROUT, they were (as it is told) having a friendly conversation, during which TROUT playfully pulled a gun from HULL's hand, pulling the muzzle toward him. According to witnesses and court records, the gun accidentally discharged, instantly killing TROUT. An inquest was held, and Peter HULL (an influential person in the settlement) was found blameless. The gun was found guilty. From the Original Petitions and Papers filed in Augusta County Court - 1753 - 54, Part I , we find the following: "Inquisition on the body of Nicholas TROUT, 17 July 1753. - Jurors do say that the said Nicholas TROUT, in simplicity, without malice, playing with Peter HULL and seizing a gun in said HULL's hands and pulling its' muzzle towards him 'she' accidentally went off without any act or knowledge of the said HULL and discharged herself with a ball and two great shots into ye breast of said TROUT, of which he died immediately on ye spot, and quit ye gun wherewith ye same was done was entirely in fault for not keeping her bounds, but going off without force or consent." In teste: Peter SCHOLL, Coroner; John STEVENSON, Ledwick FRANCISCO, John MacMICHEL, James BRUSTER, Thomas WATS, Thomas CRAWFORD, Patrick MILICAN, John WILSON, Jacob HARMAN, Niclas NOLL, Hennery DALY, Jacob NICHOLAS. - Augusta County, Virginia Court Records, v.I, p.440.
  • 1753 - "Prior to the year 1754, settlers had established themselves on the South Fork of the Potomac (in present Pendleton, Co., Virginia). The first settler (though not permanent) on the river and in the county as well, was Abraham BURNER, a trader who built a cabin post below Brandywine across the river from the mouth of Hawse's Run." Note: Abraham BURNER, son of the pioneer settler, married to Mary HULL (1760-1840), daughter of Peter Thomas HULL. A. D. Lough, "An account of the Indian Massacre at Fort Seybert" (Franklin, Virginia Newspaper Article, ca.1920s).
  • 1753 - Frederick KEISTER came from Germany to the South Fork of the Potomac in Rockingham County, Va. (now Pendleton Co., Va.) about 1753. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.325-326,357,360.
  • 1753 - Caspar WINTEROTH and his wife Margaretha WINTEROTT, sold by deed, "Addition to Wolf Pit", 50 Acres and all improvements, to John Philip STRIDER, on 7 June 1753. Annapolis Hall of Records, LGD 1742-1745, pp.270-272; Carpenter, Vern A., WENDEROTH FAMILIES (1987), p.6.
  • 1753 - William EASTHAM and Frances BIRD were married, (bond) 23 June 1753, at Middlesex Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.8, p.9.
  • 1753 - In 1753, Valentine SEVIER and his wife, Joanna, sold to Andrew BIRD, 184 acres of land "Between Limestone Ridge and Smiths Creek; corner Andrew BIRD's survey, Robert MILSAP's survey," etc. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.144-146; Chalkey, v.III, p.315.
  • 1754 - A different family of BYRD's lived in the area of Bath Co., VA contemporaneously with our John BIRD who married Susanna WINTROW. This line of BYRD's may have came from Cheshire, England. John BYRD, the pioneer, was perhaps great-grandson to William BYRD, who came to Henrico, 1674 and grandson to the only brother of Col. William BYRD of Westover (1674-1744), founder of Richmond, Virginia. See Oren F. Morton's, HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, pp.354-355; Wright, Louis B. and Tinling, Marion, THE GREAT AMERICAN GENTLEMAN (1963).

    This other John BYRD purchased from Adam DICKENSON, in 1754, 215 acres of land on Jackson's River and an adjoining tract of 317 acres to William DEAN. William DEAN sold his tract, in 1765, to his brother, John DEAN. John BYRD was constable at Augusta (later Bath) County, Virginia in 1755. Col. John DICKENSON (1731-1799), married, ca.1758, to Martha USHER, daughter of Edward and --?-- (PERRY) USHER. John DICKENSON was the only son of Adam DICKENSON who, in 1754, sold tracts on the Jackson River to John BYRD and to William DEAN.

    According to Oren F. Morton, "John BYRD, a brother-in-law to John and William DEAN, was killed by Indians two years after his purchase on Jackson's River in 1754. Of the wife and six children who were carried away, John, Jr., is the only one we know to have returned. The family were trying to escape to Fort Dinwiddie. The son became so Indianized that it was quite a while before he could reconcile himself to the ways of his own people. He was a favorite with the red men, and made at least one attempt to go back to them. His wife was a HAMILTON. There were seven children, but Andrew H. BIRD, whose wife was Elizabeth CAPITO, was the only son to stay in Bath. He was twice its sheriff. A sister, two years older than John, Jr., remained with the Indians. Another sister was Sarah, born in 1743. She does not seem to have been carried away, and chose John DEAN as guardian." Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA, pp.28,54,190,192. Also Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.354-355.
  • 1754 - Loftus PULLIN (son of Loftus PULLIN?) married Ann Jenny USHER, daughter of Edward and --?-- (PERRY) USHER. A petition of 1754 condemns the selling by ordinaries of large quantities of liquor at extravagant rates, whereby money is drained out of the country. The signers expressed their intention of making their own liquor so as to keep their money in the home neighborhood. Among the signers of the petition were Joseph BELL and Loftus PULLEN. Loftus PULLEN patented 321 acres on the Bullpasture between ESTILL and BODKIN, in 1758. Two years later, he sold 240 acres to James SHAW. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.32,52,168.
  • 1755 - British General BRADDOCK led his army to a crushing defeat against the French and their Indian allies at Fort Duquesne (present Pittsburgh, PA), in 1755. The entire frontier was left defenseless and exposed to Indian depredation. The red warriors, flushed with triumph at their easy victory against the British proceeded to assault the frontier with fire and tomahawk. The area of Bath County, Virginia suffered severely. "Fort Dickinson and Fort Lewis were both assaulted. In September 1756, thirteen persons were killed around Fort Dinwiddie, including John BYRD, James MAYSE, James MONTGOMERY, George KINKEAD, and Nicholas CARPENTER. At least two others were wounded; and twenty-eight, mostly children, were carried away. Among those captured by the Indians were Mrs. BYRD and six children, Mrs. KINKEAD and three children, and five children of Joseph CARPENTER. Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1911 - reprinted 1979), pp.74-85; ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA (International Edition, 1965), v.4, pp.383-384.
  • 1755 - Frederick KEISTER (1730-1814) married, ca.1755, to Hannah, daughter of Roger and Hannah (BRITTON?) DYER. The village of Brandywine stands on a part of the original KEISTER homestead. Cleek, Geo. W., EARLY WESTERN AUGUSTA PIONEERS , pp.350,351,385-387; Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA , pp.239-241.
  • 1755 - William STEUART (1732c.-1797) married, before 1757, to Margaret USHER, daughter of Edward USHER. They had children: James STEUART; Edward STEUART married Mary CALLAHAN; John STEUART married Hannah HICKLIN; William STEUART married Virginia GWIN; Usher STEUART; Mary STEUART married Charles CALLAHAN; and Jane STEUART married James HICKLIN.

    Morton credits William STEUART (1732c.-1797) as being the earliest teacher in what is now Highland County, Virginia, "having taught quite regularly from the time of his arrival about 1755. He appears to have been well educated, especially in the mathematics. Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1911, reprinted 1979), p.150.
  • 1755 - A James STEWART served as Captain of the second column of the Augusta Militia, under Col. John DICKENSON, in 1755. Hennings Statutues. Among the list of Officers who were present in action on the banks of the Monongahela River, on 9 July, 1755, was Captain STEWART of the Virginia troops. Six Hundred men were killed or wounded. Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEART FAMILY , p.27.
  • 1755 - On 27 Nov. 1755, the Vestry of Augusta Parish met, and designated processioners (to report before March 1st next) as follows: biz., "John HARRISON, Jr., and Daniel SMITH, in Capt. Daniel HARRISON's company. Thomas MOORE and David ROBINSON, in Capt. Ephraim LOVE's company, and to head of Brock's Gap. Matthew PATTON and William DYER, on South Fork of the Branch of Potowmack, Jacob PETERS and Henry FRANCISCO, on Mill Creek and Shelton's tract," etc. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.182.
  • 1756 - John BYRD of Jackson's River, Augusta Co., Virginia was killed by Indians 14 Sept. 1756. His wife and 6 children were captured and made prisoners.

    Mrs. BYRD and her children were captured while fleeing to Fort Dinwiddie on the lower Jackson's River. According to Morton, "There is no further account of the mother and four of the children. The oldest, then a girl of ten years, is said to have married an Indian. The only one to return was John BYRD, Jr. who was eight years old when carried away. When he was returned, now a boy of sixteen, he was wearing a gold chain fastened to punctures in his nose and ears. His bravery put him in high favor with his captors. They had him climb trees to drive bears out of them, but took care that he was not harmed. The only time he took fright was when he heard a gun and knew a bear was making for him. The Indians were greatly attached to the boy and intended making him a chief. He made two attempts to return to them, but was prevented, and became ancestor of the BYRDS of Bath and Highland Counties." Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1979), pp-81-82; See also: VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.2,pp.399-402; Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.82.
  • 1756 - A list of returns in the Augusta Parish Vestry Book, 1756, includes the names of David RALSTON, Valentine SEVIER, Andrew BIRD, Moses BIRD, John Joseph and Robert CRAVENS, Thomas MOORE, et.al. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.182; Chalkey, v.II, pp.442-4.
  • 1757 - James STEWART, son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART, was born, 2 January 1757, in Augusta County (later Bath Co.), Virginia. See Pension #S6159.
  • 1757 - "In 1757, one of the major atrocities of the Indians took place at Cartmell's Gap, two miles from the Blue Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley. The road swung here and went through Stanton Courthouse." Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.27.
  • In the summer of 1757, James STUART ("probably brother-in-law to Ralph LAVERTY") and John MOORE were killed in Indian Attacks on Fort Dinwiddie on the Cowpasture River. Among the captives who were carried away in this raid were James STUART, Jr., Mrs. MOORE and her children. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.83,200; Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1979), p.81; Lyman C. Draper, THE PRESTON REGISTER , p.154-157; Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.53.

    In VIRGINIA WILLS AND ADMINISTRATIONS (1632-1800) Torrence -- Virginia State Library, we find James STEWART absent from Augusta Co., Virginia, after his death in 1757, and again in 1758.
  • 1757 - Roger DYER of Augusta County, Virginia in his will dated 24 Feb 1757 (proved 21 Mar 1759) mentions his wife Hanna DYER; sons James DYER (under 21 years of age) and William DYER, daughters Hanna GESTER (KIESTER), Hester PATTON, and Sarah HASE; and a Grandson, Roger DYER, son of William DYER. To his daughter Hanna (DYER) KIESTER he bequeathed "a certain tract of land lying in Hampshire County containing 427 acres". Witnesses to the Will of Roger DYER were William MILLER, Adam RIDER, and William GIBSON. Will Book 2, page 301; Sara G. Clark, "The Pattons, A Pioneer Family in Kentucky," REGISTER OF THE KENTUCKY STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY , pp.137-138; Cleek, Geo. W., EARLY WESTERN AUGUSTA PIONEERS , pp.350-352;
  • 1757 - Adam RIDER was a witness to the Will of Roger DYER of Augusta Co., Virginia on 24 Feb 1757. On 16 May 1759 Adam RIDER further proved the will and it was probated. Augusta County Will Book 2, page 301.
  • 1757 - A John BIRD was killed in the Indian Wars in 1757. VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.2,p.402. This John BIRD had a son John who lived in Bath Co., and married a HAMILTON. He was a contemporary of our John BIRD, but this was a different family. See also: Oren Morton's ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY , P.190; Oren Morton's HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY , pp354-355.
  • 1757 - Abraham BIRD (1737-1820) married, 1757, probably in Shenandoah Co., Virginia, to Rachel ZEIGLER. He served as Legislator and held the rank of Lieutenant in the Shenandoah County, Virginia Militia in 1776. He was a Colonel in 1778. He was a representative of Dunmore County in the Virginia Constitutional Convention in 1776 and represented both Dunmore and Shenandoah counties in the Virginia House of Delegates for 11 sessions from 1776 to 1796. Abraham and Rachel (ZEIGLER) BIRD had children: Magdalene married Reuben ALLEN; Elizabeth m. Thomas JONES; Catherine m. John THOMAS; Margaret m. Joseph HAWKINS; Mary m. Reuben MOORE; Andrew BIRD m. Mary HOLKER; Mark BIRD m. Sarah GORDON; Abraham BIRD m. Catharine FRY; and George BIRD m. Hannah ALLEN. A ROSTER OF REVOLUTIONARY ANCESTORS OF THE INDIANA DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION , v.1, p.52; D.A.R. #562622.
  • 1757 - George HULL (1757-1852), son of Peter Thomas and Susannah Margaret (DIEFENBACH) HULL, was born 15 Oct 1757. He was a soldier in the American Revolution. See Virkus's ABRIDGED COMPENDIUM OF AMERICAN GENEALOGY , v.1,p.565, v.5,p.159, v.7,p.196.
  • 1758 - In 1758 George Washington was "commander-in-chief of the Virginia troops, consisting of two regiments, one led by himself and the other by Colonel BYRD." Waddell,nANNALS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1886), p.103.
  • 1758c- Col. John DICKENSON (1731-1799), married, ca.1758, to Martha USHER, daughter of Edward and --?-- (PERRY) USHER. John DICKENSON was the only son of Adam DICKENSON. At the age of 22, John DICKENSON was a captain of horse, and during the next 25 years he saw very much military service on the frontier. He was appointed Overseer of roads in Augusta County in 1754. In 1756, he was appointed a Justice of Augusta County, but in 1779 he declined further service. In 1763, he was granted a tavern license. After being wounded in at least two skirmishes with the Indians, he was severely wounded in the shoulder at the battle of Point Pleasant, and for this injury he was granted a pension of 50 pounds per year. In 1777, with the rank of colonel, he returned to Point Pleasant at the head of a regiment of militia.

    Colonel DICKENSON was a large holder of real estate, owning land on the Greenbrier and even in North Carolina. John and Martha (USHER) DICKENSON had children: Mary married Samuel SHREWSBURY; Martha married John SHREWSBURY; Nancy; Adam; Jean; and John. The only grandson in the male line to finish his days in Bath County was John Usher Dickenson, who returned about 1850 and was the first proprietor of the hotel at Millboro. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.38-39,53,60.
  • 1758 - Roger DYER died 28 Apr 1758 at Fort Seybert. His son, William DYER, was also killed in the same Indian massacre. Another son, James and a daughter, were captured by the Indians. James escaped after two years, and a year later negotiated the release of his sister. It is not clear whether there was one or two sisters captured and released. The "Sarah DYER" who was married to Peter HAWES at the time of the Indian raid may have been the "Mary DYER" who later married Robert DAVIS or Mary DYER may have been a daughter of William DYER and grand-daughter of Roger DYER.
  • 1758 - Fort Seybert "was in the northern part of the present county of Highland, then Augusta. There the inhabitants of the surrounding country had taken shelter from the Indians. Between thirty and forty persons of both sexes and all ages were in the enclosure. No Indians having yet appeared, a youth named James DYER and his sister went outside one day for some purpose, and had not proceeded far before they came in view of forty or fifty Shawnees going toward the fort. Hurrying back to provided for their own safety and give the alarm, they were overtaken and captured. The place was incapable of withstanding a vigorous assault, and the garrison was poorly supplied with ammunition. Captain SEYBERT, therefore, determined to surrender, and did so in spite of the opposition of some of the people. The gate was thrown open, and the money and other stipulated articles were handed over to the Indians. Thereupon, one of the most ruthless tragedies of Indian warfare was perpetrated. The inmates of the fort were arranged in two rows and nearly all of them were tomahawked. A few, spared from caprice or some other cause, were carried off into captivity. Young DYER was the only captive who ever returned. He was taken to Logstown, thence to the Muskingum, and thence to Chilicothe, where he remained a prisoner nearly two years. Accompanying the Indians to Fort Pitt, he there concealed himself in a hovel, and after two years more returned." Waddell, ANNALS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1886), pp.102-103. See also Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA , pp.39-51; A. D. Lough, "An account of the Indian Massacre at Fort Seybert" (Franklin, Virginia Newspaper Article, ca.1920's); Sara G. Clark, "The Pattons, A Pioneer Family in Kentucky," REGISTER OF THE KENTUCKY STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, pp.131-151.

    Mr. Dale BOWMAN of Plattsmouth, Nebraska, a descendant of Roger DYER visited the site of the Fort Seybert Massacre in 1986 and was disturbed that no marker had been placed at the site. With the help of BOWMAN and other DYER descendants, a bronzed plate was placed on the wall surrounding the common grave site. It reads as follows: "Grave site of 17 Victims of the Fort Seybert Massacre April 28, 1758. Known Names Cpt. Jacob Seybert & Wife. Roger Dyer, Wallace Boy, William Dyer, Henry Haus, John Regger & Wife.
  • 1758 - James and Sarah DYER were taken captive by the Indians, 28 April 1758, and held in captivity for about three years. Cleek, Geo. W., EARLY WESTERN AUGUSTA PIONEERS, p.351; Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA , p.89; Wayland, John W., HISTORY OF ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.444; J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.207- James Samuel CURRY married 6 Oct 1880 to Mollie J. HARMAN. Mollie HARMAN was the daughter of George and Susan (SMITH) HARMAN, both born in Pendleton County, West Va.. "Her great-great-grandfather was Captain Robert DAVIS, who led the whites in pursuit of the Indians after the massacre of Fort Sibert. Mary DYER, then twelve years of age, was among those made captive, and she remained with the Indians three years. On her return she became the wife of Captain DAVIS, and she was the great-great-grandmother of Mrs. James Samuel CURRY." ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VIRGINIA PERSONALS (1884), "Dr. James Samuel CURRY", p.14.
  • 1758 - Peter HULL and wife, Susanna Margaret, on 13 May 1758, sold to Charles RUSH, two hundred and ten acres of the larger tract HULL had purchased of FRANCISCO in 1752. - Records of Augusta County, VA, v.III, p.351; Deed Book 20, p.8, Staunton, VA.
  • 1758c. Arnold CUSTER died in Augusta County, Va. ca.1758. He bought land in the Gap of the North Mountain on Sorando 1754. His son, Conrad CUSTER, age 18, chose Abraham BIRD as guardian. Conrad CUSTER died ca.1829 in Bourbon Co., Kentucky. - Info from Harold T. Smutz, Webster Groves, Missouri.
  • 1758 - Hannah KEISTER, daughter of Frederick and Hannah (DYER) KEISTER, was born ca.1758. She married George HULL (1757-1852), son of Peter Thomas HULL and Margaret Susanna (DIEFENBACH) HULL.
  • 1758 - On 17 August 1758, Daniel HARRISON and Matthew PATTON signed Margaret DYER's bond as administratrix of William DYER. Will Book 2, pp.233,264; J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.208.
  • 1758 - William MOORE and Betsey BIRD were married, 21 Aug. 1758, at Norfolk Co., Virginia.
  • 1758 - John CURRY and Jane STRIBLING were married, 20 Sept. 1758, at Stafford County, Virginia.
  • 1759 - Edward STEUART (1759-1844), son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART, was born in February 1759. He married, 1786, to Mary CALLAHAN, daughter of Charles CALLAGHAN. Pension File #W6170.
  • 1759 - George WILSON sold, in 1759, a 150 acre tract on the Cowpasture River at Shaw's Fork, to William STEUART. The same year he sold an adjoining tract to James SHAW. SHAW sold to James BODKIN, 1766, and BODKIN, in 1794, sold to James STEUART. Rockingham Co., Virginia Land Records; SIM's INDEX ; Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.32-33. "William STEUART, a young Scotchman, had a thrilling experience in reaching these mountains. Being well educated, he expected to follow a profession. The ship on which he took passage was captured by Spanish pirates, and the crew killed. He was the only passenger and was put on the South Atlantic shore with no clothing save a piece of canvas and without his chest full of books. Thence he drifted northward to the Augusta colony, doing at first manual labor. His soft hands and intellectual air brought him a welcome invitation to teach school, and he followed this calling the rest of his life. But downcast at the loss of his beloved library, he was content to spend his days in the frontier wilderness. STEUART settled just below the mouth of Shaw's Fork. In marrying Margaret USHER (daughter of Edward USHER) he became brother-in-law to Loftus PULLIN." Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.71-72,252,338-340.
  • 1759 - The French were defeated at Fort Duquense (site of present Pittsburg, Penna.) in 1759. The Indians, now deprived of French support, paused in their raids in the Shenandoah Valley.
  • 1759 - "At a Court held for Augusta County, May the 16, 1759: This last will and testament of Roger DYER dec'd. being this day further proved by the oath of Adam HIDER (RIDER?), another of the witnesses thereto, was admitted to record, and on the motion of Hannah DYER, the executrix, therein named who made oath according to law certificate is granted for her for obtaining a probate in due form; she having with Abraham SMITH & Ephraim LOVER, her securities, catered into and acknowledged their bond." Sara G. Clark, "The Pattons, A Pioneer Family in Kentucky," REGISTER OF THE KENTUCKY STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY , pp.139-140.
  • 1759 - "The settlement of Roger DYER's estate in 1759, recorded at Staunton, Va., shows that in 1757 or 1758 he furnished Robert SCOTT with provisions. Roger DYER lived on the South Branch of the Potomac in either present Hardy or Hampshire County, West Va." VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE , v.30,p.399.
  • 1759 - Hopewell furnace, on French creek, Berks Co., PA was built 1759 by William BIRD, for whom 'Birdsboro' was named. His son, Mark BIRD, succeeded him. Egle, William Henry, NOTES AND QUERIES , (1893) 4th series, v.I, p.134.
  • 1759 - Anthony LOGAN and Agnes CURRY were married, 9 Dec. 1759, at Goochland Co., Virginia.
  • 1760 - John CRAVENS, son of Robert and Mary (HARRISON) CRAVENS married sometime between 1758 and 1762, Margaret (HIATT) DYER, widow of William DYER. On 15 Sept. 1758, Henry SMITH signed Thomas FULTON's bond as security for Margaret DYER. Following her marriage to John CRAVENS the latter assigned the bond to his father Robert. (Augusta County Judgments, Oct. 1765, Henry SMITH vs. Samuel COWDEN.) In 1762, "John CRAVENS and Margaret his wife, late Margaret DYER administratrix of William DYER, deceased," brought a bill of complaint vs. Charles WILSON, regarding payment of a bond of WILSON to DYER, dated 24 December 1752. (Augusta Court Judgments A, 1762.) Margaret (HIATT) DYER-CRAVENS was the daughter of John and Margaret HIATT. The HIATTS were Quakers, and are said to have come from the British Isles. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.261,267,342.
  • 1760c- William RIDER (1730c.-1819) married about 1760. He had children: William J. RIDER m. 1786 Mary BRISCOE; James RIDER m. 1798 Sarah CHESTNUT; Richard RIDER m. 1796 Agnes KILPATRICK; John RIDER m. (1) Susanna CURRY, m. (2) Susan STOUT; Elizabeth RIDER m. 1798 Adam BIRD; Sarah RIDER m. 1807 Joseph HUTTON; and Thomas RIDER m. 1812 Rebecca MATHENY.
  • 1760 - In 1760, Anne (LAFFERTY) STEWART, widow of James STEWART (killed by the Shawnee Indians in 1757), placed her son, James STEWART (age 17?) under the guardianship of of Thomas THOMPSON, of Delaware, but THOMPSON later was himself killed by the redman, and in 1762, young James was placed under the guardianship of John HAMILTON, by his own choice, under the court Justices of Augusta County, Virginia. - Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.53.
  • 1761 - On 2 Jan 1761, various settlers in Augusta Co. presented a "petition for a road from Adam READER's Mines to Isaac ROBERTSON's from thence to widow WRIGHT's Mill, from thence to Thomas HARRISON's in the Great Road to the Court House." Cornelius RUDDELL was appointed Surveyor of Highways from REEDER's Mines. Chalkey, Lyman, CHRONICLES OF THE SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLEMENT IN VIRGINIA , v.I,pp.152,429,489. Some signers of the above petition were from families that had resided earlier in Sussex County, Delaware. Harrison, J. Houston, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), pp.7,223-224,passim.
  • 1761 - John STUART purchased, 1761, from Robert AMBERCROMBIE, 320 acres of land on the east side of Jackson's River above the mouth of Falling Spring Run in the "Lewis Land Grant" in Bath County, Virginia. He sold this land the same year to William MANN. Oren F. Morton, ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1917 - Reprinted 1978), p.28.
  • 1761 - William STEUART purchased, 1761, from William SPROWL, 168 acres of land on the Cowpasture River. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.31.
  • 1761 - "James STEWART had married Ann LAFFERTY in Ireland, she a member of the Irish gentry." Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.27. "The will book of the court, 1761, fo.215, Ann STEWART, as widow of James STEWART was receiving rental from lands in Kilcoskan, Dublin Co., Ireland. Perogative Court of Ireland. Thomas LEACH and James SHIEL -- Witnesses." HISTORICAL MAGAZINE OF VIRGINIA , Vol.21 (1913), p.372.
  • 1761 - The following certificate was recorded, 6 June 1761, in Liber G, p.20, Frederick County Circuit Court, to wit: "Provincial Court April term 1753. I hereby certify that Casparus WINERROTH came into Court and was in due form Naturalized pursuant to and act of Parliament in that case made and provided. In testimony whereof I have here unto set my hand and affixed th seal of the said Court, 27 day of April Anno Domini 1753 - R. Burdis [clerk]."
  • 1761 - Anna Marie Catherine WINTEROTH, b. 1737 married, 23 July 1761, at Frederick, Md. to John Philip JAZOB.
  • 1762 "Know ye: John HAMILTON and Robert STEWART, of Augusta County, held and firmly bound to Silas HART, William PRESTON, John POAGE, John ARCHER -- Justices, in the sum of fifty pounds, as guardians of James STUART, son of James STUART, deceased." February 1762--Court Record; Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.53.
  • 1762 - On 14 Apr 1762, Abraham BIRD acquired 235 acres at Brock's Gap adjoining land owned by Conrod LAMB in Rockingham Co., VA.
  • 1762 - Frederick KEISTER received his certificate of naturalization, May 18, 1762. Chalkey, Lyman, RECORDS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA , v.1,p.97.
  • 1762 - Philemon BIRD and Mary LEE were married, 2 November 1762, at Middlesex Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.7, p.3.
  • 1762 - Andrew BIRD, Abraham BIRD, and Benjamin HARRISON qualified as Captains of the Militia in Augusta County, 18 November 1762. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.298.
  • 1762c- Richard CURRY (1740-1804) and wife Janet settled in Back Creek Valley in present Highland County, Virginia before 1782. They had children: Elizabeth M. (1763-1859) married John SHARP; Susanna married 1785 William ERVINE; James m. 1786 Mary ERVINE; Andrew; John; Joseph; Mary; Catharine m. Daniel MATHENY; Jean m. Archibald MATHENY. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.277-278.
  • 1763 - Simon VOGEL and wife Elizabeth baptized the following children on 10 Apr 1763, at Trinity Lutheran Church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Johanne Heinrich, b. 22 Nov 1762; Elizabeth, b.18 Apr 1761, and Christian, b. 4 Feb 1757. It should be noted that BIRD is the English translation of the German "VOGEL" or "FOGEL". The BIRD name was probably VOGEL before coming to this country. Many of the families who later settled in the Shenandoah Valley and Augusta County, and who were associated with our BIRD family were earlier members of this Trinity Lutheran Church. On the same day, 10 Apr 1763, was baptized Eva, b. Jan 1763, dau. of Johanne Simon JEAGER and his wife Anna Margaret.
  • 1763 - A tavern license was granted to John DICKENSON, at Augusta County (later Bath County), Virginia in 1763. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.51. (Note: Col. John DICKENSON (1731-1799), married, ca.1758, to Martha USHER, daughter of Edward and --?-- (PERRY) USHER. John DICKENSON was the only son of Adam DICKENSON who conveyed tracts of land, in 1754, to John BYRD and William DEAN.)
  • 1763 - Valentine SEVIRE of Frederick, farmer deeded Land, 18 Apr 1763, to Andrew BYRD, Miller - Deed Book 11, p.218.
  • 1763 - The Pontiac War broke out in June 1763. CORNSTALK, "a Shawnee chieftain of unusual ability," managed to deal a heavy blow on the Greenbrier and the settlements to the southeast. "BOUQUET's victory at Brushy Run near the site of Pittsburg, brought an early end to the war with PONTIAC. The Indians were required to give up the prisoners they had collected during the preceding ten years. In the number were Mrs. MAYSE, John BYRD, and doubtless several other persons belonging to the Bath area." Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.84-86.
  • 1763c- Frederick KEISTER served as a soldier in the Colonial Wars in the Augusta Militia. Boogher, William Fletch, GLEANINGS OF VIRGINIA HISTORY , p.41; Eckenrode, E.J., COLONIAL SOLDIERS IN VIRGINIA , p.37 (listed as Frederick Eister).
  • 1764c- John BYRD, Jr. married Mary Ann HAMILTON, daughter of William and Alice HAMILTON. The HAMILTON's were Scots, but came from Co. Tyrone, Ireland, ca. 1745, to New Castle Co., Delaware, then to Chester, PA., then to Augusta Co., locating first in the Calf Pasture, then on the Jackson River in (now) Bath. Info from Marilyn Schuelszky of Fort Wayne, Ind. (1979), a HAMILTON descendant. See also D.A.R. #395267 and #509203.
  • 1764 - "Jammy STEWART is mentioned in a letter of February 1764 at Fort Lookout, with Captain SAYERS, KeGLEY's Virginia Frontier. James STEWART volunteered to fight the Indians at an early age, and with his brother Ralph was in a group of Rangers who overtook and rescued six white captives from ninety-six Indians. After the Indians were released, the boys followed them, and surprising them at night, they killed five Indians." Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.53.
  • 1764 - On 9 June 1764, Peter Thomas HULL sold his farm in the Valley of Virginia, and he and his sons acquired land in Crab Apple Bottom, the garden spot of what is now Highland County, Virginia. "Below him were Bernard LANTZ about this time, Michael ARBOGAST and John GUM in 1766, Palsor NAIGLEY in 1768, and Peter ZICKAFOOSE in 1772." "The HULL family was very prominent in the early annals of Highland County. The pioneer himself was a man of large means for his day. Peter, his oldest son, increased the estate, owning a large portion of Crabbottom, his possessions in 1818 included 16 slaves, 19 horses, 43 cows, and 60 sheep. He was an officer in the Revolution, a colonel of militia subsequent thereto, and a legislator also." He was very influential but also domineering. Major Peter HULL, his son, lived at McDowell, where he was a heavy landholder." Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.87,223,251,303-305.
  • 1764 - Thomas BEALE married, 10 July 1764, at Augusta Co., Virginia, to Jane CURRIE of Lancaster County (Penna. or Virginia?). Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.4, p.2.
  • 1764 - "Hardesty in his BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY says, that Captain BYRD who had been employed in 1764 to open a road from James River to where the town of Abingdon now stands, probably using Jefferson's map of Virginia engraved in France in 1755, and on which this river (the Kanawha River) did not appear, named it "New River." Rev. Ulysses S. A. Heavener, GERMAN NEW RIVER SETTLEMENT: VIRGINIA (1976 Reprint), p.3.
  • 1765 - On 20 March 1765, John CRAVENS was appointed guardian of Roger and John DYER, "infant orphans of William DYER, deceased." (Order Book 9, p.248.) J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.261.
  • 1766 - About 1764, James and Ralph STEWART left Fort Lookout and went to the New River where they scouted for eighteen months, seeing only one white man. Upon his return, James STEWART married, on 20 August 1766, to Miss Isabelle FOSTER, of Augusta County, Virginia. They had one son, James STEWART. Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.53.
  • 1766 - William MAY and Betty DYER were married (bond), 20 Sept. 1766, at Amelia Co., Virginia.
  • 1767 - James STUART was a resident of the Cowpasture in Borden's land in 1767. This same year he was on the militia list of William BOWYER.
  • 1767 - Anna Barbara and Johan Peter WINTEROTH, children of CASPAR and Margaretha (STREP) WENDEROTH, were confirmed, by Rev. LANGE, 10 Feb 1767, at the Evangelical Reformed Church, Frederick, Maryland. Carpenter, Vern A., WENDEROTH FAMILIES (1987), p.10-11.
  • 1767 - John BIRD (1729-1819) married, 1767, to Susanna WINTROW (probably a dau. of Johannes Casper and Anna Margaretha WENDEROTH of Frederick, Frederick Co., Md.). See Oren F. Morton, HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA , pp.264-267; Blackwell, Lyle M., MY FATHERS (1979), pp.55-64; Carpenter, Vern A., WENDEROTH FAMILIES (1987), p.10-11,78. Note: There were two by the name of John BIRD/BYRD who resided in the vicinity of present Highland Co., Virginia at about the same time. Although their descendants appear to have married in to the same families they seem to be unrelated to each other. There is much confusion in some of the early records as to which John BIRD the record pertains. See Blackwell, Lyle M., MY FATHERS (1979), pp.55-64.
  • 1767 - Among the tithables of Pittsylvania County, VA in 1767, was Francis BIRD. VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.24, p.271. Was this perhaps John Francis BIRD? Francis was used as a middle name by many of the descendants of John BIRD (1729-1819).
  • 1767 - Nicholas CURRY, of Fayette County, Kentucky, in a deposition, 19 November 1800, in McWILLIAMS vs. HOLLINGSHEAD, states that his father settled in Augusta County, Virginia in the fall of 1767. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.400.
  • 1769 - Mark THORP and Susanna STEWART were married, Nov. 1769, at King George County, Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.5, p.15.
  • 1769 - Townsend DADE and Jane STUART were married, 11 Dec. 1769, at Stafford Co., Virginia.
  • 1770 - Peter Thomas HOHL (1681-1770), pastor of the Lutheran church at St. Stephanskirche parish, about ten miles from Worms, died 15 July 1770. He married Anastasia Maria von EBRMARK (1690-1763). He was brother to Johannes HOHL, and uncle of Peter Thomas HULL who arrived at Philadelphia, PA, 30 May 1741.
  • 1770 - Andrew BIRD and David BELL, as administrators of the estate of Daniel HARRISON, were sureties on the bond of Benjamin HARRISON, 25 August 1770. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.213.
  • 1770 - In 1770 the General Assembly of Virginia formed several new counties and reformed the boundaries of two others. The new counties formed were Rockingham, Rockbridge, and Greenbrier. Rockingham was taken wholly from Augusta, and Rockbridge from both Augusta and Botetourt. Botetourt had been created in 1769, and was the first county carved from Augusta. In the act forming these counties, "Benjamin BYRD's house" is mentioned in the setting of the boundaries for Rockingham. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.238.
  • 1770 - John BIRD served in the Militia from 1770-1777. He was elected a Lieutenant under Lieutenant Col. William Christian and Lieutenant Col. James Robertson. He fought in the battle of Kings mountain, Tennessee. A LIST OF VIRGINIA STATE SOLDIERS AND SEAMEN WHO HAVE RECEIVED CERTIFICATES FOR THE BALANCE OF THEIR FULL PAY ; D.A.R. #1-66091; See also WAR FIVE , an unpublished manuscript in the Virginia State Library. Information from William H. Shields of Fort Myers, FL (1979).
  • 1770 - Lewis BIRD's will was probated in Frederick County, Virginia, on 7 Aug 1770. Only a son, John BIRT is listed by name, though other children are mentioned. The executor was Jordan Jacob MILLER. The witnesses were Jacob HOLDMAN and John ROUSE. Lewis BIRD-BIRT's wife's given name was Hannah. Frederick Co., VA, Will Book #4. See also VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v. , p.205; John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), p.218.
  • 1771 - In 1771, James STEWART was deeded 200 acres of land near Glade Spring Creek, from Blaney MILLS, and 160 acres of land on a branch of the Roanoke River, granted to Robert EWING, from James STARRETT. Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.54.
  • 1771 - John BEARD purchased 70 acres land on Jennings Branch, Augusta Co., VA in 1771. book 1, pg. 537.
  • 1771 - "Joseph PEARSE deposition, 8 April 1771. Edward SAMPSON kept school in the neighborhood of Capt. Andrew BIRD's and boarded with BIRD, and Thomas MOORE's children went to him. He (SAMPSON) and BIRD frequently got drunk together, and had frequent frolics, when BIRD became violent and threatened to kill everybody." J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.144-145; Chalkey, v.I, p.366.
  • 1773 - John BYRD and John LEWIS were road Overseers for the area from the Cowpasture to Warm Springs, 1773. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.60. 1773 - John RIDER (1773-1855), son of William RIDER, was born in 1773.
  • 1774 - From 1764 until 1774, aside from a few incidents, there was peace between the Indians and the white men in the Valley of Augusta, but the persistent settlement of greater numbers of white men resulted in war with the Indian breaking out in the summer of 1774. Governor DUNMORE led a force down the Ohio from Wheeling, while General Andrew LEWIS with the militia of the Valley reinforced by a few troops from Bedford and Culpeper, marched down the Great Kanawha, reaching Point Pleasant in early October 1774. Companies from the present counties of Bath, Highland and Pendleton serving under General LEWIS were commanded by Captains John DICKENSON, Andrew LOCKRIDGE, Samuel WILSON, and John SKIDMORE. At Point Pleasant, LEWIS's army became engaged in a battle with the Indians which, although resulting in great losses on both sides, resulted in the battle weary Indians agreeing to a peace that lasted until they were again stirred up by the British in 1778. The Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774, is now considered by many to have been the opening battle of the American Revolution. Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1979), pp.100-106; Patricia Burton, THE SECOND "COL. CHARLES LEWIS DAY" (1978), passim; Patricia Burton, VIRGINIA BEGINS TO REMEMBER (1980), passim.
  • 1774 - On 16 June 1774, some of the leading citizens in the vicinity of Woodstock, Dunmore Co., Virginia, called a public meeting which, presided over by Rev. Peter MUHLENBERG, "adopted spirited and patriotic resolutions." A committee of safety and correspondence was also appointed, consisting of Rev. Peter MUHLENBERG, Francis SLAUGHTER, Abraham BIRD, Tavener BEALE, John TIPTON, and Abraham BOWMAN. John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), p.142,224; John Walter Wayland's "The Germans of the Valley," THE VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.X, p.47.
  • 1774 - Captain John STUART was a member of General Andrew LEWIS's expedition against the Indians in the year 1774, and at the battle of Point Pleasant, Va. Capt. John STUART married Agatha, the second dau. of Thomas and Jane (STROTHER) LEWIS, and widow of Capt. John FROG, who was killed, 10 Oct 1774, at the battle of Point Pleasant. Mrs. Stuart was a niece of Gen. Andrew LEWIS, and a granddaughter of John LEWIS, a native of Donegal Co., Ireland "who slew the Irish Lord, settled Augusta Co., Va., located the town of Staunton, and furnished five sons to fight the battles of the American Revolution," and who died at Bellefonte, Augusta, Feb. 1, 1762, aged 84 years. Children of Capt. John STUART included: Lewis STUART of Greenbrier Co., Charles A. STUART, and one daughter, who became the wife of Col. CROCKET, of Wythe Co., Va. VIRGINIA HISTORICAL REGISTER , v.5,p.181; NEW YORK GENEALOGICAL AND BIOG. RECORD , v.9,p.47; Patricia Burton, THE SECOND "COL. CHARLES LEWIS DAY" (1978), passim; Patricia Burton, VIRGINIA BEGINS TO REMEMBER (1980), passim.
  • 1774 - Col. Abraham BIRD, of Shenandoah, was son of Andrew BIRD, died 1750, of Augusta Co., Va, and grandson of Abraham BIRD of Calvert county, Md. Col. BIRD was colonel of Revolutionary militia, 1778; representative of Dunmore (present Pocahontas County) in the Virginia House of Burgesses (1774-1775) and the Virginia constitutional convention of 1776. He was representative of Dunmore and Shenandoah in the Virginia House of delegates eleven sessions in the period 1776-1796. He married Rachel ZEIGLER. He died in Kentucky. He had: Captain Abraham, Shenandoah Revolutionary militia Captain; Mark, married Sarah GORDON; Capt. George; Magdalene; Elizabeth; Mary; Catherine; Margaret. Wayland, John W., HISTORY OF SHENANDOAH COUNTY, VIRGINIA ., pp. 584-585,691-693.
  • 1774 - Peter HOAL received a grant for 90 acres on Shaver's Run, Augusta Co., Va. in 1774. Bk.1,p.570.
  • 1774 - Peter Thomas HULL furnished supplies during Dunmore's war in 1774. His claims were verified in the Court of Augusta Co., Virginia, 18 August 1775. Morton's HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA , p.393.
  • 1775 - A John BYRD was in Dunmore's War in 1775. See Morton's ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA.
  • 1775 - Charles CALLAHAN and wife Ann --- lived on Dry River, Rockingham Co., VA in 1775.
  • 1775 - Among the representatives from the Shenandoah Valley counties to the House of Burgesses and of the Virginia Convention were the following: James PATTON Augusta County 1754-55; Samuel McDOWELL Augusta County 1772-76; Charles LEWIS Augusta County 1773-74; Thomas LEWIS Augusta County 1775-76; Abraham BIRD Dunmore County 1775-76; John TIPTON Dunmore County 1776; John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), p.224.
  • 1776 - The 1966 D.A.R. Patriot Index lists: "John Jacob WINTERRODE, b. 20 April 1735, d.3 Feb 1797, m. Ann Barbara ---, Pvt. Penna."
  • 1776 - Peter Thomas HULL, Sr. (c.1706-1776), died in February 1776, at Crabbottom, Augusta County (now Highland Co.), Virginia. The Will of Peter Thomas HULL was translated from the German Tongue by John William LEE and recorded, 19 Mar 1776, in Will Book 5, page 407, Augusta County, VA. It reads as follows: "In the name of God Amen: The twenty-eighth day of November, one Thousand seven hundred and seventy-five. I, Peter Thomas HOHL, of August County and Colony of Virginia, being sick in body but sound of mind and memory, thanks be to Almighty God for the same, do make and declare this my last will and Testament, in manner and form following, first to my dearly beloved wife, Susannah Margaret, I give and bequeath the third part of the estate, after all my just debts are paid and my Eldest son Peter shall according to my will and desire after my decease give unto his (step) Mother the third part or share of the increase of Grain to the land produces and shall bring the same into the Barn and Thresh it for her. I likewise bequeath further unto my wife to have choice of two milk cows and the Pennsylvania Mare also a horse for her to ride and to work, which horse is to remain upon the plantation and not to be disposed of, likewise the choice of two sheep; the division of my land shall be in the following manner: "(1st) the land be surveyed from the lower end on the line up to the Dry Run. (2nd) from the Dry Run up to the corner tree. (3rd) from the corner tree on up to the Middle Corner tree on the upper land. (4th) from the Middle Corner Tree on up to the upper Corner Tree. (5th) The three of my eldest daughters shall be made equal. I bequeath unto them after my decease the sum of Twenty Pounds Current money each, and my youngest daughters shall also receive, each of them the sum of Twenty pounds Current Money, as soon as they shall attain their age. (6th) I also desire that the tree different pieces or parcels of land, viz., the first at the upper trace, the second in the (Vanderpool) Gap, third on Jackson's River, besides an entering, shall be sold at Public Vendue, and put to the estate. I empower hereby my eldest son, Peter, to sell and dispose of the same as my executor to this my last Will and Testament and desire that Susannah Margaret, my wife and my son Peter shall educate my younger Children, in a Christian-like manner, as long as they behave dutiful; otherwise they shall have power to bind them out with this proviso to pay them interest on their money from the day they are bound out." Signed by the mark of Peter HOHL. Witnessed by Bernard LANTZ, Leonard SIMON, and Peter FLESHER. Will recorded 19 Mar 1776, Augusta Co., Va. Will Book 5, p.407. See also: D.A.R. Patriot Index; D.A.R. #436200; A ROSTER OF REVOLUTIONARY ANCESTORS OF THE INDIANA DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION v.2, p.171.
  • 1776 - D.A.R. Revolutionary Patriots include: Abraham BIRD, b.1755, d.5/3/1821, m. Mary JONES. Amos BIRD, b.1737, d.6/5/1818, m. Sarah RUDDELL. Andrew BIRD, b.11/30/1754, d.11/30/1838, m. Ann ----, Cpt. VA. Henry BIRD, b.1764, d.9/4/1858, m. Nancy Baldwin, Pvt. VA. Pension #S.30307, Blwt. 28609-160-55. John BIRD, bpt.12/13/1743, d.1840, m. Sarah ---. William BIRD, b.1763, d.1847, m. Martha ----, Pvt. NC and VA.
  • 1776 - Richard BIRD, birth and resident of King and Queen County, Va., served in Capt. Nathaniel WELCH's company, Col. William BRENT's 2nd Regiment. See VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.5,p.352.
  • 1776 - A John BYRD enlisted, 9 Mar 1776, and served as a private in Capt. Jonathan CLARK's company, Col. Muhlenberg's Virginia regiment, was at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. He was allowed pension on his application executed, 30 Mar 1819, at which time he was aged about sixty years. He resided then in Bourbon County, Kentucky. Sometime before March 1823, the soldier moved from Kentucky to Fayette County, Indiana where he died about the year 1829 or 1830. This John BYRD married in 1780, Elinor ---. Her age in 1823 was given as 57 years. In 1823, the soldier and his wife had only one child, aged twenty years, living at home with them; the name of said child was not stated, nor the names of any other children given. A daughter of the soldier had married after the family moved to Indiana, date of her marriage and the name of her husband were not shown; however, the marriage took place before Oct 1823. In 1840, Elinor BYRD, the soldier's widow was living in Indiana. National Archives Pension File S35807.
  • 1776 - Adam RADER married, 2 Apr 1776, in Rockingham Co., Va. to Clara, daughter of Cornelius RUDDELL. It was the 6th wedding in the Linville Creek Baptist Church. Wayland, John W., VIRGINIA VALLEY RECORDS
  • 1776 - Colonel Abraham BIRD was in Woodstock, Dunmore Co., VA in 1776. See Chalkey's CHRONICLES OF SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLEMENT OF VA. 1745-1800 .
  • 1776 - Even PHILLIPS and Elizabeth DEVER were married, 23 April 1776, at Rockingham County, Virginia. (Note: Two children of John and Susanna BIRD married DEVERs.) Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.15, p.13..
  • 1776 - David RADER and Ruth HENTON were married, 4 June 1776, Greenbrier Co., Virginia.
  • 1776 - Adam CURRY was a soldier in the Revolution. Soon after the war he located in the Back Creek valley in what is now Highland Co., Va. He supposedly lived to be 105 years old. He was the father of Susan (CURRY) RIDER who married, 12 Feb 1796, John RIDER (1773-1855). "One of the best known characters in West Highland, Virginia was Captain Adam CURRY, a Revolutionary veteran. One of his grandsons, William CURRY, is a well known citizen of Pocahontas County. Captain CURRY was a native of Scotland, and came to America, and resided several years near Manasses Junction. He was among the first to enlist in the war of the Revolution, and was chosen captain of his company, and participated in all the engagements in which Virginia troops were engaged that followed MERCER and WASHINGTON. Soon after the war he gathered up the remnants of his property and moved to Augusta County, locating in the Back Creek valley on property now (1901) owned by William CRUMMETT in southwest Highland. He settled in the woods and raised a large family of sons and daughters. He was honest in his dealings, and was held in much esteem for his high sense of honor and patriotic impulses. It seems almost too strange to be believed that he would not accept a pension offered him for his services as a brave and faithful officer in the Revolutionary struggle. He always declared that the service was his own reward. Instead of being a hardship, military service was the greatest pleasure of his life. He desired no better recompense than the fun he had, and the pleasure it gave him to see liberty secured for his invaded country. He was proverbially neat in dress and polished in his manners. To the close of his life, he dressed in the colonial style -- knee breeches, long stockings, and shoes with silver buckles. He retained his habits of court life as to diet and sleeping as long as he lived. He died at the age of one hundred and five years, with but few signs of decrepitude visible. To the last he was erect as a young grenadier, cheerful in spirit, and mental faculties active apparently as ever. His remains are in the Matheny grave yard, near the Rehobeth Church, in the Back Valley, a few miles from his home." Price, William T. HISTORY OF POCAHONTAS COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA (1901), pp.311-315.
  • 1776 - William Bryan and Robert Rose in their A HISTORY OF PIONEER FAMILIES IN MISSOURI , p.324, give an account of some descendants of Samuel DYER, born in Bristol England; officer in the American Revolution; settled in Albemarle county, Va.; and married Celia BRICKLEY.
  • 1777 - Richard BIRD and Mary PAMPLIN were married, 12 June 1777, Middlesex Co., Virginia.
  • 1777 - A list of names of persons who sold land in Rockingham County, Virginia, from 1777 to 1793 includes the following: Charles CALAHAN William CHESTNUT; James DYER Peter CONRAD; William DEVER Edward ERVIN; Nicholas FOGLE Isaac GUM; Thomas HARRISON John JORDAN; John MILLER Cornelius RUDDELL; John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), pp.220-221.
  • 1777 - Reuben RIDER enlisted in 1777 in the 12th Virginia Regiment commanded by Col. James WOOD and served in Capt. Jonathan LANGDON's Company. In 1833 while living in Wilson Co., Tennessee at age 79 years he applied for pension. He states he was born 15 Dec 1754 in Shenandoah Co., Virginia. He moved to East Tennessee (then North Carolina) on the Big Pigeon River about 1780. Reuben RIDER married, 4 May 1815, to Martha LEACH in Wilson Co., Tenn. He died, 29 July 1838. A transcript of bible records in his pension papers shows children: Rebecca Ann RIDER born 22 July 1816; Sophia B. RIDER born 18 Jan 1819; Sarah E. RIDER born 1821; Martha H. RIDER born 12 Aug 1822; Amanda J. RIDER born 11 Oct 1824. See National Archives Pension File # W2572, BLWt. 28530-160-55.
  • 1777 - Adam RIDER was a Private in the 11th and 12th Regiment Virginia Continental Line. He also is listed as militia man paid at Pittsburg 1775 and one of Morgan's riflemen. Pension File # S40341. Anthony RIDER, b. 174?, was Captain of Rockingham County, Virginia Militia 20 Aug 1777. On 20 August 1777, a list of the tithables was ordered taken in the various military companies of Augusta County. Including those companies enumerated were Anthony RIDER's, Capt. Ralph STEWART's Capt. Reuben HARRISON's, and Capt. Robert CRAVEN's. On 25 May 1778, "Anthony RYDER, being appointed Captain of the Militia took the Oath according to Law." J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.298; John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), p.136. Matthias RIDER or RADER and Major Michael RADER served in the Revolution from Virginia. John RYDER (1756-1830) served as a Private soldier from Virginia. He married Elizabeth BRADLEY. See D.A.R. PATRIOT INDEX ; Pension File #S21947.
  • 1777 - Revolutionary War Pensioners included the following: STUART, Charles Va. R10148; STUART, Edward Va. W6170, wife Mary; STUART, John Va. S19474; STUART, Charles Pa. S23948; STUART, John Va. R10157; STEWART, Alexander Va. W8763, wife Dorothy; STEWART, Benjamin Va. W6162, wife Dorothy; STEWART, Charles Va. R10149; STEWART, Charles Va. S33736; STEWARD, Christopher Pa. W6169, wife Elizabeth.
  • 1778 - James STEWART, son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART, was born, 2 Jan 1757, in then Augusta Co. (Later Bath Co., Va.). He enlisted as a Private in the Virginia Militia and served under Captains Andrew LOCKRIDGE, Thomas HICKLIN, and Peter HULL at Clover Lick Fort, Warwick's Fort, and the battle at Jamestown. Pension #S6159; Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1911 - reprinted 1979), p.193. Edward STUART, son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART enlisted in 1778 with the Virginia Troops and served under Captain Andrew LOCKRIDGE at Vances' Fort, under Capt. Robert McKERY at Clover Lick, under Capt. John McCOY near Richmond, as an ensign in Capt. George POAGE's co., and under Capt. Thomas HICKLIN in Col. Samuel VANCE's Regiment was at the siege of Yorktown and was one of the guard that marched the British prisoners to Winchester, Virginia in 1782. He was allowed pension on his application of, 8 Jan 1833, while a resident of Bath Co., Va. By 1837, he had moved to Harrison Co., Va. He died, 7 Apr 1844, at his residence on Elk Creek, Barbour Co., Va. (now West Virginia). He married, 4 Apr. 1786, to Mary CALLIHAN or CALAGHAN. See Pension File #W6170; Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1911 - reprinted 1979), p.193. John STEUART served in Capt. Thos. HICKLIN's company and received a sword wound in the hand at Yorktown, 1778. William STEUART was a soldier in the American Revolution. Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1911 - reprinted 1979), p.193. Note: For information on the Militia units of Augusta County mentioned in the above pension Papers see VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE , v.30,p.399.
  • 1778 - Justices commissioned in Rockingham County, 27 April 1778, included James DYER, William McDOWELL, and Anthony RYDER. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), pp.238-239.
  • 1778 - James DYER married, before 1778, to Phoebe HARRISON, eldest daughter of Zebulon and Margaret (CRAVENS) HARRISON. James DYER was one of the justices of Rockingham court. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.362.
  • 1778 - John CRAVENS died, 24 July 1778; and Margaret (HIATT), widow of William DYER and John CRAVENS, married third, 1782, to Dennis LANAHAN. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.342.
  • 1778 - Justices, appointed by Patrick HENRY, and commissioned in Rockingham County, 22 September 1778, included James DYER, William McDOWELL, Anthony RYDER, Gawen HAMILTON, and Reuben HARRISON.. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.238,309,321,362.
  • 1778 - Frederick KEISTER served in the American Revolution and qualified as a Lieutenant, 28 September 1778. J. T. McAllister, VIRGINIA IN THE REVOLUTION , p.230; Chalkey, Lyman, RECORDS OF AUGUSTA COUNTY, VIRGINIA , v.1,p.97, v.2,p.364; McAllister, VIRGINIA IN THE REVOLUTION , p.230; N.S.D.A.R. Natl.#627942 (Mertle DECOURSEY).
  • 1778 - The will of a James DEVOOR (DEAVER) of Yohogania County, Virginia; dated 14 November 1778, was attested by Nicholas DEPUE, Tobias DECKER and Daniel DEPUE, Jr.; and proved March 1779. Beneficiaries were children: Jacob, Andrew, Henry, John, Sarah PEARSHAL, Samuel; children under age: David, Moses, Catharine, Francis, James. All his real estate, except the Ferry ("on Monongahela River, from his house over the river to the Mouth of Pidgeon Creek") went to sons David and Moses; however, the court later allotted one third of the Landed Estate to James DEVOIR's widow or Relict, Elizabeth DEVOIR. John DEVOIR was executor of the will. It is likely that the minor child, James DEVOOR, mentioned in this will was the James DEVER who married, 10 Sep 1794, at Bath County, Virginia to Catharine BIRD, dau. of John and Susannah BIRD. Boyd Crumrine, VIRGINIA COURT RECORDS IN SOUTHWESTERN PENNSYLVANIA , (1974 Reprint), II, 301,346,395,396, III, p.327, I, 526,531.
  • 1778 - Islam CHAFFIN and Betsy BIRD were married, (bond) 18 Dec. 1778, at Prince Edward Co., Virginia. v
  • 1779 - On 26 Aug 1779, John BORT and wife purchased 23 acres on the south side of Mill Creek from Henry KELKNER and Barbara, his wife. On the same date, John BORT purchased 100 acres on the south side of Mill Creek from Jacob SHEFFER. (Mill Creek was at the present site of Mt. Jackson, Shenandoah County, VA.) - From Moneka Landreth of DeKalb, Ill. (1981). This German BORDT/BIRD/BIRD family appears to have been contemporaries with our John BIRD of Augusta, and seems to have married in to some of the same families associated with our BIRD and HULL families.
  • 1779 - The muster roll of Captain Peter HULL's Company, Second Battalion, Augusta Militia, 1779, includes the names of privates Adam ARBOGAST, Abraham BURNER, and John YEAGER. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.194.
  • 1780c- George HULL, born 15 Oct 1757, died 1852, married, about 1780, to Hannah, dau. of Frederick and Hannah (DYER) KIESTER. He was a Pvt. Spy in the Revolutionary War. Cleek, Geo. W., EARLY WESTERN AUGUSTA PIONEERS , pp.385-386; D.A.R. Patriot Index; National Archives Pension file #S13317.
  • 1780 - On 16 August 1780, there was recorded the vendue bill of Peter HOLE's estate. Various articles were sold to Peter HOLE, Paul SUMMERS, Neckless HARPER, William DUNWIDDY, George HOLE, Henry FLETCHER, Joseph HAM, John FERIS, William McALLY, Bernard LANCE, Enees HOLE, Elias PAINTER, George COWGER, Captain PARSONS, Leonard SUMMONS, Peter SEGERFEET, Mike MANNEN, Widow GREGORY, Roger PATTON, Leasy HOLE, James and Thomas PARSONS, Conrad LANCE and Miss HOLE. The estate was settled by Peter HOLE, the executor, 16 August 1780. - Records, Augusta County, VA, v.III, p.158; Will Book 6, p.147, Staunton, VA.
  • 1780 - Morton says that John BIRD came from Germany and settled, ca.1780, at Big Back Creek Valley near Valley Center. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.195, 264-267, 240, 250, 354-355.
  • 1780 - William CURRY (ca.1715-1791) furnished bacon, 16 pounds, to the Patriot forces at Botetourt Co., Virginia, 14 September 1780. A ROSTER OF REVOLUTIONARY ANCESTORS of the INDIANA DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION , v.2, p.84; D.A.R. #369748.
  • 1780s- From Willard Jillson's OLD KENTUCKY DEEDS AND ENTRIES : Lincoln County entries: Col. Abraham BIRD, Bk.2,p.17, 7-7-1783, Kentucky River Moses BIRD Bk.1,p.49, 5-24-1780, Otter Creek Jefferson Co. Entries: Abraham BIRD BK.A,p.376, 8-9-1784; Moses BIRD Bk.A,p.95, 5-24-1783. Military Warrants: Joshua BIRD Virginia Line 12-21-1784; Thomas BIRD Virginia Line 12-9-1783; Thomas BIRD Virginia Line; Rueben BIRD Virginia Line; Richard BIRD Virginia Line
  • 1780 - James DYER, son of Roger and Hannah (BRITTON??) DYER [not Dyer, it's GREEN], married second, 13 Oct. 1780, to Jane RALSTON, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VA. MARRIAGES , p.49.
  • 1780 - Thomas BIRD and Margaret TOLBERT were married, 19 Oct. 1780, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Minister returns at Rockingham and Greenbrier counties. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.6, p.4.
  • 1780 - Morton says that William RIDER (1730c.-1819c.) settled in Big Back Creek Valley near Valley Center about 1780. He was a neighbor of John BIRD at Back Creek. William RIDER migrated from Maryland to what is now Highland Co., Va. about 1780. He is buried in the Matheny grave yard in Back Creek Valley. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.252,330-331; Rider, Fremont RIDER/RYDER GENEALOGY (1958).
  • 1781 - Nathaniel MOTHERSHEAD and Ruthey BIRT were married, 1781, at Orange Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.18, p.14.
  • 1781 - Valentine BIRD received from Thomas DENISON, 12 Jan 1781, a patent for 205 acres located on the east branch of Back Creek called the Valley Branch in present Bath County, Virginia. This land was deeded, in 1813, to John BIRD, Sr. Bath County Deed Bk.4, p.373.
  • 1781 - David H. BIRD, son of John and Margaret Susanna (WINTROW) BIRD, was born, 23 Mar 1781, in Augusta Co., VA. Ref: LDS Index Card to Idaho Falls Temple Records No. 99979.
  • 1781 - Among the officers serving under Colonels Robert McCREERY and Sampson MATHEWS at the battle of Green Spring, near Jamestown, 6 July 1781, were Captains Peter HULL ????, David GWIN, Thomas HICKLIN, William KINCAID, John BROWN, Lieutenant Joseph GWIN, and Ensigns Alexander and Thomas WRIGHT. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.96.
  • 1781 - Conrad RADER enlisted at Rockingham (Shenandoah) Co., Virginia in Aug 1781, and served two months under Capt. SHARP, Col. EDMUNDS, and General STEVENs around Yorktown and Williamsburg. He became a substitute for John MILLER of Shenandoah, and served two months under Capt. DOWNIE, Col. NISWONGER, stationed at Winchester barracks. In Jan 1782 he was drafted in the militia from Shenandoah Co., Virginia and served under Capt. WHITE, of Loudoun County, Col. NISWONGER, of Winchester. The soldier was born near Bethlehem, Penna. about 1765. His parents removed to Loudoun Co., Va. when he was 4 years old; resided there 11 years, then went to Shenandoah County. He was granted pension certificate #12006 in March 1833. - Pension File S5973.
  • 1781 - Charles STEWART was issued a certificate to 400 acres of land in Monongalia County, Va. (Later Harrison Co.) on that branch of the West Fork called Buffalo about 3 miles from Richard's Fort (near the mouth of Sycamore Creek, six miles from Clarksburg) to include his settlement of 1771. William STEWART, assignee to James WORKMAN, 400 acres on Little Kanawha to include an improvement made in 1776. - Harrison County Deeds.
  • 1782 - The 1782 Census of Back Creek, Bath Co., Virginia lists: Alexander STUART - 8 horses, 23 cattle. He was a neighbor of John BYRD and William RIDER.
  • 1782 - Frederick KEISTER is listed as furnishing supplies in an account dated, 29 May 1782. Wayland, John W., HISTORY OF ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.101.
  • 1782 - Peter HOAL received grant of 341 acres at Crab Apple Bottom, Augusta Co., Va. in 1782. Bk.1,p.537.
  • 1782 - Richard Curry, an Irishman, settled about 1782 in Back Creen Valley near the Bath Line. He was a soldier of the American Revolution. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.193,250,277-278.
  • 1782 - The 1782 tax list of Bath County, Virginia, Back Creek lists John BYRD with 17 horses, 15 cattle. Also listed was William RIDER with 4 houses, 5 cattle. This William RIDER migrated from Maryland to what is now Highland Co., Virginia about 1780. He died in 1819 and is buried in Matheny Grave Yard in Back Creek, Virginia.
  • 1782 - Isaac Anglin and Nancy DIER were married, 9 May 1782, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Minister returns in both Rockingham and Greenbrier counties. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.5, p.1 & v.6, p.1.
  • 1782 - Alexander BADGER and Margaret BIRD were married, 17 July 1782, at Augusta Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.5, p.2.
  • 1782 - John CURRY and Isabella ELLISON were married, 26 Nov. 1782, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.14, p.4.
  • 1782 - The following marriages took place at Pittsylvania Co., Virginia: James DALTON and Agness DYER, 18 April 1782. John ATKINS and Winney DYER, 26 Oct. 1786. John DYER, Jr. and Viney MORTON, 9 July 1787. Nathan DYER and Nancy DALTON, 1788. Thomas BALL and Elender DYER, 8 March 1791. Nathan DYER and Mary PAYNE, 15 Feb. 1793. George BROCK and Amey DYER, 13 Nov. 1795. William DYER and Nancy WARD, 11 Oct. 1796. Robert HENRY and Peggy DYER, 22 Feb. 1799. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 .
  • 1783 - Peter HULL, son of George and Hannah (KIESTER) HULL, ????? was born 11 Jan 1783. He married, 10 Sept. 1816, to Rachel TALLMAN, and he died, 23 Sept. 1854, at McDowell, Highland Co., Virginia.
  • 1783 - A record in Richmond, VA shows that John Bird received certificate #L18914S10D on March 8, 1783, for the balance of his full pay, agreeable to the act of the General Assembly, passed in the November 1781 session. The State Treasurer paid the sum to one William REYNOLDS for BIRD's account.
  • 1783 - John BIRD paid taxes on land in what is now Greene Co., VA in 1783.
  • 1784 - William RIDER married, 16 Jan 1784, to Jane JONES in Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1784 - John YEAGER, Sr., born 5 October 1762, near Lancaster Co., Penna., died 7 Jan 1833, Pocahantas Co., Virginia, married, ca.1784, at Crabbottom, Virginia to Phoebe Anastasia HULL, born 15 April 1768, daughter of Peter Thomas and Susanna (DIEFFENBACH) HULL. They had children: Jacob YEAGER (1790-1861), m.1812, Sarah Ann HEDY; Sara Ann (1793-1882), m. (1st) Ferdinand STALNAKER; Elizabeth YEAGER married, 23 May 1816, Jacob BIRD, son of Jacob; John; Andrew YEAGER (1800-1861) married Elizabeth DILLEY; Phoebe Hull YEAGER married Samuel BRADY; Susanna YEAGER, m.1828, Moses ARBOGAST; Rachel YEAGER (1808-1872), m.1833, Henry HARPER; Mary "Polly" YEAGER, m.1828, George M. MAY. A ROSTER OF REVOLUTIONARY ANCESTORS OF THE INDIANA DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION , v.1, p.675; D.A.R. #582973.
  • 1784 - Elizabeth HULL (1784c.-1852), dau. of George and Hannah (KIESTER) HULL, was born in or near Pendleton Co., VA. She married, 30 Aug 1806, to David BIRD, and died 18 July 1852.
  • 1784 - John BIRT is listed on the census (Alexander Hite's List) of Shenandoah Co., VA in 1784 with 6 whites in household. He was a neighbor of Abraham BIRD and Mounce BIRD. Ref: First Census of the United States - Virginia.
  • 1784 - James MOFFETT married, 29 Dec 1784, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Mary STUART.
  • 1785 - There was a Peter HALLE listed as a tithable in Warren County, Va. (fork district) in 1785.
  • 1785 - James CURRY and Dennis LANAHAN owned a lot in Harrisonburg, Virginia in 1785. "Dennis LANAHAN was the third husband of Margaret, nee HIATT, who married first, William DYER, and second, John CRAVENS, son of Robert CRAVENS, Sr." J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.247; From John Walter Wayland's "The Germans of the Valley," THE VIRGINIA MAGAZINE , v.X, p.45.
  • 1785 - William ERWIN married, 7 July 1785, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Susannah CURRY.
  • 1785 - Benjamin CAFFEE and Margaret DYER were married, 8 Sept. ??? who is this Margaret Dyer? 1785, at Montgomery County, Virginia.
  • 1785 - James BELL married, 15 Sept. 1785, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Margaret CURRY.
  • 1785 - Jesse HARRISON married, 1785, to Sarah CURRY, daughter of John CURRY. Witness was David ROLSTON. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), pp.314-317.
  • 1785 - The following marriages took place at Pittsylvania Co., Virginia: Isaac CURRY and Rhoda GRISHAM, 24 March 1785. Nathan CURRY and Nancy GRISHAM, 9 Dec. 1790. Israel CURRY and Sally PAYNE, 19 Jan. 1795. Barth CURRY and Rozana NUCKOLS, 11 Feb. 1796. Thomas CURREY and Peggy HANKINS, 16 May 1798. Thomas CURRY and Nancy CRANE, 13 NOv. 1802. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.1.
  • 1786 - William J. RYDER married, 21 Feb 1786, to Mary BRISCO in Augusta Co., Virginia. Mary BRISCOE was possibly daughter of Isaac BRISCOE, who had served as Washington's bodyguard at Yorktown. "The Rev. William J. RYDER is remembered as a man of high character and sterling qualities." Oren F. Morton, A HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA (1979), p.224.
  • 1786 - Isaiah SLAVEN married, 22 Feb 1786, in Augusta Co., Virginia to Patty STUART.
  • 1786 - Isiah STEWART and Martha STEWART were married, 1786, at Bath Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.14, p.17.
  • 1786 - James CURRY and Mary ERWIN were married, 27 March 1786, at Augusta County, Virginia.
  • 1786 - Edward STUART (1759-1844), son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART, married 4 Apr 1786, to Mary CALAGHAN, dau. of Charles CALLAHAN. On the same day, Alexander WELLS married Margaret CALAGHAN, dau. of Charles. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.1 & v.2.
  • 1786 - On 12 Sept. 1786, a Barbara BOID was one of the sponsors for a dau. born to Jacob ROSCH and wife, Anna in ZION Church, Hamburg, Shenandoah Co., VA.
  • 1786 - Archibald METHENY and Jean CURRY were married, 13 December 1786, at Frederick Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.17, p.16.
  • 1787 - William DYE ??? and Frances ASHBY were married, 1787, at Princess Anne County, Virginia. Henry SHARWOOD and Rhoda DYER were married, 1787, at Princess Anne County.
  • 1787 - Pendleton County, Virginia was formed from parts of Rockingham, Augusta and Hardy Counties in 1787.
  • 1787 - George CURRY married, 22 Feb 1787, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Agnes HAMILTON of Rockbridge County.
  • 1787 - James CURRY bought, in 1787, 175 acres on the Bull Pasture River, from John BLACK, son of Samuel BLACK. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.32.
  • 1787 - Robert CURRY and Phebe SAMPLE were married, 1787, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Bondsman was Jesse HARRISON. Robert SAMPLE consented; witnesses were Jesse HARRISON and Moses SAMPLES. Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM CO., VA. MARRIAGES , p.43.
  • 1787 - John STEWART, son of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART, married, 31 May 1787, in Augusta Co., Va. to Hannah HICKLIN. He died, 1850, and is buried in Montgomery County, Missouri. They had children: James; John (1795-1873) m. Mary STEWART; Edward; Jacob; Miranda; David; Margaret (1822-1898) md. John SEE; Nancy; and Jennie.
  • 1787 - James McGLAUGHLIN and Mary STUART were married, 7 June 1787, at Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1787 - Alexander BADGER married, 17 Jul 1787, Margaret BIRD in Augusta Co., VA.
  • 1787 - On 12 Apr 1787, Abraham BIRD acquired 89 acres between Smith's Creek and Massanutten Mountain in Rockingham Co., VA.
  • 1787 - James BIRD and Fanny MASON were married, 3 Sept. 1787, at Franklin County, Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.25, p.3.
  • 1787 - Peter HOLE received a grant for 97 acres of land on Riffles Old Road, Augusta County, Virginia in 1787. Bk.1,p.202.
  • 1788 - Peter HULL, Sr. ??? was appointed Justice of Pendleton County, Virginia in 1788.
  • 1788 - Peter HULL, in 1788, took a storekeeper's license in Pendleton Co., Virginia. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.110.
  • 1788 - A military voucher for Capt. Josiah HARRISON's Company #9 in Rockingham County, Virginia, in 1788 includes: Andrew BIRD, 1 tithable Andrew BIRD, Sr., 1 tithable, 4 slaves, 9 horses David RADER, above 16 "having 1 creature" Adam RADER, 1 tithable, 3 slaves, 10 horses. Anthony READER, son John Mathias READER, son George
  • 1788 - Otho WADE, born 1766, married 1788, to Catherine CALLAHAN, daughter of Charles CALLAHAN of Augusta Co., Va. Otho WADE was the son of John WADE (1723-1815) of Highland Co., Va and Sophia (HOWARD) WADE (1727-1816) of Red Stone, Md. See: Virkus ABRIDGED COMPENDIUM OF AMERICAN GENEALOGY v. ,p.604.
  • 1788 - James USHER married, 1788, at Augusta County, Virginia, to Catherine WHITESIDES.
  • 1788 - George WRIGHT married, 18 Mar 1788, to Mary CURRY in Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1788 - On 13 April 1778, a number of inhabitants of Cowpasture, Calfpasture, Bullpasture, Jackson River, and Back Creek petitioned the Virginia Assembly for a new county to be struck off from Augusta. The signers of this petition included: Robert, William, John, and Andey LOUGHRIDGE, William GIVEN, George FRANCISCO, Lofty PULLIN, Lofty PULLIN, Jr., Hugh, John and James HICKLIN, William, James and Edward STUART, William JORDAN, John BEARD (BIRD?), et.al. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.106.
  • 1788 - Robert CURRY and Martha KENEDY were married, 15 April 1788, at Augusta Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.16.
  • 1788 - Hannah, dau. of Heinerich BORT and wife Eva ROSINA was born 30 May 1788, and baptized 7 Sept. 1788 in the Zion Church of Hamburg, Shenandoah Co., VA. Sponsors were Johannes BORT and wife Catharina. - From Mrs. Charles Landreth of DeKalb, Illinois (1981).
  • 1788 - John McDOWELL and Sarah WITHROW were married, 16 Aug. 1788, at Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1788 - Daniel MARTHENA (MATHENY?) and Sarah CURRY were married, 14 Oct. 1788, at Frederick Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.24, p.19.
  • 1788 - James CURRY married, 28 Oct 1788, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Margaret FRANCIS. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.6, p.6.
  • 1788 - The estate of William CHESTNUT was appraised by John BIRD on 18 Dec 1788, in Augusta County, VA. Will Book No.VII, p.155,184.
  • 1788 - John McCLUNG married, 12 Nov 1788, to Mary STUART, daughter of Benjamin STUART, at Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1789 - Peter BERT and Hannah SHAFER or SHAVER made marriage bond in Shenandoah Co., VA, 24 Jan 1789. A letter of consent is attached by Hannah's father, Jacob SHAFFER, in which he gives her permission to marry "Petter BIRD." The official filling of the bond spelled Peter's name, clearly, as Peter BIRT and his bondsman as John BIRT. Yet Ashby, in her book on marriage records for Shenandoah County and the Virginia State Library and Archives have Peter's and Hannah's bond indexed under BERT. John BIRT signed with his "x", but Peter wrote his signature in poorly-formed German Script, spelling it as "BORDT." Miss Grace SHOWALTER, Librarian and archivist of Menno Simons Historical Library, Harrisonburg, VA, deciphered Peter's signature as "BORDT". She had others check the signature. "All agree he spelled his name "BORDT" and feel as poorly as he wrote, it was probably the only thing that he could write, and that he did not write it often." - From Mrs. Charles Landreth of DeKalb, Ill (1981).
  • 1789 - Robert and John CURRY taxed on 350 acres of land in 1789. List by Ralph LOFTUS, Commissioner. Robert CURRY signed the petition to build a tobacco warehouse in Harrisonburg, Virginia. A voucher in Capt. John Herdman's co. for John & Robert CURRY, 11 horses. In Robert Harrison's company #5, James CURRY, 1 horse. VIRGINIA VALLEY RECORDS , p.42,99,102,136,157.
  • 1789 - On 22 June 1789, James CURRY, Benjamin HARRISON, Brewer REEVES, and Thomas SCOTT, as trustees of the Presbyterian Church of Harrisonburg, Virginia, were granted liberty by the Circuit Court of Rockingham to build a house for public worship. The deed for the lot, on East Market Street, was made out to the above trustees, 25 September 1792 by Charles McCLAIN. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.321.
  • 1789 - Rockingham Co., Virginia landowners in 1789 include: David RADER, Michael READER, Anthony READER, Adam READER, Mathias READER, Abraham BIRD, and Andrew BIRD. Raymond A. Lee of Athens, Ohio wrote in 1974: "My G-G-G-Grandfather, Michael RADER was born in Rockingham County, Virginia. --- Apparently the first of the family emigrated from Germany (they spelled the name ROEDER) about 1660. They settled in Lehigh County, Penna., and later some of them moved to Rockingham county, Va., where they operated a lead mine. --- I do know that Michael and at least part of his family came to what is now Greenbrier County, West Virginia before 1800 along with other RADER families."
  • 1789 - Charles CALLAHAN purchased, in 1789, from John MILLER of Rockingham, 220 acres of land on the Bullpasture River, one mile south of McDowell, Highland Co. (earlier Bath County), Virginia. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.29.
  • 1789 - John CLARK and Nancy BYRD were married, 17 Aug. 1789, at Caroline Co., Virginia.
  • 1789 - James BIRD and Sarah HATHCOCK were married, 30 Aug. 1789, at Southampton Co., Virginia.
  • 1789 - Rockingham Co., Virginia landowners in 1789 include: David RADER, Michael READER, Anthony READER, Adam READER, Mathias READER, Abraham BIRD, and Andrew BIRD.
  • 1789 - In the Virginia State Legislature Sessions of 1789-95, Colonel Peter HULL represented the portion of Pendleton Co. that later was Highland County. ???
  • 1789 - James MOFFETT and Mary STUART were married, 29 December 1789, at Augusta Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.5, p.10.
  • 1789 - The following marriages were performed in Pittsylvania Co., Virginia: Daniel CALLAHAN and Wilmoth RUSSELL, 22 Aug 1787. Francis SHAW and Nancy STEWART, 8 May 1789. Philip RUSSELL and Elizabeth STEWART, 6 Jan. 1792. Richard RUSSELL and Isabel STUART, 1794.
  • 1790 - Census of Strasburg, Lancaster County, Penna. for 1790, p.145 lists Peter HOLL with 3 white males over 16 and 2 white females.
  • 1790 - The 1790 York County, Penna census lists: John Jacob WINTERODE, Adam WINDERODE
  • 1790 - Braxton BIRD and Mary PRICE were married, 13 July 1790, at Middlesex Co., Virginia.
  • 1790 - Edward HALL married, 22 Jul 1790, in Augusta Co. to Polly STUART.
  • 1790 - Joseph BYRD and Nettie JACKSON were married, 20 Aug. 1790, at Charlotte Co., Virginia.
  • 1790 - Census of Virginia, p.40, Pittsylvania lists John BIRD with 8 whites in household.
  • 1790 - On 1 September 1790, Balser BUMGARNER of Augusta Co., Virginia, buys of Francis ERWIN, atty for Alex. CURRY of the District of Kentucky, two tracts of land in Augusta County: one of 40 acres, the other of 130 acres, both on or near a branch of Naken Creek. John Walter Wayland, THE GERMAN ELEMENT of the SHENANDOAH VALLEY of VIRGINIA (1907 - reprinted 1978), p.82.
  • 1790 - The 1790 Census of Virginia lists Ann CURRY, age 53 (presumably a widow). - Info from Mavis SMITH of Fremont, CA.
  • 1790 - James CURRY, William HERRING, Benjamin HARRISON, Reuben HARRISON, and William CRAVENS were among the jurors of Rockingham County, Virginia. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.352.
  • 1790 - James HICKLIN and Jane STUART were married, 28 Dec. 1790, at Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1791 - George WOOD married, 20 Jan 1791, in Augusta Co. (Rockbridge Co.), Virginia, to Jennie CURRY. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.17, p.20.
  • 1791 - Abner BIRD and Jane JAMISON were married, 7 March 1791, at Franklin Co., Virginia.
  • 1791 - Charles CALLAHAN, son of Charles CALLAHAN, married 1791, to Mary STEUART, dau. of William and Margaret (USHER) STEUART. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.379.
  • 1791 - Clements GRAHAM married, 1791, at Bath County, Virginia, to Jean USHER, daughter of Robert USHER.
  • 1791 - Gershem CLEMENTS and Jenny USHER were married, 22 April 1791, at Augusta Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.2, p.4 & v.4, p.5.
  • 1791 - Bath County, Virginia was formed out of Augusta County in 1790. The first session of the county court of Bath convened 10 May 1791, at the home of the widow of Capt. John LEWIS. The justices present on the opening day were John BOLLAR, John DEAN, Johan and William POAGE, Samuel VANCE and John WILSON. The first attorneys were John COTTON, James REID and Archibald STUART. Members of the first grand jury in Bath County were Joseph MAYSE, Samuel BLACK, Thomas BROCK, John DILLEY, James HAMILTON, James HUGHART, Owen KELLEY, John LYNCH, John McCLUNG, Samuel McDONALD, John MONTGOMERY, Joseph RHEA, William RIDER, Robert STUART, and Stephen WILSON. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.108-109.
  • 1791 - James KEISTER married, 1791, to Malinda GRIM. Oren F. Morton's HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA (1910).
  • 1791 - Robert CURRY and Sarah YOUNG were married, 22 April 1791, at Augusta County, Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.17, p.6.
  • 1791 - Gerreld SCOTT and Amey DYER were married, 13 June 1791, at Dinwiddie County, Virginia.
  • 1791 - William GLEN married, 15 June 1791, in Augusta Co., Virginia, to Anny CURRY.
  • 1791 - James KINCAID married, (Bond, 26 Aug, Minister's return 30 Aug. 1791), at Bath County, Virginia, to Jean (or Jane) CURRY, daughter of Robert CURRY. Joseph KINKEAD was surety; Robert CURRY consented for daughter Jean; Witness was Joseph KINKEAD; Minister was John MONTGOMERY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.1.
  • 1791 - James CURRY and Eleanor BRYAN were married, 26 Sept. 1791, at Frederick Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.18, p.5.
  • 1791 - Samuel VANCE, Assessor of the First District, Bath County, Virginia, in 1791, lists the following as among the Heads of Families: John BYRD (Back Creek), John BYRD (Jackson's River), Thomas BYRD, Jacob BYRD, Sophia CHESTNUT (widow), Jacob CLEEK, John DEEVER, Colonel John DICKENSON, John DILLY, Robert GIVENS, William GIVENS, Ebram GUM, John GUM, David GWIN, Joseph GWIN, James HAMILTON, Alexander HAMILTON, Jr., Osborn HAMILTON, Thomas HICKLIN, Capt. James HICKLIN, John HICKLIN, Ralph LAFFERTY, John LEWIS, Andrew LEWIS, Margaret LEWIS (widow), James LOCKRIDGE, William LOCKRIDGE, Jean LOCKRIDGE (widow), Archibald MATHENY, Luke MATHENY, John McCALLISTER, William RIDER, Robert STUART, James STUART (son of Robert), William STUART, Edward STUART, John STUART, James STUART (constable), and others. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , pp.118-120.
  • 1791 - Samuel THORNTON married (Bond, 1 Oct, Minister's return, 15 Oct. 1791), at Bath County, Virginia, to Elizabeth RIDER. Surety, Peter FLEET; Elizabeth consents for herself; Witness, William CRAWFORD; Minister was Chrisotopher CLARK. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.1.
  • 1791 - Henry STUART married, (Bond 13 Dec., Return 19 Dec. 1791), at Bath County, Virginia, to Sarah MOORE. Samuel McDONALD was surety; Consent by Mary MOORE, Jean MOORE and Robert STEWART; Witnesses were James STEWART and James HUGHART; Minister was John MONTGOMERY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.2.
  • 1792 - William BIRD and Caziah HINMAN were married, 7 Jan. 1792, at Accomack Co., Virginia.
  • 1792 - Jacob BIRD, son of John and Susanna (WINTROW) BIRD, married, 10 Feb. 1792, to Margaret WADE, daughter of Otho WADE. Otho WADE consents for daughter Margaret. Jacob BIRD died in 1821. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.2.
  • 1792 - Tom HARRISON, Jr. married, 10 Apr 1792, to Mary CURRY, dau. of Adam and Ann CURRY. They removed to Washington Co., Tennessee, about 1820. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.326,400.
  • 1792 - Robert STUART married, 24 Apr 1792, to Polly ARMSTRONG, at Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1792 - "Deed between John HAMILTON, Isabel BARKER, the late wife of James STEWART, Ralph STEWART, and others, purchase of John McCLANAHAN, 1,000 acres of land on the Monangahelia River, Tygart's Valley." The eastern branch of the Monongahelia River was named for David TYGART in 1772, and since known as Tygart's Valley River. Florence Smith Dickerson's, THE JAMES STEWART FAMILY , p.54.
  • 1792 - Alexander STEUART married second, in 1792, to Mary MOORE. They had daughter, Priscilla STEUART, b. 1794, who married, 1812, to Benjamin HALL. Daughters of the American Colonists D.A.C. #5875.
  • 1792 - John HARRISON married, 1792, in Rockingham Co., Va. to Elizabeth STUART, Francis STUART consenting, Witness was Zeb BALDWIN.
  • 1792 - Robert STEWART and Amey RAINS were married, 3 May 1792, Dinwiddie County, Virginia.
  • 1792 - Samuel LESLEY married, 4 Aug 1792, to Betty STUART in Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1792 - James LEE and Mary CALLAHAN were married, 10 Aug. 1792, at Culpeper Co., Virginia. Note also that James LEE was bondsman at the wedding of John WORTHINGTON and Nancy CALLAHAN, 1797, at Pendleton, County, Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.24, p.18.
  • 1792 - William W. CURRY (1792-1864), son of William and Jane CURRY, was born in Augusta Co., Va. He married, 25 Aug 1818, in Augusta County to Betsy FORSYTHE.
  • 1792 - Dennis CALLAGHAN was Surety and witness at the wedding of James ARTHUR and Susanna MURPHY at Bath County, Virginia, 1 October 1792. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.5.
  • 1792 - John CALLAGHAN married, 2 November 1792, at Bath Co., Virginia, to Margaret HUTCHISON. Surety was Francis FORD. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.5
  • 1792 - James BURKE and Sophia CHESTNUT were married, 3 Nov. 1792, at Pendleton Co., Virginia. Bondsman was Valentine BIRD. John WADE gave consent for daughter, Sophia CHESTNUT. Mary Harter, PENDLETON COUNTY, VIRGINIA MARRIAGE BONDS 1791-1853 (1979), p.4.
  • 1792 - George Taylor CRUMP married, 20 November 1792, at Bath Co., Virginia, to Ann CALLAHAN, daughter of Charles CALLAHAN. William GIVEN, Jr. was SURETY; Charles CALLAHAN consents for daughter Ann; witnesses were Alexander WILEY and William STEWART; minister was George GUTHRIE. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.5
  • 1792 - John BIRD and Margaret MEHOLLOMS were married, 26 Nov. 1792, at Northampton Co., Virginia.
  • 1792 - Robert BIRD, enlisted at Little Laurel, Kentucky and served from 1 July 1792 to 1 Jan 1794, as a private in Capt. David Logan's company of militia in General WAYNE's War against the Indians. He enlisted again in 1813 as a private in Capt. James HALL's company of Kentucky militia, but because of disability resulting from injury of one foot when he fell into a well, did not march with this company. He again enlisted and served in May 1832 as a private in Capt. BARNES' company of rangers in the Black Hawk War in Illinois. In June 1852, while residing in Washington County, Oregon Territory, aged 75 years, he applied for bounty land and received Bounty land Warrant #26786. He stated then that in 1800, he resided in Barron County, Kentucky, where his home was destroyed by fire. Robert BIRD married, but the name of his wife is not given. His son, William Milton BIRD lived near Louisville, Kentucky in 1854. See National Archives Pension File S35807.
  • 1792 - Mounce BYRD of Shenandoah, William BYRD, Andrew BYRD of Rockingham, Anthony READER of Rockingham and George RADER of Rockingham signed a petition for the formation of a new county out of Rockingham and Shenandoah in 1792.
  • 1793 - Adam Arbogast was appointed Ensign in the Pendleton Co. Militia in 1793. He married Margaret HULL, dau. of Peter and Susannah (DIEFFENBACH) HULL.
  • 1793 - Dennis CALLAHAN purchased, in 1793, from John DICKENSON, 76 acres on Ugly Creek. Oren F. Morton ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.35.
  • 1793 - Frederick KEISTER married, 1793, to Ann E. PROPST. Oren F. Morton's HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA (1910).
  • 1793 - Dennis CALLAGHAN gave consent for the marriage bond of William ROBERTS and Elizabeth BARTLE, 25 Sept. 1793, at Bath County, Virginia.
  • 1793 - John DICKENSON consented to the marriage of his daughter, Martha DICKINSON to John SHREWSBURY, and asked that the license be sent by son-in-law, William Samuel SHREWSBURY. Surety on the bond, 12 November 1793, was Samuel SHREWSBURY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.7.
  • 1794 - Loftus PULLIN consented to the marriage of his daughter, Patsy PULLINS to Hugh HENRY. Surety on the marriage bond, 10 Jan. 1794, was Jonathan PULLINS. The couple was married 22 January 1794 by George GUTHRIE. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.8.
  • 1794 - James DEVER married, 10 September 1794, to Catharine BIRD, dau. of John and Susanna (WINTROW) BIRD. John BIRD consents for daughter, Catherine; Surety, Adam BIRD; Witnesses, Adam BIRD and John DENESON; George GUTHRIE was the minister. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.9. Note: The will of an earlier James DEVOOR (DEAVER) of Yohogania County, Virginia; dated 14 November 1778, was attested by Nicholas DEPUE, Tobias DECKER and Daniel DEPUE, Jr.; and proved March 1779. Beneficiaries were children: Jacob, Andrew, Henry, John, Sarah PEARSHAL, Samuel; children under age: David, Moses, Catharine, Francis, James. All his real estate, except the Ferry ("on Monongahela River, from his house over the river to the Mouth of Pidgeon Creek") went to sons David and Moses; however, the court later allotted one third of the Landed Estate to James DEVOIR's widow or Relict, Elizabeth DEVOIR. John DEVOIR was executor of the will. Boyd Crumrine, VIRGINIA COURT RECORDS IN SOUTHWESTERN PENNSYLVANIA , (1974 Reprint), II, 301,346,395,396, III, p.327, I, 526,531.
  • 1794 - Andrew HARPER and Jean CURRY were married, 1794, at Rockbridge Co., Virginia.
  • 1794 - James STEWART married, 20 October 1794, at Bath County, Virginia, to Nancy MOORE. Marget MOORE gave consent for her daughter Nancy, 17 October 1794. Henry STEWART was surety. Witnesses were John HEGHART and Henry STEWART. Minister was John MONTGOMERY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.9.
  • 1794 - Andrew STUART and Hannah KINNEAR were married, 1794, at Rockbridge Co., Virginia.
  • 1794 - Jacob BIRD, son of Jacob and Margaret (WADE) BIRD, was born, 11 Dec. 1794, at Pendleton Co., Virginia. He married, 16 May 1816, to Elizabeth YEAGER and died, 23 December 1850, at Fillmore, Andrew Co., Missouri.
  • 1795 - James CURRY married, 19 Feb. 1795, to Mary BROOKINGS in Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1795 - John RIDER was surety on the marriage bond of Andrew MINES and Elizabeth BRISCO, 26 Feb. 1795, at Bath County, Virginia. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.10.
  • 1795 - Hugh DONAHO married, 1795, at Augusta County (later Bath Co.), Virginia, to Ann USHER, daughter of Robert USHER.
  • 1795 - John DEEVER was surety on the marriage bond of Leonard WADE and Rosana HOLCOM, 12 March 1795, Bath County, Virginia. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.10.
  • 1795 - Battis BIRD and Susanna LAWRENCE were married, 23 March 1795, at Brunswick Co., Virginia.
  • 1795 - Jacob COKENHOUR and Susanna RADER were married, 26 April 1795, at Rockingham Co., Virginia.
  • 1795 - James HICKMAN married Margaret BIRD, 11 June 1795, at Bath County, Virginia. Surety was Andrew BOURLAND; minister was John MONTGOMERY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.10.
  • 1795 - Bartholomew MEARS and Rebecca BIRD were married, 31 Aug. 1795, at Accomack Co., Virginia.
  • 1795 - In 1795, Matthew PATTON, son-in-law of Roger DYER, sold his homestead to Col. Peter HULL for $5,000. and went to Kentucky. This Matthew PATTON had married Hester, daughter of Roger DYER. See Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.357.
  • 1795c- Colonel Andrew LEWIS (1772-1833), son of Charles LEWIS, married Margaret STUART. Morton, Oren F., ANNALS OF BATH COUNTY, VIRGINIA , p.93.
  • 1795 - Alexander STEWART and Dorothea SEE were married, 1795, at Botetourt Co., Virginia.
  • 1795 - James STEWERT was surety on the marriage bond of James McLAUGHLIN and Margaret TOMME, 21 Nov. 1795, at Bath County, Virginia.
  • 1796 - John RIDER (1773-1855) married first, 12 Feb 1796, in Rockingham Co., Va., to Susanna CURRY, dau. of Adam CURRY; Jno. WALSH, bondsman. John RIDER's name is recorded as "John RADER" in the marriage record. She died 4 Oct 1834, at Springston, Harrison Co., Va. and he married second to Susannah STOUT. He died, 1855. in Barbour Co., WV. See Rider, Fremont RIDER/RYDER GENEALOGY (1858); Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM CO., VA. MARRIAGES , p.101.
  • 1796 - Andrew BIRD and Mary HOLKER were married, 14 March 1796, at Shenandoah Co., Virginia.
  • 1796 - Samuel W. McMULLEN married, 19 June 1796 (bond), at Bath Co., Virginia, to Jennet STEWART. Surety, Robert STEWART, Jr.; Robert STUART consents; witnesses were Adam McCOOL, James STEWART, Robert STEWART; minister was John MONTGOMERY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.13.
  • 1796 - Alexander STUART and Ann REED were married, 1796, at Orange Co., Virginia.
  • 1796 - Richard RIDER and Agnes KILLPATRICK were married, 27 July 1796 (bond), at Bath County, Virginia. Surety was James WILEY; Agnis consents for herself; witness was James WILEY; Minister was George GUTHRIE. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS'RETURNS (1978), p.12.
  • 1796 - Jno. COVELL (or CARRELL) and Deborah RADER (RIDER) were
  • married, 27 Sept. 1796, at Rockingham Co., Virginia, by A MOFFETT. Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION,vROCKINGHAM CO., VA. MARRIAGES , p.44; Cecil D. McDonald,Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.18, p.3.
  • 1796 - William BIRD and Polly CARTER were married, 19 Nov. 1796, at Charlotte Co., Virginia.
  • 1796 - John STUART and Ann GAULDIN were married, Nov. 1796, at Campbell Co., Virginia.
  • 1796 - Richard BIRD officiated at weddings at Bath County, Virginia in 1796/97.
  • 1797 - William RIDER's estate was inventoried in Shenandoah Co., Virginia in 1797.
  • 1797 - John GREER married, 10 Jan. 1797 (bond), to Jean CALLAGHAN. Surety was Edward STEWART. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.14.
  • 1797 - George KEISTER and Susanna PECK were married, (bond) 24 Jan 1797, at Pendleton Co, Virginia. Garret PECK was bondsman. Mary Harter, MARRIAGES OF PENDLETON COUNTY, VIRGINIA 1788-1853 (1978), p.38.
  • 1797 - Johan Jacob WINTEROTH (1735-1797) died 3 Feb 1797, at Littlestown (then York County), Penna. and is buried in the cemetery of Christ Reformed Church there. Littlestown is located just on the Pennsylvania-Maryland border in present Adams County about thirty miles northeast of Frederick, Md.
  • 1797 - John McKEE and Mary PATTON were married, 1797, at Rockbridge Co., Virginia.
  • 1797 - Adam CURRY and Phebe HARRISON were married, 13 March 1797, at Rockingham Co., Virginia according to: WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY , v.3, p.242. However, take note that Adam CURRY and Phebe HICKMAN were married, 13 March 1797, at Rockingham Co., Virginia according to: Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.12, p.5; Harry M. Strickler's, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM CO., VA. MARRIAGES , p.44.
  • 1797 - Rebecca CURRY, dau. of Robert and Phebe (SAMPLE) CURRY was born, 7 June 1797, in Rockingham Co., Va. She married, 6 July 1815, Andrew MOORE (1792-1871) and resided at Pleasant and West Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio. In a 1974 letter Mavis SMITH of Fremont, CA wrote, "My family is thus: Rebecca CURRY born, 7 Jun 1797, in Rockingham co., Va., married Andrew MOORE in Ohio. Her father is Robert CURRY born abt. 1759 in Augusta Co., Va. (this is the same area as Rockingham Co., in 1797, as Rockingham county was made from Augusta County). Robert had a brother John. Now there is a question as to Robert's father. My family has James CURRY; but in some Ohio research the record said that Robert received his land from James CURRY, an Uncle. But in L.D.S. church records Rebecca gives James as her grandfather."
  • 1797 - John KINCAID and William DEAN were witnesses to the marriage bond of James ARMSTRONG and Jane KINKEAD, 20 July 1797, at Bath County, Virginia. Robert KINCAED consents as guardian for Jean. Joel WALKER was surety. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.15.
  • 1797 - John HEADRICK and Molly KEISTER were married, 28 Aug. 1797, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.5, p.8.
  • 1797 - John SHARP married, 30 Sept 1797, to Elizabeth CURRY in Augusta Co., Virginia.
  • 1797 - John WORTHINGTON and Nancy CALAHAN were married (bond), 11 October 1797, at Pendleton Co., Virginia. Bondsman was James LEE.
  • 1797 - Charles WARD and Elizabeth DYER were married, 1797, at Pendleton Co., Virginia. Mary Harter, MARRIAGES OF PENDLETON COUNTY, VIRGINIA 1788-1853 (1978), pp.17,75.
  • 1797 - Clemens ERWIN (or EWIN) and Jane STUART were married, 5 December 1797, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Cecil D. McDonald, Jr., SOME VIRGINIA MARRIAGES 1700-1799 , v.8, p.9.
  • 1797 - Joseph HENDERSON married, 21 Dec. 1797, to Maria CHESTNUT. Surety was Moses HEUCHIN; Sophia BURK consents for her dau. Maria CHESTNUT; witnesses were Moses OUCHIN and Otho WADE. Maria (CHESTNUT) HENDERSON married 2nd, 1801, to Timothy HOLCOLM. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), pp.16,24.
  • 1797 - --?-- CURREY married, 27 December 1797, at Bath County, Virginia, to Mary EWINS. Richard BIRD was minister. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.16.
  • 1798 - Jeremiah BURNETT and Sarah BIRD married, 3 Jan. 1798, at Pittsylvania Co., Virginia. (Note also the John BIRD/BURNETT marriage in Middlesex Co, Va., 1732.)
  • 1798 - Robert STEWART married, 9 January 1798, at Bath County, Virginia, to Catherine ELSHIRE. Surety was Elisha WILLIAMS; Ben ELISHIE consents for dau. Catherine; witnesses were Elisha WILLIAMS, James STEWART and Henry STEWART; minister, Jas. WARD. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.16.
  • 1798 - William STUART and Jane GIVEN were married, (bond) 8 Feb. 1798, at Pendleton Co., Virginia. Bondsman was Thomas WILLSON.
  • 1798 - James RIDER, son of William RIDER, married (bond 5 March 1798 - return 15 March 1798), to Sarah CHESTNUT. Surety was Isaac BRISCOE; Sophia BAURK consents for dau. Sarah; William RIDER consents for son James; Witnesses were Isaac BRISCO and John DENNISON. Minister was Jas. WARD. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.17.
  • 1798 - Edward ERVIN and Polly STUART were married, 22 May 1798, at Rockingham Co., Virginia.
  • 1798 - Clement ERWIN and Jane STUART were married, 1798, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY , v.3, p.243.
  • 1798 - James CURRY and Hannah ARCHIBALD were married, 1798, at Rockbridge County, Virginia.
  • 1798 - James DYER and Sarah FORTUNE were married, 16 July 1798, at Henry County, Virginia.b
  • 1798 - Adam BIRD (1768-1850), son of John and Susanna (WINTROW) BIRD, married, 29 Aug 1798, to Elizabeth RYDER, dau. of William RIDER of Back Creek. Surety, John RIDER; William RIDER consents for daughter, Elizabeth; Witnesses, James RIDER, William RIDER and John RIDER. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.17.
  • 1798 - Abram BIRD established a warehouse in Bird's Point, Missouri in 1798 to sell provisions to flatboatmen making the long trip downriver.
  • 1798 - Edmund PARKS and Peggy BIRD were married, 24 Dec. 1798, at Accomack Co., Virginia.
  • 1799 - Henry STEWART married, 25 February 1799, at Bath County, Virginia, to Elizabeth KELLY. Constance Corley Metheny and Eliza Warwick Wise, BATH COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS and MINISTERS' RETURNS (1978), p.18
  • 1799 - William DYER and Margaret RIDDLE, dau. of Jno. RIDDLE, were married, 19 March 1799, at Rockingham Co., Virginia. Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VA. MARRIAGES , p.49.
  • 1799 - William C. RIDER, son of John and Susanna (CURRY) RIDER was born, 9 April 1799, in Virginia.
  • 1799 - Gabriel KILE and Mary KEISTER were married, ca.1799. Morton, Oren F., HISTORY OF PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA .
  • 1799 - A John BIRD married, 8 June 1799, at Bath County, Virginia, to Rebecca A. H. WHITE. Surety was Andrew HAMILTON; Val WHITE gave his consent for daughter Rebecca; witnesses were A. MUSTOE and Andrew MOORE; minister, Josiah OSBORNE.
  • 1799 - John DYER married, 10 September 1799, at Rockingham County, Virginia, to Elizabeth HARRISON, dau. of Davis HARRISON. Reuben HARRISON was surety. J. Houston Harrison, SETTLERS BY THE LONG GREY TRAIL (1935), p.324; Harry M. Strickler, OLD TENTH LEGION, ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VA. MARRIAGES , p.49.
  • 1799 - Samuel CURRY witnessed the marriage bond of John SMITH and Rebeckah CARRICK, 15 Oct. 1799, at Bath County, Virginia.c
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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 39 Bayfield, CO - While we were researching the "History of Pendleton County, Virginia,"written by Oren Frederick Morton, we found mention of Frederick Keister II (1730-1815), who was the son of another Frederick Keister (1704-1787), my 6th great grandfather.

The second Frederick Keister was my 5th great grandfather, who married Hannah M. Dyer (1738-1819). One of Frederick and Hannah's daughters was Esther Keister (1767-1825), who married Adam HOHL/HULL (my 4th great grandfather). Adam Hohl/Hull and Esther had a daughter, Esther Hohl/Hull (1804-1853) that married Robert Craig Warwick (1801-1845). Esther and Robert Craig Warwick's oldest son was William Fechtig Warwick (1822-1902), my 2nd great grandfather, married Phebe Anthea Pray/Prey (1833-1905). One of many children of William Fechtig & Phebe Anthea Warwick was my great grandfather, John Robert Warwick (1857-1937), who married Signora Belle GWIN (1860-1934), and later moved westward in the late 19th century to Kansas and then Oklahoma Territory.

From Keister to McGill the lineage is as follows:

  1. Frederick KEISTER II (1730 - 1815), 5th great grandfather
  2. Esther KEISTER (1767 - 1825), Daughter of Frederick
  3. Esther Hohl (1804 - 1853), Daughter of Esther
  4. William Fechtig WARWICK (1822 - 1902), Son of Esther
  5. John Robert WARWICK (1857 - 1937), Son of William Fechtig
  6. Constance Estella WARWICK (1882 - 1968), Daughter of John Robert
  7. Gene M MCGILL (1914 - 1986), Son of Constance Estella
  8. Linda Kay MCGILL, third daughter of Gene McGill and Vada Paris

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 32 Bayfield, CO - I was going through some old paternal photographs and found this photo on the left. I believe it was taken around 1938 in the Virginia with my grandmother, Constance Estella (Warwick) McGill (second from the right, front row) and my father, Gene McGill (standing behind everyone and center). If any Gwin's, Hull's, Warwick's and Eckard's recognize any of the rest of these Virginia or West Virginia family, I would love to hear from you.

When I was reading more about the History of Pendleton County, (West) Virginia, I have been finding mentions of a few of my paternal ancestors (Hull/Hohl and Eckard's). There was a HULL/HOHL that could be a possible distant ancestor, which was a lieutenant of William Ward's and Robert Davis seems to have been particularly obnoxious to the Tories.

I know that my HULL/HOHL's married into the ECKARD and GWIN ancestors. I am not sure which HULL/HOHL nor who the ECKARD woman was that was mentioned in this story. It was about the time when visits with hostile intent were sometimes made to his vicinity. BUT . . . the Eckard woman from Brushy Fork would usually give the settlement a forewarning. On one occasion, believing Davis home on furlough, the band came down to seize him, and in their disappointed vexation Hull called Mrs. Davis a damned liar. Her son John, a boy of about fourteen years, took aim at Hull, unobserved by the latter, but the mother interfered to prevent a tragedy and a burned home. The factional strife ended by a conference between Davis and Ward held near the site of the schoolhouse. The principals were unarmed, but a neighbor of Davis posted himself near to guard against treachery.

I did also found out that my 5th great grand uncle, James Dyer, was one of a few men designated to comprise the first court of Rockingham. At least four were Pendletonians: John Skidmore, Robert Davis, James Dyer and Isaac Hinkle. Check out the Pendleton County History in this week's OkieLegacy Ezine for the rest of the story.

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 28 Bayfield, CO - The day after the 4th of July, we set our video camera on time-lapse to capture the hummingbirds who were taking in sweet nectar from the hummingbird feeder outside our living room window, Thursday morning.



HOHL/ WARWICK Ancestry

While doing some genealogy research on Ancestry.com we found a story concerning our 5th Great Grandfather, Peter Thomas Hohl (1706-1776). But we will get to that later down the page.

Peter Thomas HOHL/HULL was born in Desloch, Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. In 1741 he immigrated to the New World and settling around Crabbottom, Augusta, Virginia. Peter married Susannah Margaretha Dieffenbacher, 25 November 1750, in the Trinity Lutheran Church, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Peter and Susannah's children were: Catherine, Margaret, Peter Jr., Adam (our 4th great grandfather, born 1754 in Augusta, Virginia; married Esther Keister (1767-1825), died Jun 1836, in Pendleton County, Virginia), George Sr., Jacob, Phebe Anistasia.

My HOHL/HULL ancestors married into the Warwick family. Adam & Esther HOHL/HULL had a daughter Esther (1804-1853), who married Robert Craig Warwick (1801-1845). Robert Craig Warwick & Esther HOHL/HULL had a son William Fechtig Warwick (1822-1902), who married Phebe Anthea Pray (1833-1905). Wm Fechtig & Phebe Anthea Pray Warwick were our 2nd great grandparents. And that leads us to our great grandfather, John Robert Warwick (1857-1937), who married Signora Belle Gwin. John & Signora's childred were Constance Estella, Robert Lee and Wilbur (died in infancy).

Story of Peter Hull/Hohl

In 1753, part of the tract on the Shenandoah River, purchased by Peter HOHL/HULL in 1752, was delivered to a Nicholas TROUT on 3 January 1753. Nicholas TROUT was a friend and neighbor of Peter HOHL/HULL. Not long after this land transaction between HOHL/HULL and TROUT, they were (as it is told) having a friendly conversation, during which TROUT playfully pulled a gun from HULL's hand, pulling the muzzle toward him.

According to witnesses and court records, the gun accidentally discharged, instantly killing TROUT. An inquest was held, and Peter HOHL/HULL (an influential person in the settlement) was found blameless. The gun was found guilty.

From the Original Petitions and Papers filed in Augusta County Court - 1753-54, Part I, we find the following: "Inquisition on the body of Nicholas TROUT, 17 July 1753. Jurors do say that the said Nicholas TROUT, in simplicity, without malice, playing with Peter HOHL/HULL and seizing a gun in said HULL's hands and pulling its' muzzle towards him 'she' accidentally went off without any act or knowledge of the said HULL and discharged herself with a ball and two great shots into ye breast of said TROUT, of which he died immediately on ye spot, and quit ye gun wherewith ye same was done was entirely in fault for not keeping her bounds, but going off without force or consent." In teste: Peter SCHOLL, Coroner; John STEVENSON, Ledwick FRANCISCO, John MacMICHEL, James BRUSTER, Thomas WATS, Thomas CRAWFORD, Patrick MILICAN, John WILSON, Jacob HARMAN, Niclas NOLL, Hennery DALY, Jacob NICHOLAS. - Augusta County, Virginia, Court Records, v.I, p.440.

Since our pioneer ancestors settled in the Valley of Virginia by way of Pennsylvania after immigrating from Germany, we continue our reading of the history of Virginia by learning some history of Pendleton county, on the western side of West Virginia.

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 24 Bayfield, Colorado - [Pictured on the left is a photo of my Grand Aunt Reuhama "Hami" Gwin Eckard.]

Do you have any SIMMONS and ECKARDs out there with ancestors settling in the Highland, Virginia area in the 18th & 19th century?

We find our GWINs marrying into the ECKARDs and the ECKARDs into the SIMMONS. We find Claude ECKARD (1884-1937) married Linnie M. SIMMONS, born 6 Jun 1884, in West Virgnia, Died Jan 1975, in Harrisonburg, Harrisonburg City, Virginia. I believe that Claude Eckard was a nephew of my Grand Aunt, Reuhama "Hami" (GWIN) ECKARD (1857-1921).

Linnie Simmons & Claude Eckard were married 24 Dec 1913, Pendleton, West Virginia. Their children were: Raymond Kenneth (1917-1990), Ruth (1921-), Richard (1922-), Dorothy (1924-).

Linnie M. Simmons' parents were Eligah (1861-) & Barbara M Simmons (1863-). Their children were Linnie M. (1884-1975), Lon (1888-), Elva J (1893-), and Nettie L (1896-).

Reuhama "Hami" Gwin

I love the name Reuhama. Reuhama "Hami" Gwin (1857-1921). Hami was married 24 May 1877, in county court, Highland, Virginia to Job E. Eckard (1847-1911). Reuhama Gwin was the second child, oldest daughter of my 2nd Great Grandparents, Samuel & Eleanor Ellen (DEVER) GWIN. Sam & Ellen's children were Walter P. (1856-), Reuhama (1857-1921) and Signora Belle GWIN (1860-1934).

Great Grandma Signora Belle GWIN was married 16 Jan 1882, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson, West Virginia, to John Robert Warwick (1857-1937). Signora & J. R. Warwick had three children: Constance Estella (1882-1968), Robert Lee (1887-1952) and Wilbur William (1895-1896). Constance and Robert were both born in Monterey, Virginia, while Wilbur William was born in Oklahoma Territory and died in Oklahoma Territory.

Signora and J. R. Warwick showed up in the 1870 census in Monterey, Highland, Virginia. After 1884 (sometime before or around 1893), I find no records of J. R. & Signora Warwick in the census until 1900 (Oklahoma Territory). I know from J. R.'s obituary that he was teaching in Coldwater, Kansas just before the 1893 Run in Oklahoma Territory. I know that J. R. Warwick had a couple of brothers, Peter Hull Warwick and Wm. N. Warwick that may have come West into Kansas between 1884-1893. Pete and his wife and two daughters lived up in Kansas while J. R. & Sigga Warwick were residing in NW Oklahoma, near Alva. There may have been some other WARWICKk / GWIN / ECKARD relatives that migrated to Cherokee, Oklahoma to settled.

I would love to know more about J. R. & Signora (Gwin) Warwick's whereabouts between January, 1884 thru 1887 and 1893, before they settled in NW Oklahoma Territory.

I will NOT . . . submit, rollover, comply, sit down and shut up when I see an injustice! Let's Move FORWARD with Solutions, Equality for ALL!"

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NW Okie's Corner

Vol 14, Iss 9 Bayfield, Colorado - This is an old picture of my great grandpa John Robert Warwick's Aunt. It did not say which lady was Great Grandpa Warwick's Aunt. I can only assume, but perhaps Louisa Susan Warwick (Oct. 1835-11 Aug 1923) is seated on the right and Eli Seybert (Seibert) is seated on the left. The lady standing behind resembles my Great Grandma Signora Belle Gwin Warwick, but not sure if that is the lady in the background.

On doing some digging at Ancestry.com, I found that Louisa Susan Warwick, daughter of Robert Craig Warwick (1801-1845) and Esther "Hester" Hull/Hohl (1804-1853), married Eli Seybert (born 21 April 1831), in Seybert Hills, Pendleton, Virginia) in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, 31 October 1854. Eli served in the U.S. Confederate Soldiers 151 , 157 and 162 Militia with an enlistment date of 1861.

Louisa and Eli Seybert resided in Bath county, Virginia until we see them in the 1876 census Eli Seybert shows up in Eight Mile Grove, Case, Nebraska State census as a farmer, age 45 years, with his wife Louisa (40 years of age), Mary A. Seybert (1859-), Joseph (1861-), and Ruth (76 years, must be Eli's mother). The 1880 census shows them back in Highland county, Virginia. I also show them also with a son, Robert W. Seybert (Seibert), born 4 October 1855, in Virginia. But do not see him listed in the Nebraska or Oklahoma census. Did Robert W. Seybert die young or move off on his own? Does the "W" stand for "Warwick" or "William?"

The 1900 US census shows their residence as Galena Township, west half, Woods county, Oklahoma Territory. In the 1910 US census they show up in Eagle Chief, Alfalfa, Oklahoma. Louisa Susan Warwick Seybert (Seibert) died 11 August 1923, Lambert, Alfalfa county, Oklahoma. I am not for sure when Great grandparent Warwick's came to Oklahoma or if they came with the Seybert family. Are there any descendants of Galena or Lambert, Alfalfa County, Oklahoma that might have had ancestors that knew of my Seybert (Seibert) relatives?


Here is another inquiry from another person looking for information on the Butts family born in Wewoka, Oklahoma. This comment appeared in our OkieLegacy Ezine, Feature #5587, Vol. 12, Iss. 26 Jane Butts is,"Looking for info on Butts family: Virgil, John Wesley; my father John Richard Butts born Wewoka (Oklahoma), 1918."

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Immigrants Make Up America

Vol 12, Iss 27 America - With the talk of Independence Day, and this being the day after the 4th of July 2010, We ask you, "Aren't we all immigrants or Descendants of Immigrants?"

America is a land of immigrants and Native Americans. What would America be today if immigrants from all ver the world had not set foot on the eastern shores of the 13th Colonies, pushing the Native Americans westward onto reservations. Killing and slaughtering their buffalo beyond extinction?

What part did my migrating ancestors play in the westward movement of the Native Americans? I did some searching back through my family genealogy to figure out where each of my ancestral immigrants came.

We start with our paternal ancestors. The Warwick ancestors were English. The Gwyn/Gwin/Guinn were from Wales. The Hull/Hohl ancestors came from Rhineland Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Germany. The McGill's were Scottish from Scotland, migrating to Ireland and finally making their way to the America's.

Our maternal ancestors were the Conover (VanKouwenhoven), Dutch and settling in New Amsterdam (also known as New York, Flatlands). The Paris/Parris were English. The Hurt/Hurtosci were from Czechoslovakia (Bohemia), known also as Austria-Hungary. That brings us to our Great Grandmother, Anna Wallman (1863-1902), who married our Great Grandfather, Joseph P. Hurt, who migrated from Czechoslovakia around 1876. I do not know much about her because she died at the young age of 39 when she was struck by lightning in 1902.

I always thought that our Wallman ancestors were also from Czechoslovakia, but I found a 1880 U.S. Census that shows an Anna Wallman (born 1863, Russia) the daughter of Jacob Wallman (born 1833, Russia) and Maria (born in Russia). Could this be another Anna Wallman or could it be my Great Grandmother Anna Wallman Hurt?

The 1900 US Federal Census shows Joseph P, and Anna Wallman Hurt (born in Bohemia) and their family living in Bishop, Woods, Oklahoma Territory.

Great Grandmother Anna Wallman arrived in the USA around 1876 or 1877 through Bremen, Germany. At the young age of 16, Anna married Joseph P. Hurt, in Nebraska, about 1879. As I said earlier, Anna Wallman Hurt died in 1902, in Bishop, Woods, Oklahoma Territory, at age 39 when she was struck by lightning. She is buried in the Hurt family cemetery, on the Martin property, North of Chester and West of the Orion Cemetery.

That brings us to my husbands ancestors, which includes Wagner's from Germany.

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NW Okie's Warwick Connection

Vol 10, Iss 47 This is an early picture of my great great grandfather, Wm Fechtig Warwick, as a young boy.


Some have asked how I am connected to the Warwick Family. You can click on the following link to view my McGill-Warwick-Gwin-Hull genealogy.

From the Wm Jacob Warwick & Elizabeth Dunlap lineage my Warwick's flow down through the Warwick family through John Warwick & Mary Powell.

From that union we continue further through William Warwick & Nancy Agnes Craig. From there we continue our Warwick journey through Robert Craig Warwick & Esther Hull. Robert & Esther's son, Wm. Fechtig Warwick married Phoebe Anthea Pray/Prey (my great-great-grandparents).

Wm & Phoebe had a son, John Robert Warwick that married Signora Belle Gwin. My great grandparents John Robert "JR" & Signora Belle "Sigga" (Gwin) Warwick had three children: Constance Estella, Robert Lee and Wilbur (Wilbur died at 1 year of age. in Alva, M county, Oklahoma Territory).

My grandmother, Constance Estella Warwick, married my grandfather, William Jacob McGill, in Alva, Oklahoma, in March, 1910. Their two sons were: Gene M. McGill & Robert Lee McGill. My father, Gene M. McGill, married Vada Paris and had four daughters: Connie, Dorthy, Linda & Amber. I am the third daughter of that union. My great grandparents, JR & Sigga Warwick, grandmother Constance Warwick McGill (in the middle, front), my father as a young boy sitting down front next to Sigga Warwick (on right) and my Uncle Bob McGill semi-hidden behind Gene are pictured in photo on the left.

Grandmother Constance is the lady in white and white hat of some sort on the front steps (in middle) of the Mountain Grove, Virginia homestead.
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Once Upon A Warwick

Vol 10, Iss 17 Once upon a time very long ago, William Fechtig Warwick was born 11 August 1822 in Augusta County, Virginia to Robert Craig & Esther (Hull) Warwick. [See WARWICK Genealogy.]

Sometime in William Fechtig Warwick's early thirties, he meet and married a young girl from the Pray (Prey) family, Phoebe Anthea Pray. Phoebe was born 3 May 1833 and died 1 May 1905.

To the union of William F. & Phoebe Anthea Warwick eleven children were born: Amelia E., born 16 July 1853; Paul McNeel, born 1856; John Robert, born 9 April 1857, Frost (Dunmore), Pocahontas County, WV; Charles Fechtig, born 31 August 1865; Amanda Gabrielle "Gabie", born 1871, marr. John Landis; James, Louisa Catherine; Nelson Pray; Peter "Pete" Hull, born 1862, in Virginia; Sallie.

From the third offspring born, John Robert Warwick, begins our journey from the Virginia countryside to Oklahoma Territory. BUT... First, the 25-year-old John Robert from Pocahontas County, WV, meets and marries a 22 year old girl from Vanderpool, VA. Signora Belle "Sigga" Gwin and John Robert Warwick were married 16 January 1882 in Harpers Ferry, WV. [See John R. Warwick's Obit]

Around nine (9) months later in Monterey, Virginia, John and Signora Belle's oldest child, Constance Estella Warwick, came into the world, 20 October 1882. About five years later a second offspring, Robert Lee, made his debute 5 November 1887, in Monterey, VA.

Sometime between the second child (1887) and the third child (1895), in 1893, John & Signora Warwick made their trek westward towards Kansas with a ten (10) year old daughter and a five (5) year old son. They settled around the Coldwater, Kansas area where John Robert Warwick was a teacher for a brief time before they settled permanently in the Cherokee Strip Outlet, known as Oklahoma Territory.

Eight years after their second child, a third child (Wilbur "William" Warwick) was born 13 October 1895, in Alva, Oklahoma Territory. John Robert "JR" & Signora "Sigga" Belle's third offspring, Wilbur, died in infancy, 26 May 1896 and is buried in the Alva Cemetery, Block 08-028-08, Woods County, Oklahoma. Wilbur's lonely little grave is located on the South & West side of the cemetery while his parents and siblings are buried on the South & East side of the Alva cemetery.

Of John & Signora's remaining two childern, Constance Estella Warwick, continued the Gwin/Warwick lineage when Constance, age 28, married William Jacob (John) "Bill" McGill, age 30, 23 March 1910, Woods County, Oklahoma.

After four years of marriage, William & Contance's oldest son, Gene M. McGill was born 27 December 1914, Alva, OK. Two years later a second son, Robert Lee McGill, was born 23 August 1916, in Alva, OK.

The marriage of William J. McGill & Constance E. Warwick lasted 30 years when they divorced and went their separate ways in 1940. Constance never remarried, but W. J. "Bill" McGill married his second wife Blanche Rankin Miller in 1945.

Bill McGill died at the age of 79 years, 7 August 1959, Alva, OK. Constance Estella Warwick McGill died 19 August 1968, two months short of her 86 birthday, in Alva, OK.

The youngest son of Bill & Constance McGill, Robert Lee McGill, was married twice, but no offsprings were born of either marriage. After serving in WWII, Robert L. McGill died of lung cancer, 21 February 1954, at the age of 37 years, in Alva, OK, while he was married to his second wife, Dr. Mariam Felicia Monfort (marr. 21 June 1950 'til Bob's death Feb. 21, 1954). Bob and is first wife, Helen Louise Soper (marr. 1 June 1944), were divorced 22 June 1948.

That brings us to the four daughters of Gene M. McGill & Vada Eileen Paris. I was the third daughter of four. My name is Linda Kay McGill Wagner (a.k. a. NW Okie). That is me on the left with Dorthy in the middle and baby Amber on the right.
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Jacob & Mary (VANCE) WARWICK's Sketches...

Vol 7, Iss 14 Jacob & Mary (Vance) Warwick's framed sketches have found a family home. A lady (Carolyn) in California contacted us this week. Her family is directly related to Jacob & Mary... 4th great-grandparents through Rachael Primrose WARWICK (daughter of Jacob & Mary).

Linda went back through her WARWICK's and find that Jacob & Mary Vance WARWICK were her 5th-Great Uncle & Aunt through Jacob's brother John (Linda's 5th great-grandfather). From there on down to Linda McGill Wagner it reads as such...

  • John Warwick - m. Mary POWELL (5th-Great-Grandparents)
  • William Warwick - m. Nancy Agnes CRAIG (4th-Great-Grandparents)
  • Robert Craig Warwick - m. Esther/Hester HULL (3rd-Great-Grandparents)
  • William Fechtig Warwick - m. Phoebe Anthea PRAY/PREY (2nd-Great-Grandparents)
  • John Robert Warwick - m. Signora Belle GUINN (Great-Grandparents)
  • Constance Warwick - m. Wm J. MCGILL (Grandparents)
  • Gene McGill - m. Vada PARIS (parents)
  • Gene & Vada's Daughters (Connie, Dorthy, Linda, Amber) - 1st cousin 6x removed from Rachel Primrose Warwick
  • Gene & Vada's Grandchildren
  • Gene & Vada's Great-Grandchildren
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WWII (1942-1945) Balloon Bombs In America

Vol 17, Iss 3 USA - In the waning days of the Pacific War Japan tried a last ditch ploy to hit the United States with a terror weapon. That weapon was the Balloon Bomb, or Fugo. It was supposed to set fire to the West Coast and drop anti-personel bombs randomly on the U.S. In research after the war it was found that the Japanese built 15,000 of them but only launched 9,300.

A little over 300 Balloon Bomb incidents occurred in the U.S. and Canada. The only casualties were a woman and five kids in Bly, Oregon on a church picnic, who found and moved one. It exploded killing them all.

The Japanese have been using balloons in war since the 1800s. At Port Arthur they were used for observation of troop movements. The Japanese air force came out of the balloon society.

When the US first heard about the balloon bombs they didn't believe it. After a few were found things changed. They were considered a threat and they outlined it well in an unpublished manual called BD-1.

The Japanese Navy made the Type B balloon out of rubberized silk. It carried a radio for telemetry but no weapons. The Army version (Type A) was constructed of six hundred pieces of mulberry paper and filled with hydrogen gas. It carried five incendiary bombs and one high-explosive anti-personnel bomb. It was hoped that the incendiaries would start vast fires in the great forests of the western parts of the U.S. and Canada.

However, in the winter months when the prevailing winds were best suited to carry the balloons to their destination most of the target area was damp and/or covered with snow.

Officially, no forest or grass fires were started by Fugos. There was also the real threat of chemical and biological warfare agents being released by these primitive ICBMs but none appear to have been used. Although, they were developed at the infamous Unit 731.

Some of the air balloons did contain a celluloid container holding 1120cc of a greenish-turbid liquid. A major concern by Intelligence Officers was that the containers of liquid were, in fact, biological bombs that could spread cancer and bubonic plague in humans and foot & mouth disease in animals.

The U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Agriculture and the Canadian equivalent, conducted testing on this substance by injected it into mice, guinea pigs and a calf. Charles A. Mitchell, Dominion Animal Pathologist from the Animal Research Institute in Hull, Quebec, Canada reported in a letter dated July 12, 1945, that no evidence of an infective agent was found (Report on Specimen #21 from Fort Ware, B.C.). A broth was also made out of sand bag contents and tested on animals. Again, with no infective agents were found.

If the Japanese had known of their success with the balloons it is possible that the greenish liquid found in the celluloid containers may have been replaced with disease causing bacteria.

On January 4th, 1945, the Office of Censorship censored the air balloon topic. The purpose of the censorship was to avoid panic and to assure that the Japanese had no knowledge of their success. Everything about the Japanese air balloons - the landings, or even deaths should one occur - would fail to reach the public eye.

Discouraged at not hearing any reports of destruction and death on the American continent, and with other war concerns demanding thy're dwindling resources, the campaign was abandoned in the spring of 1945 until the very last days of the war.

There may have been as many as 15,000 or more of these balloons built and up to 10,000 launchings. Including Canada and Mexico where there were over 300 incidents reported.

The only casualties I have found occurred May 5, 1945 when a woman and five children on a church picnic were killed after a balloon bomb they had drug from the woods exploded. These were the only known fatalities occurring within the U. S. during WWII as a direct result of enemy action.

None caused stoppage of war related activity, except for one case where a balloon landed on a power line at Cold Creek in Washington State. It caused the first SCRAM in history, taking down the first reactor used to make plutonium. The launch of this intercontinental threat was a carefully planned act of retaliation in response to the Doolittle raid.

The Japanese first tried attacking North American forests with incendiaries by launching two bombing attacks with submarine launched seaplanes over the state of Oregon.

The Doolittle raid, better known as "30 seconds over Tokyo", was lead by Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle who led sixteen B25 bombers on a surprise attack on Tokyo, Japan on April 18, 1942. This attack was in response to Japan's bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Without enough fuel to return to their launching sites, these airplanes, after dropping their bombs, flew into unoccupied China where they were able to bail out or crash-land. Doolittle was the first to fly a land-based bomber off of a carrier ship for a combat mission.

In all, the results on North America were inconsequential. Designing a way to get high explosive bombs into the heart of North America became their focus.

The result - "Pieces of Paper" (the North American code word used regarding the balloon bombs) - had the ability to succeed. By luck and timing, it didn't.
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Pendleton County, (West) Virginia

Vol 14, Iss 45 Pendleton County, W VA - We continue our look into the history of Pendleton County, West Virginia with the school districts of 1846, established by a county order of 8 October 1846. It was the first recorded division of Pendleton into school districts, done in compliance with an Act of assembly establishing public schools.

The commissioners appointed for these districts were: 1. Peter Hull, 2. Thomas Jones, 3. Benoni Hansel, 4. Josiah Hiner, 5. William McCoy, 6. Harry F. Temple, 7. William H. Dyer, 8. Cyrus Hopkins, 9. Andrew W. Dyer, 10. John Boggs, 11. Jacob F. Johnson, 12. James Boggs, 13. James B. Kee, 14. Emanuel Arbogast, 15. John Bird.

School Districts of Pendleton:

  1. Bullpasture valley
  2. Cowpasture valley
  3. South Fork valley to Kiser's mill (Sugar Grove)
  4. To wagon road from South branch to Kiser's mill
  5. South Fork and Blackthorn from Propst's Gap to Kiser's mill and the Bullpasture road
  6. Franklin and South Fork from Propst's Gap down to the road from the dice schoolhouse through Conrad's Gap to South Branch
  7. South Fork and valley from the Dice schoolhouse to the Hardy line
  8. Section of county between settlements on South Fork and South Branch below road through Conrad's Gap down to Hardy line
  9. South branch from Ulrich Conrad's, the Smoke Hole, North and South Mill creeks down to Hardy line
  10. North Fork and tributaries from Hardy line to Ketterman's Gap
  11. South Branch from Franklin to Conrad's, Buffalo Hill Gap, and North Fork from Ketterman's Gap to the Roaring Spring Gap.
  12. North Fork and tributaries front he Roaring Spring Gap to head to said Fork.
  13. South branch and tributary waters from Franklin to mouth of Straight Creek
  14. Straight Creek and Crabbottom up to John Rexroad's mill
  15. Crabbottom form Rexroad's mill up Jackson's river and tributaries to county line
Teachers In 1872

The teachers of the Pendleton schools in 1872 were: H. W. Arbogast, Christopher Armentrout, H. Lee Baxter, John W. Biby, E. v. Blakemore, William c. Blakemore, James H. Bland, Henrietta Boggs, John S. Bond, A. Kate Castleman, H. c. cooper, J. H. Covington, Manasseh Cowger, William J. Cowger, John G. Dahmer, Benjamin F. Day, John W. Dolly, Mordecai Dove, John Dunkle, Isaac W. Dyer, L. C. Fishback, Arthur A. Hahn, Jacob Harman, Samuel Harman, G. Hildebrand, William N. Hiner, Jonathan Hiser, Robert H. Huffman, Charles N. Judy, H. C. King, E. A. Lambert, John F. Masters, Lafayette Nelson, Solomon K. Nelson, W. T. Newham, Henry W. Pope, George W. Rexroad, John Roudebush, E. A. Samuels, Z. T. Samuels, W. M. Schumucker, Jay Sullenbarger, Fillmore Todd, A. P. Todd, George M. vint, Martha H. Ward, M. A. Westmoreland, N. Wheller, S. M. Wood.

Pendleton Legislators

This is a list of Pendleton Legislators in General Assembly of Virginia:
  • Sessions of 1789-91 - William Patton and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1792 - William Patton and Jacob Conrad
  • Session of 1793 - Jacob Conrad and Robert Davis
  • Session of 1794 - Oliver Mccoy and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1795 - Jacob Conrad and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1796 - Robert Davis and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1797-8 - James Reed and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1798-1803 - William McCoy and Jacob Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1803-4 - William McCoy and Peter Hull, Sr.
  • Session of 1804-5 - John Davis and Nathaniel Pendleton
  • Session of 1805-6 - John Davis and Nathaniel Pendleton
  • Session of 1806-7 - John Davis and roger Dyer
  • Session of 1807-8 - Peter Hull, Jr. and John Davis
  • Session of 1808-10 - Peter Hull, Jr. and John Davis
  • Session of 1810-11 - Peter Hull, Jr. and John Fisher
  • Session of 1811-13 - Peter Hull, Jr. and Robert P. Flannagan
  • Session of 1813-15 - Peter Hull Jr. and Nathaniel Pendleton
  • Session of 1815-16 - Peter Hull Jr. and John Hopkins
  • Session of 1816-17 - Jesse Hinkle and Harmon V. Given (Gwinn?)
  • Session of 1817-18 - Jesse Hinkle and John Hopkins
  • Session of 1818-19 - John Hopkins and John cunningham
  • Session of 1819-21 - Thomas Jones and James Johnson
  • Session of 1821-22 - Thomas Jones and John Dice
  • Session of 1822-23 - Thomas Jones and John Hopkins
  • Session of 1823-4 - Thomas Jones and John Dice
  • Session of 1824-5 - Harmon Hiner and John dice
  • Session of 1825-6 - Harmon Hiner and Jacob Greiner
  • Session of 1826-7 - John Dice and Jacob Greiner
  • Session of 1827-8 - John Dice and Thomas Jones
  • Session of 1828-9 - Thomas Jones and Reuben Dice
  • Session of 1829-30 - Harmon Hiner and Benjamin McCoy
  • Session of 1830-33 - Harmon Hiner
  • Session of 1833-5 - Thomas Jones
  • Session of 1835-9 - William Mccoy
  • Session of 1839-42 - Harmon Hiner
  • Session of 1842-4 - John Bird
  • Session of 1844-6 - Benjamin Hiner
  • Session of 1846-7 - Anderson M. Newman
  • Session of 1847-8 - George W. Dice
  • Session of 1848-50 - Benjamin Hiner
  • Session of 1850-60 - James B. Kee
  • Session of 1861-2 - James Boggs (resigned); Reuben B. Dice elected to fill vacancy
  • Session of 1863-4 - Edward T. Saunders
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Pendleton County, (West) Virginia - Town of Franklin

Vol 14, Iss 40 Pendleton Cty, W VA - In Oren Frederic Morton's 1910(12) book on the "History of Pendleton County, West Virginia," we learn in chapter XVII, about "The Town of Franklin." In 1769 Francis and George Evick surveyed 160 acres of land on the left bank of the South Branch. This is on a portion of this tract that Franklin was built. George Evick appeared to have lived across the river at the mouth of the Evick gap. The early home of Francis was near a spring that issued from the hillside above the upper street and near the Ruddle tannery.

It was in June, 1788 the first county court of Pendleton met at the house of Captain Stratton, 6 miles below the Evicks. One of the cuties assigned to it by the legislative act creating the county was to determine a central position for the courthouse. They found no motives that led to the selection of the Evick farm. As the southern county line then stood, the position was much less near the center than it was in 1910(12). The Peninger farm near the mouth of the Thorn would more nearly have met the geographical condition. But Francis Evick appeared to have been thrifty and business-like, not with standing his inability to write his name, at least in English. It was probable that Evick presented a more attractive proposition to the county court than anyone else.

The Evicks had been living there about 20 years, yet the neighborhood ws thinly peopled. Up the river the nearest neighbors appeared to have been Ulrich Conrad and Henry Peninger. Conrad built a mill at the mouth of the Thorn about the time the Evicks came. Down the river near the iron bridge was James Patterson. A nearer neighbor in the same direction was George Dice. Above Dice along Friend's Run, Richardsons, Powers and Cassells.

It was within a few weeks after the action of the county court, Francis Evick laid off a town site along the foot of the ridge above his meadows. A little later, George sold his interest in the tract of 160 acres, and moved to a larger farm on Straight Creek. The date of the transaction was August 16, 1788. The place was for several years called Frankford, an abbreviation of "Frank's ford," as the crossing of the river at the mouth of the Evick gap was known.

The county seat of Pendleton was laid out with a method that does credit to all who were concerned in the matter. The ground covered by the original survey was 46-½ acres, the county according to statute law requiring two acres for its public buildings. Within this original area the streets and alleys were straight and the lots were parallelograms.

The selling of lots and building of houses began at once. Evick did not always yield full possession of the ground, yet he had some advanced ideas. He seemed to have been unwilling to sell lots for merely speculative purposes or to permit a lot to harbor a public nuisance.

Robert Davis, the sheriff, bought a lot on the same day that Francis Evick bought out the interest of George. The deed stipulated that the purchaser was to build within two years a good dwelling house, at least 16 by 20 feet in size, and with a chimney of brick or stone. There was to be no distillery on the premises. Each New Year's day he was to pay a ground rent of 33 cents in fold or silver at its current value. If no building were put up, the rent was to be three shillings, or 50 cents.

Within a half dozen years there was a cluster of dwellings of sufficient importance to cause the legislature to designate it as a town under the name of Franklin. The Act of Assembly was dated December 19, 1794. The name Frankford would doubtless have been retained, had not the legislature in 1788 designated a town in Hampshire by that name, to say nothing of the Frankfort in what was the state of Kentucky. The new name of Franklin evidently commemorated the eminent statesman and philosopher, Benjamin Franklin.

The trustees of Franklin, as named in the legislative act were Joseph Arbaugh, Jacob Conrad, James Dyer Sr., John Hopkins, peter Hull, Joseph Johnson, William Mccoy, Oliver McCoy, James Patterson and John Roberts. Another Act, dated Christmas day, 1800, the trustees were authorized to make the establish legal regulations for protecting property from fire, for keeping hogs from running at large, to prohibit the galloping and racing of horses in streets and alleys, and preserving old order generally.

The population at the opening of the new century (1800) was probably about 100, and the growth had ever since been slow though steady. The hamlet springing up around the log courthouse developed into the completeness of an inland town.

James Patterson appeared to have been a merchant as well as justice. The first recorded license to sell goods was granted to Perez Drew in August, 1790. John Roberts was another early merchant, and removed to Washington county, pennsylvania. Aaron Kee opened a store in 1800, but until his drowning in Glady Fork, while on his way to Beverly about 1825, Daniel Capito was the leading an of business.The first license for an ordinary was that granted to Joseph Johnson in 1795.

There was mention of a meeting house in 1790, but this can hardly refer to a church building within the corporate limits. The first mention of a school was in 1802, when the use of the courthouse was granted for this purpose. In 1809 Francis Evick, Jr., deeded two and one-half acres on the west side for the purposes of church, school and cemetery. A commodious frame church was erected thereon by Campbell Masters. The site was between the houses of John McClure and H. M. Calhoun. it remained many years a plain weatherbeaten structure without bell or belfry, but was painted and improved some years prior to the civil war. It was a union church, but at first used mainly by the Lutherans. later it was used chiefly by the United Brethren, Methodists, and Presbyterians.

A schoolhouse was built on the hillside above the Evick spring, and the summit of the knob beyond was used many years as a place of interment. The three roomed schoolhouse stood on the main street, and the town cemetery laid a mile north on the Harrisonburg pike.

In 1834, the town had an authorized existence of forty years, with two stores, two tankards, three saddlers, two carpenters, two shoemakers, two blacksmiths, one gunsmith, one tailor, one hatter, and one cabinet and chairmaker. The professions were represented by two attorneys and one physician. There were also a school, a temperance and bible society. In 1867 a photograph taken did not show a very striking contrast with respect to the upper end of the town, save in the appearance of the Union church. The houses were generally weatherboarded and painted.

Fifteen years after 1867 witnessed a decided growth toward the north and also on the Smith Creek road. Houses of modern design had arisen, and the greater share of the oblong two-storied log dwelling houses had been removed. The number of private houses had increased to about 100, and Franklin was one of the handsomest of small towns of West Virginia, with three stores, two drugstores, two hotels, two tanneries, a bank, a printing office and newspaper, a carding mill, a blacksmith shop, a wheelwright shop and a grocery. There were also two resident ministers, four attorneys, four physicians and a dentist. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Pendleton County, (West) Virginia - Church, School & Professional

Vol 14, Iss 39 Pendleton Cty, WV - This week we continue with chapter XVI, A History of Pendleton County, West Virginia, by Oren Frederick Morton, as we learn about the Church, School and Professional history of the early colonial Virginia and how it was not a land of religious freedom. We find that the "Church of England" was supported by the taxation of all the people. As to other sects their houses of worship were limited in number, and those had to be licensed and registered. Their preachers had to take various oaths and could not celebrate marriages. The clergyman of the established church attended mainly to cultivate his glebe, or parsonage farm. Sometimes he was coarse and rough, intemperate, profligate, and a gambler. The eighteenth century was one of religious lethargy, characterized by drunkenness, profanity and a general coarseness of speech and conduct.

While this was still true of the east part of Virginia at the time the settlement of Pendleton began, the established church never gained a real foothold west of the Blue Ridge mountains.

The Scotch-Irish settlers of the western section were solidly Presbyterian, and were assured by Governor Gooch that they would not be molested in their religious preference.

The German settlers adhered mainly to the Lutheran and German Reformed churches, and were treated with a similar tolerance.

The new counties west of the mountains had their vestries and church wardens, the same as other counties and through this mechanism the church exercised certain functions in civil government. But west of the mountains the vestrymen were not Episcopalian, because there were scarcely an people of that belief to be found. Good true men believed the highest interests of the state required the support of the church by the state and compulsory attendance on public worship. But as the period of the Revolution approached, the opinion grew strong that the long continued experiment of trying to make people religious by statue law had proved an utter failure. Virginia adopted on the 16th December 1785, the following declaration:

"Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments, or burtherns (archaic form of burdens), or by civil incapacitations tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion: No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, nor enforced, restrained, molested, or burthened in his body or goods, nor otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief."

It was not until 1785, that religion was free in Virginia. Pendleton being made a county almost precisely two years later, never had a vestry or any church wardens.

The Scotch-Irish were presbyterian. This class of settlers were particularly strong on the South Branch. But being restless and venturesome, many of them passed onto newer locations, and thus caused a relative decline in their number. The oldest of their churches was that of Upper Tract. There was with little doubt an organization prior to 1797 had no definite knowledge of it. In 1797, Isaac Westfall deeded one acre to the joint use of the Lutherans and Presbyterians where there as already a newly built church. It stood on the east side of the river. A little prior to 1860 the congregation built for its exclusive use a new church in Upper Tract village. About 1880 a church was built at Franklin, and a third one near Ruddle.

The large German element was chiefly of the Lutheran and German Reformed churches. The latter faith gradually disappeared by merging with the former. The earliest organization of which there was known is that of the Propst church, two miles above Brandywine. It was founded in 1769, and was the earliest church in the county of which there is any record. The Lutheran faith had maintained a strong foothold wherever the German element was strongest and most tenacious in holding to ancient customs. Therefore, we find the Lutheran churches chiefly in the upper parts of the South Fork and South Branch valleys. In the North Fork valley, partly owing to the division of sentiment during the civil war, it had proved less tenacious, and one of its churches was burned. The best known of its ministers was the Reverend George Schumucker, who came in 1841 and preached for forty years. His territory was forty-five miles long, reaching into Hardy and Highland. many of his congregations grew very large, but the civil war almost paralyzed his work. His marriage fee was one dollar if the couple came to him, two dollars if he went to them. It was taken sometimes in maple sugar, grain and "snits."

At a wedding in the Smoke Hole he lost his way and arrived after the supper had been eaten. The discouraged groom had concluded to call the wedding off, but was led to reconsider. People came to him for temporal as well as spiritual advice. He sometimes united the children and even the grandchildren of the earlier weddings. The United Brethren, Church of the Brethren, and Menonite sects were all of German origin, and their adherents were very largely of the German element, though not to the same degree as in the case of the Lutherans.

The first Methodist society in America was organized at Frederik, Maryland, in 1763, but during the Revolutionary days the Methodist preachers, generally English born, were under suspicion as to their loyalty. The church had but a slight foothold on American soil until 1788. After that time its success became very phenomenal. Its earnestness and its itinerant system were admirably adapted to the newer parts of the country, and west of the Blue Ridge area where its gains were particularly large. That Methodism was so strong in Pendleton and came as a matter of course. The First Methodist sermon in this county was said to have been the one preached by the Reverend Ferdinand Lair on the farm of L. C. Davis near Brandywine. He spoke in the open air, resting his bible on the limb of a sycamore. The spot was about a mile from Brandywine and on the right of the road leading to Oak Flat. One of the unhappy results of the dispute over slavery was the rending of the Methodist as well as other Protestant churches. The Baltimore conference, of whose territory Pendleton was a part, remained united until 1866. Since that year there had been represented within the county both the great divisions of the parent church; the Methodist Episcopal and the Methodist Episcopal South.

At an early day there were adherents of the Baptist faith in Pendleton, and in 1795 was found mention of the Reverend George Guthrie, a Baptist preacher in the south of the county. This church, very strong throughout the United States, and no organization here.

The Disciples Church, originated in West Virginia and became a strong and aggressive denomination, having two societies. A few adherents of the Latter Day Saints had showed their own earnestness by building a chapel on Smith Creek.

The absence of the Catholic Church, strong in America, was significant of the absence of the foreign immigration of the last sixty years before 1910 or 1912 when this this book was published. There were fifteen church buildings in Pendleton county in 1860. Of these four were Lutheran, four were Methodist, two were United Brethren and one was Presbyterian. The other four were Union churches. The seating capacity of the fifteen was 1450 and the average value was $540.

For thirty years after the settlement of Pendleton county,there is no positive knowledge of any schools within the county. It was doubtful if there was anywhere a building used specially as a schoolhouse, though it was far less probable that there was an entire neglect of school training. Teaching in those days was considered a private not a public matter, and to a large extent it was an adjunct to the ministerial office. Among the german settlers the ministerial head of the Propst church gave instruction through the medium of the German tongue. The only education was doubtless by private tutoring or by such heads of families as were competent to teach the rudiments to their own children, as we find among the German speaking and English speaking settlers of that day.

In those days and for years afterward the amount of illiteracy was very great. The women were more illiterate than the men. Some of the more prominent settlers could sign their names only by means of a mark. Often times both husband and wife had to make use of this expedient in signing a deed or a marriage bond. Sometimes an initial letter was used instead of the simple cross.

Francis Evick used an "E," or "F. E." Sebastian Hoover used a "B" as an initial for "Bastian," or "Boston." Positive illiteracy was probably least rare among the Germans. Usually the German settler signed his name in German script, but once in awhile he used a mark in signing a paper written in English.

Even with a general ability to read and write, there was very little to read, and the high postage and infrequent mails were not favorable to correspondence. Books were very few, and these few were mostly of a religious nature. No newspapers were published nearer than the seacoast cities, and before the Revolution it was no doubt almost a curiosity to see a copy in these Pendleton valleys.

In 1796 the nearest college was Washington, just established at Lexington. As for reading and instruction in the German tongue, the nearest press was the one set up at New Market by Ambrose Henkle, in 1806, and the first school of high grade was the New Market School, founded in 1823.

The first schoolhouse in Pendleton stood on the farm of Robert Davis. It was in existence shortly after the close of the Revolutionary fighting in 1781. A second schoolhouse on the same farm was nearly rotted down in 1845. In 1791 there was a schoolhouse on the farm of Andrew Johnson on the east side of North Fork. The oldest one in Franklin district stood near the home of George W. Harper above Cave postoffice. The second oldest in the same district stood northwest of the home of Henry Simmons. The first teacher of whom there was any recollection was a forger, who had been sold as a convict to Frederick Keister (which is an ancestor married into the DYER and HOHL/HULL side of this NW Okie's ancestry), and taught in the first schoolhouse on the Davis farm, and John Davis and Zebulon Dyer were among his pupils.

The school at the period was purely a matter of neighborhood enterprise. The state or the county had nothing to do with it. Instruction was limited to reading, writing, and arithmetic. The rule of three -- simple proportion -- came before fractions, and it was thought a great accomplishment to master it. Grammar, geography, and history were let very much alone If the pupil came to know something of these topics, it was through his own efforts after leaving school.

It was the state constitution of 1776 that was "silent as a clam" on the subject of popular education. There was no official recognition of education until 1810. A law of 1820 created a "Literary Fund," made up of public moneys. Each county was to have a collection agent to serve without salary, and each county or city was entitled to a board of five to fifteen commissioners, one of whom was to be a bonded treasurer. This board wa to determine how many indigent children it would educate, and what it would pay for this purpose. Each member could select his own indigents, but had to gain the assent of parent or guardian. This secured, the pupil had to attend, or the parent could be charged the tuition for absent days. Books and other necessaries were furnished but only the three R's were taught. Under this law Thomas Jones was director of the Literary Fund for Pendleton and treasurer of the school committee.

By the law of 1845, a petition of a third of the voters empowered the county court to submit the question of a system of public schools, a two thirds vote being necessary to put it in force. Schools under this law were maintained by a uniform rate of increased taxation. Of the three trustees in each district, two were elected by the voters and one by the board. The trustees were to build the schoolhouse, employ or discharge the teacher, visit the school at least once a month, examine the pupils, and address them if they chose, "exhorting them to prosecute their studies diligently, and to conduct themselves virtuously and properly." A weak feature of this law consisted in leaving such school establishment to the option of the several counties.

Under this new law General James Boggs was county superintendent, and continued in office until his death in 1862, when he was succeeded by David C. Anderson. In 1856 General Boggs made the following report: "The commissioners have established schools in various parts of the county with the aid of the primary school fund, where they could not have been established without it. The school funds are insufficient to educate all the poor of the county, even if competent teachers could be obtained." The report was signed also by William McCoy, Jacob F. Johnson, Benjamin Hiner, Andrew W. Dyer, J. Trumbo, James B. Kee, Cyrus Hopkins, and J. Cowger. (HINER and DYER being other surnames found in NW Okie's paternal ancestral lineage.)

It was in 1865 when Pendleton became a part of West Virginia, and when it had adopted a stronger public school law. Its system of sub-trustees came in the following year (1866). At that time five grades of certificates were recognized. The applicant being able to secure one if he could write and had knowledge of his birthdate.

In 1873 came the district board of education, and a year later (1874) the county board of three examiners. Subsequent changes had been made in the direction of greater efficiency in superintendence and in teaching, and in the length of term.

The history of fraternities in Pendleton may only be briefly given. The social life of the county had remained simple, because of the dual nature of the county and the absence from large industrial centers. The Masonic order had a lodge at Franklin before 1840, and after a long slumber it was revived, but was no longer in existence. The Highland Division of the Sons of Temperance was granted the use of the courthouse in 1848, but went down before the war. After that event there was for about two years a lodge of the Friends of Temperance. The "Know-Nothings," a once famous political society known as the American Party, had a foothold in the county during the late 1840's and early 1850's, and in much more recent years the "Farmers' Alliance" was a local power. Beginning with about 1855 a literary society called the "Pioneers" held weekly meetings at the courthouse until about 1867. It owned a library of about 250 volumes, which have since been scattered.

The political history of Pendleton is neither a complex episode. During the administration of Washington the people of America gathered into two opposing schools of political thought. The teachings of Jefferson were taken up with enthusiasm by the people of what were then the backwoods. His creed was more acceptable to them than the tenets of the Federalists. Agricultural communities, especially those least in touch with economic movements, were slow to yield convictions deliberately formed. It was therefore a quite natural result that the supremacy of the Democratic party in Pendleton had very little interruption. The Whig party had quite a following in its day, and once in awhile elected its nominee, especially in the landslide year of 1840.

It was the close of the war between the states that found the upholders of the Confederate cause massed in a single party, regardless of former differences, while another party, the exponent of the nationalist idea, was in power in the NOrth, and to a certain extent, also, in the Unionist sections of the former slave states. In general these distinctions were obtained in this county.

Thus in the main, the line of cleavage between the Democratic and the Republican parties coincided with the divisions of sympathy during the years of war. But, as in other counties of the state, the present industrial epoch had shown a tendency to gain on the part of the Republican organization. After the war and until the adoption of the Flick amendment, the Republican party was in control. Since then the Democratic party had been uniformly successful in county elections, and no general primary was held by its opponent. It had local control in all the districts except Union and Mill Run. Although its majority in Sugar Grove was small.

Previous to 1860 the bar of the county was represented almost wholly by attorneys who were not Pendletonians by birth or training. Among them were Samuel Reed in 1788, Thomas Griggs in 1802, William Naylor in 1803, Samuel Harper in 1805, Robert Gray in 1812 (another ancestral surname in NW Okie's paternal lineage where GRAYs married into the MCGILLs), George Mays in 1813, Joseph Brown in 1814, and James C. Gamble in 1816. Some of these were doubtless lawyers residing in other so counties. Robert Gray was prosecuting attorney in 1817, Nathaniel Pendleton in 1822, and I. S. Pennybacker in 1831. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Pendleton County, (West) Virginia

Vol 14, Iss 35 Pendleton Cty, West Virginia - As we continue with our look back to the History of Pendleton county, (West) Virginia we find that the first permit for a gristmill after Pendleton was organized appears to have been issued in 1803 in favor of James and John Dyer. The need of gunpowder in the war of 1812 stimulated the making of saltpeter from the nitrous earth found in the caverns of Cave Mountain, Trout Rock and Harman hills. This industry continued until after the breaking out of the war of 1861.Besides the Dyer surname showing up in our paternal ancestry, we have found the surname of Arbogast, Lightner and Kinkead/Kinkaid.

In making saltpeter the nitrous earth was leached and the leaching water boiled down. On cooling, the saltpeter rose to the surface and was afterward clarified. In recent years afterwards they witnessed the comparative extinction of these domestic industries. Tanning had lingered because of the mountain forests. The gristmill continued to run, because the absence of a railroad enabled it to compete with the flour from Minnesota. The handicrafts were represented only by the blacksmith, the wheelwright, and the shoemaker, and their work was almost limited to repair service. The home weaving of cloth was not totally extinct was due to the absence of a railroad and the consequent lingering of old-time habits.One distillery remained as a fact not mourned by good citizens.

The falling away of the little home industries was easily accounted for. The growing of flax was all but extinct in Pendleton as well as throughout the Appalachians in general. The little field of a quarter or a half acre was once a feature of almost every farm, and it entailed no wall amount of care and labor. The plants had to be pled by hand and tied into bundles with the poorer stems. After the manner of wheat sheaves these bundles were put into capped shocks until dry. Then after the seed had been threshed out with a flail, the stems were spread out on a meadow for two or three weeks to go through the retting process. Then a simple hand machine was used to break the stems so as to loosen the hard sheath from the interior fibers. The next step was the swinging, when each handful of the fiber resting on a board was struck with a not very sharp paddle to break off the shives. The yellow threads were now ready for the spinning wheel, and the linen which was afterwards woven was of several grades depending on the quality of the fiber.

The tall, yellow-flowered hemp was much grown, not only for the excellent rope and cord which were made from the strong fiber, but as a fabric also. A linen chain with a filling of hemp made a coarser cloth than the linen alone, and it was not so smooth, although it was exceedingly durable. The cloth was at first greenish-gray, finally becoming white. The hemp plant was as persistent as a weed, and had been known to maintain itself on the same ground for more than sixty years.

Wagons were rare. The clock wagon with a solid wheel cross-sectioned from a log and banded with a hoop was very serviceable in logging. Until about 1840 there was only two light wagons. When Zebulon Dyer drove from his home to Franklin in his carryall, people came to look at the strange sight as they turned out to gaze at the automobile. The first mower, appeared about 1858, cost $130. It had one large driving wheel and a wooden cutter-bar. The old fashioned plow with its curved oak moldboard was not swift in yielding to its metallic rival since the moldboard of iron did not scour so well as the one of steel which had since come into use.

The "frolic," especially for husking a farmer's crop of corn, was a recognized feature of farm labor. The absence of any but the simplest forms of farming tools made the collective display of human muscle absolutely necessary.

The reaper might cut his hand on his sickle in keeping a lookout for venomous snakes. But when his work was done he was free to hunt or fish at any time, and the considerable area of wild land still sheltered a considerable amount of game. Several hundred fish would be snared on a single occasion, but the small ones would be returned tot he river. The hams of a deer could be sold for $2.50.

Some men acquired much local fame as huntsmen, and were able to tally a long list of the deer and other animals that they killed. One of these men while on his way from Brandywine as a witness at court saw the trail of a bear and turned aside to follow it. Not being present when his name was called at court, a postponement was moved. The judge was inconveniently inquisitive, and drew out the cause of the man's absence. He then made the remark that the "Day of Judgment" would have to be postponed it if found this person trailing a wild animal.

The roads were still poor, yet were slowly becoming better. In 1850 we find provision for assessing the damages along the right of way of the Moorefield and South branch turnpike.

The militia system kept alive until dissipated under the heat of civil war. Each district supplied one company which assembled for muster in April and October. The regimental muster took place at the county seat toward the close of May. Thursday and Friday were training days for the officers, and Saturday was the day of general muster. Only the officers appeared in uniform, and they furnished their own blue, brass-buttoned costumes. A high-topped hat with a feather in front was worn, and also a low hat with its brim turned up on one side and its ostrich plume leaning back. The pantaloons had a yellow stripe on each side. A broad red sash was passed twice around the waist and tied in a loop with the ends drooping nearly to the ankle. The spectacular drill day took somewhat the place filled by the traveling circus, and its close was marked by drinking and brawling.

The affairs of the county seemed to have been prudently administered, the increase of revenue front he tithables just about keeping pace with the growth in population. Taxation was very low in comparison with the assessments they were familiar with back in 1910. In 1846 a resident of the Seneca valley was taxed one cent on a tract of 130 acres. That with hard effort kept his ground out of the delinquent tax list and it appeared that the title was still in his name several years later.

After the colonial days the citizen of foreign both became very rare, and in 1854 it looked like a strange incident to find a record of the naturalization of two Irishmen.

In 1851 we find mention of but four mercantile firms outside of Franklin. These were William Adamson at the Mouth of Seneca; William S. Arbogast at Circleville; Addison Harper on the South Fork; and I. A. and Enoch Graham at Upper Tract.

October 1846 Murder On Reed's Creek

In 1846 the community was stirred up by the atrocious crime perpetrated by William Hutson, A resident of Reed's Creek. He murdered his wife and several children. The trial took place October 2, 1846. Daniel Smith presided as judge. The 24 jurors appeared to have been the following: Benjamin Arbogast, Thomas Beveridge, Daniel Cotton, George Eagle, Samuel c. Eagle, Henry Fleisher, John Jack, Jacob Hull, John Lightner, Henry McCoy, James Moyers, James Morton, Jacob Smith, Benjamin Rexroad, Isaac Seybert, Joseph Siren, Abraham M. Wilson and Samuel Wilson. These jurors were chiefly from the southern end of the county. the names withdrawn do not appear. Deputy sheriffs, Peter H. Kinkead and John M. Jones, gave the oath to the jury. That body appeared to have come to a speedy agreement. It reported that, "We, the jury, find that William Hutson, the prisoner at the bar, is guilty of murder in manner and form as in the indictment against him is alleged, and we so decide and sustain that he is guilty of murder in the first degree."

In accordance with this verdict the prisoner was hanged near Franklin. It was the first legal execution in the county. Though at this distance of time it would appear that Hutson was a victim of some mental derangement, the prompt and unequivocal punishment was thought to have had a salutary influence for many years.

Soon after the Hutson trial the county of Highland was formed from portions of Bath and Pendleton. Its boundaries were defined by the legislative act of March 19, 1847, such as, "Beginning whereat he North River gap road crosses the Augusta county line, and running thence to the top of Jackson's Mountain, so as to leave Jacob Hiner's mansion house in Pendleton county, thence to Andrew Fleisher's so as to include his mansion house in the new county; thence to the highland between the Dry run and Crab Bottom, and thence along the top of the main ridge of said highlands, to the top of the High Knob; thence N. 65 degrees W. to Pocahontas county line."

The area of Pendleton was reduced from 990 square miles to 707, and its length of more than 40 miles was correspondingly shortened. The number of inhabitants in the section lost to Pendleton was about 2100. In 1850, the new county had a population of 4227. Of this number, 3837 were whites, 28 were free blacks, and 364 were slaves. The war with Mexico was then going on, and the name of Monterey, the county seat of Highland, commemorates a victory by General Taylor.

State Constitution of 1776

The state constitution of 1776 remained in force until 1830. it allowed two members in the House of Delegates to each and every county; no more and no less, except that the towns of Williamsburg and Norfolk were each entitled to one member. But the aristocratic complexion of the document grew more and more obnoxious to the counties west of the Blue Ridge. In 1825 a convention met at Staunton and issued an appeal tot he legislature, that a new constitution be framed. The direct result was the constitutional convention of 1829, of which General McCoy was one of the 96 members and the representative for Pendleton county. But the new instrument was not progressive. The counties east of the Blue Ridge were able to outbalance those to the westward, and the new constitution was drawn almost wholly in their interest. it was so displeasing to the counties which now form West Virginia that they gave 8365 votes against its adoption and only 1383 in its favor. But as the corresponding votes in the rest of the state were 7198 and 24,672, the new charter carried by a majority of nearly 11,000. The new constitution fixed the membership of the House of Delegates at 135, only 29 being apportioned to what was in 1910 West Virginia. The representation front he two divisions of the state was to remain unchanged, regardless of any unequal growth in population. As the weak counties were limited to a single delegate, the representation of Pendleton was reduced from two to one. There was a little broadening in the mater of voting qualifications, but in general there was no liberalizing of the forms of government.

Justices were commissioned as before, but the limit to each county was 12. The board was to make three nominations for the office of sheriff at the November term, the governor to commission that officer for a term of a little more or a little less than a year and a half, according to the date of commission. The governor also chose toe coroner from two nominees, the office being held during good behavior. The county clerk was appointed by the court for a term of seven years. Constables were appointed by the court for two years. There was to be a quarterly term of county court, and supplementary terms in each alternate month. The fourth Thursday in April was made election day, except for presidential electors. Female slaves above the age of 16 were counted as tithables.

The western counties of the state were restive under the illiberal features of the constitution of 1829, and in 1850 a new convention met at Richmond, deliberated nine land a half months, and framed the instrument which was ratified the next ear by a vote of 75,748 against 11,069. The member of the convention for Pendleton was A. M. Newman. The new constitution became effective January 1, 1852.

It was under this new charter, each magisterial district elected 4 justices, one of whom presided, the others being divided into classes. They were allowed a per diem of $3. County officers were also chosen by the people. The county clerk and county surveyor held office for 6 years, the prosecuting attorney for 4 years, and the sheriff and commissioner of revenue for 2 years. The right to vote was now freed from all property qualifications. The time of state elections was changed to the fourth Thursday in may. Pendleton was put with Augusta, Bath, Hardy, Highland, Rockbridge, Rockingham, and Shenandoah to form the Ninth Congressional District, and with Hardy, Highland, Page, Rockbridge, Shenandoah, and Warren to form the Twelfth Judicial Circuit.

Of the 32 state senators, 19 were to come from east of the Blue Ridge. Of the 152 members of the house of Delegates, 47 were allotted tot he counties now in West Virignia. In apportioning this representation, salve property was thrown into the scale, and as a vast majority of the slaves were east of the Blue Ridge, the East of the state retained the balance of power in its own hands. But as a concession tot he West, it was provided that in 1865, or in any tenth year thereafter, and in the event that the General assembly should fail to agree on a principle of representation, the voters of the state were to decide between four different schemes of suffrage.

These four plans were as follows:

  1. A suffrage basis resting solely on votes.
  2. A mixed basis, one delegate being assigned to each seventy-sixth of the number of whites, and one to each seventy-sixth of all state taxes on licenses and law processes, plus the capitation tax on freedmen.
  3. A Taxaton basis, the senators being apportioned on the taxation basis as aforesaid, andy he delegates on the suffrage basis.
  4. The senate to be chosen by the mixed basis, the lower house by the suffrage basis.
The year 1865 found the state of West Virginia an accomplished fact, and this elaborate scheme of the convention for retaining a control tot he East was long as possible had only an historic interest. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Pendleton County, (West) Virginia - Formation & Early Middle Period (1787-1818)

Vol 14, Iss 34 Pendleton Cty, (W) VA - As we learn more about our ancestors of Pendleton county, (West) Virginia, we have found many names listed below showing up in our paternal genealogy of the Warwick/Gwin/Eckard ancestors. Especial how the Poage/Poague family married into the Warwick family. I have tried to include in parenthesis those in my ancestry tree.

Abraham Eckard's relationship to this NW Okie is as a paternal grandfather of wife of great grand aunt (Reuhama Gwin). Such as, Abraham Eckard (1791 - ), relationship to me: paternal grandfather of wife of great grand aunt; Absalom Eckard (1825 - 1898), Son of Abraham; Job E Eckard (1847 - 1911), Son of Absalom; Reuhama "Hami" GWIN (1857 - 1921), Wife of Job E.; Samuel GWIN (1825 - 1871), Father of Reuhama "Hami"; Signora Belle Gwin (1860 - 1934), Daughter of Samuel; Constance Estella WARWICK (1882 - 1968), Daughter of Signora Belle; Gene M MCGILL (1914 - 1986), Son of Constance Estella Warwick McGill; and that leads to me, Linda Kay MCGILL Wagner, daughter of Gene McGill.

Between the Early middle period of 1788-1818 we find that the county of Pendleton began its separate existence as the ninth of the counties which now constitute West Virginia. It entered upon a long career of peaceful and steady development. The Redstone insurrection of 1794 and the war of 1812 were remote from its borders.

At the close of 1787 the population of Rockingham was nearly 7000, including about 700 slaves. Two fifths of its area lying beyond the high, broad, and infertile Shenandoah Mountain, the time had come when it was too inconvenient to travel from 30 to 60 miles to reach the courthouse. Accordingly the State legislature passed an Act, December 4, 1787, for the formation of Pendleton county, Virginia.

Within the limits defined by the Act of 1787, the area of Pendleton was perhaps 850 square miles. On the east, north and west, the original boundaries had remained unaltered. On the south there had been two subsequent changes. The original boundary included the northern portion of the Crabbottom and all the rest of the present county of Highland that lies north of the watershed between the streams flowing into the Potomac and those forming the upper basin of the James. near Doe Hill the line therefore fell even northward of its present location.

The population and distribution of Pendleton inhabitants between the three valleys lived mainly along the larger watercourses with the mountains being an unbroken forest.

Seraiah Stratton house was decreed that the new county should be organized and the first term of court be held, laid about a fourth of a mile south of the Ruddle postoffice, only a few yards tot he west of the present highway, and close to a watering trough. The only present vestige of the dwelling was a mound of rocks marking the site of the chimney and from the midst of which rises a young tree. Tradition states that the court used the barn instead of the house. Whether the house or barn ws used, the charge of four dollars for the whole period of time during which the premises were used as a county seat does not look exorbitant.

The organization of the county government was described in the records as such: "Be it remembered that at the house of Seraiah Stratton, in the county of Pendleton, on the 2nd day of June and in the year of our Lord 1788, and in the 12 year of the Commonwealth, Commissions of the peace and of Oyer and Terminer, directed to Robert Davis, John Skidmore, Moses Hinkle, James Dyer (NW Okie's 5th great grand uncle), Isaac Hinkle, Robert Poage/Poague, James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, Peter Hull (NW Okie's 4th great grand uncle), James Patterson, and Jacob Hoover, Gentlemen, was produced and read and thereupon the said Robert Davis took the Oath appointed by the Act of Assembly giving assurance of fidelity to the Commonwealth, and took the Oaths of a Justice of the peace, of a Justice of the county court in Chancery, and of a Justice of Oyer and Terminer, all of which Oaths were administered to him by the said John Skidmore and Moses Hinkle. Robert Davis administered all the aforesaid Oaths to the said John Skidmore, Moses Hinkle, James Dyer, Isaac Hinkle, James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, and James Patterson."

"A commission from his excellency the Governor to Robert Davis, gent. to be high sheriff of this county during pleasure was produced by the said Robert Davis and read, thereupon together with Seraiah Stratton, Francis Evick, Roger Dyer (NW Okie's 6th great grandfather), James Davis, Isaac Hinkle, and George Dice, his securities, entered into and acknowledged two Bonds for the said Robert Davis's due and faithful performance of his office, which are ordered to be recorded. And then the said Robert Davis took the oath for giving assurance of fidelity to the commonwealth and was sworn sheriff of said county."

Of the eleven justices, Davis, Dyer and Patton were brothers-in-laws. The Hinkles were of one family, and the Skidmores were of one other, and were related to the Hinkles. It is quite probable that still other relationships existed.

The organization of the county government was perfected by the following selections: President of the court, John Skidmore; Clerk of court, Garvin Hamilton; Prosecuting Attorney, Samuel Reed; Deputy sheriffs, John Davis, and John Morral.

Overseers of the Poor, James Dyer, John Skidmore, Christian Ruleman, Ulrich Conrad, John Dunkle.

Constables, Gabriel Collett, George Dice, Jacob Gum, Johnson Phares, Isaac Powers, William Ward, George Wilkeson. County Lieutenant, James Dyer. Regimental Militia Officers: Colonel Robert Poage/Poague; Lieutenant Colonel, Peter Hull; Major Henry Fleisher.

Overseers of Roads: North Fork; (north to south) Michael Eberman, Abraham Hinkle, Isaace Hinkle, Moses Hinkle, South Branch; George Fisher, Michael Alkire, Francis Evick, Christian Pickle, Nicholas Harper, McKenny Robinson, George Nicholas, South Fork; John Wortmiller, James Dyer, Roger Dyer, Henry Swadley, Jacob Hoover, Christian Ruleman.

After building the courthouse on the lands of Francis Evick, and to hold the next court at his house, James Patterson was directed to attend the surveyor in laying out the courthouse grounds. He was also appointed jailer. To make the seat of local government more accessible, road surveys were ordered to Roger Dyer's, to brushy Fork, and to the North Fork at Joseph Bennett's.

The first grand jury met September 1, with Jacob Conrad being foreman. The other members were Michael Arbogast, Lewis Bush, Jacob Coplinger. Abraham Eckard (paternal grandfather of wife of NW Okie's great grand aunt), Nicholas Harpole, Isaac Hinkle, George Kile, Adam Lough, Robert Minniss, Frederick Propst, George Puffenbarger, Jacob Root, Joseph Skidmore, John Sumwalt, Philip Teter, and Peter Vaneman. With Hardy and Hampshire, Pendleton became a judicial district with the court sitting at "Hardy Courthouse."

Robert Davis was of a welch family that settled in North Carolina and moved to Virginia. He may have been the son of Robert Davis, an early settler of Augusta and its first constable. He settled a half mile below Brandywine, at least as early as 1764, purchasing land in that year of Matthew Patton. About this time he married Sarah, daughter of Roger Dyer and widow of Peter Hawes. His older brothers, John and William, settled also on the South Fork.

Whether John Davis was the one who was a justice of Rockingham and was appointed to let the building of its first courthouse was not really known, though. William died in 1773, and Robert was his executor. Robert was a major in the Continental army and saw active service, especially among the Indians west of the Alleghanies. He was present at the killing of Big Foot, a noted chief.

In 1779 he was commissioned Captain of militia for Rockingham, resigning in 1781. He was one of the first justices of that county, but owing to his military duties, he was not present to take his oath of office until May 25, 1779. In 1780 and 181 he was the leader if the South Fork patriots against the Tory faction. The disturbance was brought to an end by a truce he arranged with Ward and Hull. In 1784 he was recommended as coroner. In 1785 he and James Davis were the committee to view the repairs on the new Rockingham courthouse. In 1786 he became sheriff of Rockingham, and held this office until he became the first sheriff of Pendleton. He was again sheriff in 1804, and served his county as member of the house of delegates in 1793-94. He was a justice of the peace from 1778 until his death in 1818 at an advanced age. he was frequently called upon in the settlement of estates and in other matters of public business, thus indicating a high degree of practical judgment. he was one of the substantial residents on the South Fork. On his land stood with one exception the first mill in that valley and probably the very first schoolhouse.

Matthew Patton was one of the very first members of the Dyer Settlement, and after the murder of Roger Dyer he became a leading citizen of the Pendleton territory. he was commissioned a justice of the peace, August 19, 1761, and for a number of years he took the lists of tithables for this portion of Augusta.

James Dyer, brother-in-law to Patton, has been elsewhere mentioned. he was a prominent and well-to-do citizen, and much concerned in the public affairs of the county. The Skidmores of the South branch were enterprising citizens and large landholders. Captian John Skidmore had a military career in the Indian wars and doubtless also in the Revolution. He was wounded in the battle of Point Pleasant, and is said on one occasion to have killed an Indian in single combat.

Moses and Isaac Hinkle, cousins to Captain Skidmore, were progressive and energetic and of more than usual ability. Isaac was a sheriff of Rockingham a little prior to 1783. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Pendleton County, (West) Virginia - Pendleton Under Rockingham

Vol 14, Iss 32 Pendleton Cty, VA - This week as we continue our journey of Pendleton county, (West) Virginia, as written by Oren Frederick Morton around 1912, we learn that Augusta county has been a mother of counties in Virginia. It was the spread of the population and the increasing inconvenience of attending court that caused one county after another to be lopped off.

In 1777 Rockingham was created with its first court meeting 17 April 1778 at the house of Daniel Smith, which was two miles north from where Harrisonburg stands. But the town of Harrisonburg did not begin its existence until two years later. Harrisonburg was named after the a prominent family of the early days.

John Smith, father of Daniel, came from England as an officer in the French and Indian war. John Smith was compelled to surrender a fort at Pattonsburg in Botetourt county. His French and Indian captors being angered that he had held them off with a very weak force, they took him to Point Pleasant, treated him with harshness and made him run the gauntlet. He was passed on to New Orleans and taken to Paris. This is where he showed a copy of the terms of surrender. John Smith was released, treated with respect, and at London was given quite an ovation. John Smith married a lady of Holland, returning to America and settling in Rockingham county, Virginia. He wished to serve in the American army and was indignant when he was adjudged too old. But he had eight sons in the service of his adopted country. Abraham being another of these. Daniel Smith, a son of Daniel, became an eminent jurist.

The new county was defined as being all of Augusta east of a line. To begin at the South Mountain, and running by Benjamin Yardley's plantation so as to strike the North River below James Bird's house; then up the said river to the mouth of Naked Creek, leaving the river a direct course so as to cross the said river at the mouth of Cunningham's Branch in the upper end of Silas W.'s land to the foot of the North Mountain; then 55 degrees west to the Alleghany Mountain and with the same to the line of Hampshire.

The Fairfax line, passing near Petersburg and Moorefield, was at first the country between Frederick and Augusta. In 1753 the western part of Frederick became the county of Hampshire. When Rockingham was created, the country line between Hampshire and the new county was moved southward nearly to the position of the north line of Pendleton.

Its definition in the legislative act read as follows: "Beginning at the north side of the North Mountain, opposite to the upper end of Sweedland Hill and running a direct course so as to strike the mouth of Seneca Creek, and the same course to be continued to the Alleghany Mountain; thence along the said mountain to the line of Hampshire."

But it was not quite all of Pendleton that formed a part of Rockingham. A strip along the southern border was still a part of Augusta, and a fringe on the opposite side was a part of Hampshire.

The men designated to comprise the first court of Rockingham, at least four were Pendletonians: John Skidmore, Robert Davis, James Dyer (NW Okie's 5th great grand uncle) and Isaac Hinkle. Skidmore and Davis were not present, being with the the army. Thomas Lewis, previously surveyor of Augusta, became the first surveyor of Rockingham. The population appeared to have been rather less than 5000, about a fourth being in the Pendleton section. There was neither a tavern o=nor a wagon in the new county. The act creating Rockingham provided that its voters should elect 1 May 1778, twelve able and discreet persons to form a vestry.

By this time America was in the midst of the Revolution and the infant county had to deal with the grave problems interwoven with the questions of enlistment and finance.

It was in October, 1778, that some counties had not raised the quota of soldiers required by an act of the preceding year. The state now called for 2216 men for the Continental service. Each soldier was to have a bounty of $300 if enlisting for eighteen months, and $400 if enlisting for three years. He was also to receive clothing and a Continental land bounty. In May of 1779, 10 battalions of 500 men each were ordered, a bounty of $50 being offered. Two of these battalions were for service on the frontier. In October of 1780, the quota for Rockingham was 49 men out of a levy of 3000. The same Act of Assembly offered a bounty of $8000 for an enlistment of three years, and $12,000 for an enlistment of drink the continuance of the war. The man serving to the close was to have his choice of these two additional rewards. It was May, 1781, a bounty of $10,000 was promised, to be paid when the soldier was sworn in.

Six months afterwards the army of Cornwallis was added to the 1000 prisoners the state was feeding at Winchester, and the long war was practically at an end. It had never been popular wight he English people, and even before the surrender at Yorktown, William Pitt, spoke in the British Parliament, pronouncing the struggle the most accursed, wicked, barbarous, cruel, unnatural, unjust and diabolical of wars.

In 1781 the poll tax was $40, and in 1781 a man taking his dinner at an ordinary could be charged the stunning price of $30, when he had eaten nothing more luxurious than corn pone, bacon, potatoes, and sauerkraut, washed down with a cup of herb tea and smug of cider.

A month after the surrender of Cornwallis, the legislature ordered paper money to be turned into the treasury by the first of October of the following year. "Worthless as a Continental Bill" became a byword for many years.

The county was hard put to raise enough revenue for the public needs. In 1779 something had to be done for the families of indigent soldiers. In 1781 and 1782 the sheriff was ordered to collect a tax of one shilling on every glass window. A tax of two percent in specie was levied on all property. It was permitted to make payment in tobacco, hemp, bacon, four or deerskin.

As to the royalism in the Pendleton section of Rockingham, the recorded information gives only a partial glimpse, and for the rest of the story we have to depend on the recollections that have come down to us through the space of a hundred and thirty years. The trouble was evidently most acute in the later years of the war. The American cause was then hanging in the balance, taxation, as we have seen was very high, and very hard to meet, and the depreciated paper currency was causing great hardship. The disaffection in Pendleton took the form of an armed resistance that fell within the verge of domestic war. There were petty raids by the tories, but there would seem to have been little bloodshed. The only loss of life that we locate was the killing of Sebastian Hoover by a settler from Brushy Fork. The Virginia law of 1781 declared the man civilly dead who opposed by force the statute calling out the men to the public defense. The disaffected person might be exiled, and if he returned he could be executed without benefit of clergy. Free male inhabitants had to swear allegiance to the state through commissioners appointed by the county court.

In Hampshire was John Claypole, a Scotchman, who had a band of 60 to 70 men. They resisted the payment of taxes, and at their meetings they drank toasts to the health of the king and damnation to Congress. General Daniel Morgan, the hero of the Cowpens, was sent against them in the summer of 1781, and smothered the insurrection in a few days. The tories were pardoned. Claypole appealing for clemency and pleading ignorance of the real situation. There was no fighting, although one tory was accidentally shot.

Claypole had followers on the South Fork in Pendleton. One of these at Fort Seybert, who claimed his oath of allegiance was not binding, was taken to Patton's still-tub. He was doused three times in it before his German obstinacy was sufficiently soaked out to permit him to hurrah for Washington. This style of baptism does not seem to have been administered by Morgan's men, who scarcely came this far up the river. It was perhaps at the same time that a party of tories, pursued through Sweedland valley, were noticed to throw the corn pone out of their haversacks, so as to make better time with their feet.

The other center of disturbance was in the south and southwest of the county, where its memory lingers in the name of Tory Camp Run, Randolph county. Here Uriah Grady headed a band of tory refugees. The leader in this quarter was one William Ward. There were two men of this name, an older and a younger, the latter being perhaps no more than a boy at the time of the Revolution. The elder William Ward was a South Carolinian and is first mentioned in 1753. In 1763 he was a road surveyor, and in 1774 he was a soldier in the Dunmore war. In 1765 he was under sheriff of Augusta. In 1781 he was living on the Blackthorn. For tumult and sedition words he was bound over by the court of Rockingham in the sum of 1000 pounds, Andrew Erwin being his surety. The next year (1780) he was delivered up by Erwin and Ralph Loftus, another surety, was given a jury trial, fined 100 pounds, and given twenty-four hours in jail. The records at Staunton say that he was found guilty of treason in Augusta and sent to the capital for trial. Erwin was himself indicted for propagating some news tending to raise tumult and sedition in the state. John Davis, apparently a resident of the North Fork, was adjudged guilty of treason by the Rockingham court and sent up to the General Court. His bondsmen were Seraiah Stratton, William Gragg, and James Roger. In 1779 Henry Peninger was indicted for speaking disrespectful and disgraceful words of the Congress and words leading to the depreciation of the continental currency. A true bill was returned against him. His bond was fixed at 5000 pounds, and those of his sureties, Sebastian Hoover and Henry Stone, were each of half that amount. Peninger informed on one Gerard, but he himself did not appear for trial.

One Hull (possibly a distant ancestor of NW Okie) was a lieutenant of Ward's, and Robert Davis seems to have been particularly obnoxious to the tories. Visits with hostile intent were sometimes made to his vicinity, but an Eckard woman from Brushy Fork usually gave the settlement a forewarning. On one occasion, believing Davis home on furlough, the band came down to seize him, and in their disappointed vexation Hull called Mrs. Davis a damned liar. Her son John, a boy of about fourteen years, took aim at Hull, unobserved by the latter, but the mother interfered to prevent a tragedy and a burned home. The factional strife was ended by a conference between Davis and Ward held near the site of the schoolhouse. The principals were unarmed, but a neighbor of Davis posted himself near to guard against treachery.

The capture of Cornwallis in the fall of 1781 made it highly advisable for the Tories to accept the situation. It would seem that the episode was passed over lightly. At all events we find the former Tories remaining on the ground, acting as good citizens, and holding positions of trust.

In 1782 a list of claims from the furnishing of military supplies came before the Rockingham court for settlement. The claims were very numerous, though of small individual value. Many of them were from Pendleton. For registering these claims Henry Erwin was allowed 100 pounds, a good salary for that day.

In 1781 took place what seems the last Indian raid into this county. A party of redskins, led by Tim Dahmer, a white renegade, came by the Seneca trail to the house of William Gragg, who lived on the highland a mile east of Onego. Dahmer had lived with the Graggs, and held a grudge against a daughter of the family. Gragg was away from the house getting a supply of firewood, and seeing Indians at the house he kept out of danger. His mother, a feeble old lady, and with whom Dahmer had been on good terms, was taken out into the yard in her chair. The wife was also unharmed, but the daughter was scalped and the house set on fire, after which the renegade and his helpers made a prudent retreat. The girl was taken up the river, probably to the house of Philip Harper, but died of her injuries.

There was now a long period of domestic peace, broken only by the incident of the "Whiskey Insurrection of 1794." At least one company of Pendleton militia under Captain James Patterson formed a part of the army of Governor Henry Lee that marched to the Redstone district of Pennsylvania, the scene of trouble. At a Pendleton court martial sitting the same year, it was ordered that the names of the officers and privates who marched from this county to Redstone be recorded. The list does not seem to be in existence. A fine of $36 was imposed upon each of the 11 men who avoided going. In one instance the fine was remitted.

In 1782 there were three militia districts. Robert Davis commanded the company on the South Fork. Garvin Hamilton, the company on the South Branch, and Andrew Johnson was captain of the North Fork company. John Skidmore was recommended as major the same year the county was organized, but he was not commissioned. Other militia officers of the period were the following: Captains, Roger Dyer and Michael Cowger; Lieutenants, Frederick Keister and John Morral; ensigns, John Skidmore, James Skidmore, and Jacob Hevener.

Among the civil officers we find Isaac Hinkle, a deputy sheriff in 1780, and Robert Davis, commissioned sheriff, October 30, 1786. As constable we find James Davis, George Kile, George Mallow, Jacob Eberman, Samuel Skidmore and Lewis Waggoner. Thirty road overseers were appointed in 1778. Of those serving in Pendleton during the ten year period (1778-88) we have the names of George Mallow, Jacob Eberman, Samuel Skidmore, Lewis Waggoner, and James Davis. In 1779 Joseph Skidmore had charge of the roads of the middle valley to the line of Hampshire. The next year George Kile had the territory from the Coplinger ford to the Hampshire line, and George cop linger had the roads from the same ford to the Augusta line. In 1786, Pendleton, as the portion of Rockingham west of North Mountain, was made the fourth overseer of the poor district, and Robert Davis was appointed to superintend the election of the necessary official. This brings us to the establishment of Pendleton county. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland, Virginia - Given Names & Surnames

Vol 14, Iss 26 Highland, VA - We find in the History of Highland County, Virginia that nearly all the pioneers of Highland were adherents of the Presbyterian or of the Reformed Church. They were zealous Protestants. In naming their boys and girls parents showed a marked preference for names taken from the bible. We find a host of men named Andrew, Jared or Samuel, and a host of women with such names as Anna, Elizabeth, and Martha. Other names, such as Christian, paschal, Valentine and Sophia, are associated with church history.

We also find certain non-biblical names that had been used from time both the British Isles and Germany. Among these were Edward, Frederick, George, William Catharine, Jane and Margaret. Conrad was more distinctly a German name, while Robert was Norman-French. Alexander comes from the Greek language, was a characteristic name among the Scotch, as patrick was among the Irish, and Evan among the Welsh. There was a strong influence of classical study in colonial days that led to such names as Alcinus, Euphemia and Lucinda.

Feminine names were not generally taken front he bible, because biblical personages were more often men than women. Among other scriptural names in great favor were Delilah, Esther, Magadalena, Mary, Rebecca, Sarah and Susanna.

We find a lot of names in common use were the names of grandparents, parents, uncles and aunts that were given to the children, perpetuated from generation to generation, so that sometimes it was/is almost possible to trace aline of descent through the preferences in given names.

Until within a century past, a middle name was seldom employed. When it did occur, it was most generally written in full. Among the Germans, the double name was usually a compound of two given names, while among the English speaking people it was more commonly the entire name of some other person. Our ancestors were much inclined to put the two halves of the name on an equality and not to reduce the middle name to a mere initial.

Also, as the annals of Highland progressed, some of the names in use point to facts in national or state history. Later on the names preferred were very suggestive of certain tendencies of the times.

We find that the initials "G.W." pointed almost unerringly to the Father of his country, while the initials "T.J." and "A.J." pointed with well-nigh equal certainty to Thomas jefferson and Andrew jackson, the two heroes of American Democracy. The initials "R. L." reminds us of the great military leader of the Confederacy. Then there is the beginning notice "H.C." for Henry Clay, where there is little doubt as to the political creed of the parent who bestowed the name, just as the initials of "J.W." were the chances that the parents were followers of John Wesley.

We also found that because of state pride, girls were named Virginia. The names very common in one county may be very rare in another, though. Loftus, originally a surname, was an heirloom in the Pullin family. McBride, in the Gum family, relates to a resident of Hardy with whom the pioneer Gum has business dealings. Peachy, as a given name, appeared to have its origin in the upper Shenandoah Valley.

As to surnames, formerly there was no recognized standard in the spelling of English. Each person was a law to himself. The same name would be spelled in different ways, partly because of personal whims and partly because of individual peculiarities of pronunciation. Some of these variations would acquire a fixed standing and pass current as entirely distinct names. Thus they had in Highland the forms Kincaid and Kinkead. Rexroad in Pendleton became Rexrode in Highland. bodkin had become Botkin apparently through the German mode of pronunciation. Careless or slovenly pronunciation accounts for some variations.

A German or French name, , coming from a foreign tongue with its strange sounds, was almost sure to undergo some change in pronunciation in order to accommodate itself tot he English ear. This often lead to a change in the spelling. HULL for HOHL and SIMMONS for SIEMAN were instances in point. Sometimes the foreign name had been turned into its English equivalent, as when AUGE became EYE and WEISS became WHITE. AS to Highland, we there is no doubt that BYRD is English, that Douglas is Scotch, that Jones is Welsh, that Mauzy is French, that Swecker is German, that Vandevander is Dutch, and that Maloy is Irish.

Scotch Names

Alexander, Armstrong, Beather, Black, Briscoe, Callahan, Campbell, Carlile (Carlisle), Cunningham, Curry, Dinwiddie (Dunwoody), Douglas, Duffield, Ervine (Erwin), Estill, Fisher, Gall, Gibson, Gilmer, Graham (Grimes), Hansel, Helms, Hicklin, Hickman, Hook (Hooke), Jack, Jackson, Janes, Johnson, Jordan, Kinkead (Kincaid), Killingsworth, Lamb, Lewis, Lockridge, Lunsford, Malcomb, McClung, McCoy, McCrea (McCray), McGlaughlin, McNulty Middleton, Miller, Moore, Naigley, Peebles, Pullen (Pullin), Ralston, Redmond, Revercomb, Roby, Ruckman, Samples, Shumate, Sitlington ,Smallridge, Stephenson, Steuart, Strathy, Summers (Sommers), Tharp, Trimble, Vance, Wiley, Whistleman, Whitelaw, Will, Wilson, Wooddell.

English

Benson, Beverage, Bishop, Bradshaw, Brown, Carroll, Chestnut, Chew, Cobb, Corbett, Hicks, Hodge, Holcomb, Marshall, Masters, may, Morton, Oakes, Ryder (Rider), Rymer, Terry, Townsend, Wade, Woods.

Irish

Corrigan, Doyle, Griffin, Houlihan, Kelly, Lowrey, Maloy.

Welsh

Blagg, Davis, Gwin (Gwynn), Johns, Jones, Price, Rogers.

Dutch

Vandevander, Wees.

Italian

Brown (Bruno)

French

Bussard (Boissard [Bwas-sar]), Dever (Devier [Duh-vee]), Devericks (Devereux [Duh-ver-uh]), Matheny (Mathenee [Mah-tay-nay]), Mauzy [Mo-zee], Mullenax (Molyneux [Mull-le-nuh]).

German

Arbogast (Armenkast), Bird - Vogel (Fo-gel), Burner, Colaw (Kohler [Co-ler]), Deihl [Dile}, Eagle (Eakle), Evick Wig [Ayvick] Ever, Fleisher Fleischer (Fli-sher) Flesher or Fletcher, Fox (Folks) Fuchs (Fooks), Gum Gumm (Goom), Halterman Haldemann, Herring Hering, Hevener Hefner, Hidy Heide (Hi-deh), Hinegarner heingartner, Hiner Heiner (Hi-ner), Hull Hohl (Hole), Keister keister or Geyster (Ki-ster or Gi-ster), kramer Kraemer (Kra-mer), lantz lentz, Life Leif (Life), Lightner Lichtner (Liht-ner), Michael, newman Neumann (Noi-man New Man),Nicholas, Peck, Peninger, Rusmisell, Seig, Seiver, Seybert (Sivers) Seifert (Si-fert), Shaffer (Shaffier) Schaefer (Shafer) Shepherd, Shinneberger, Sipe Seip (Sipe), Siple Seipel (Si-pel), Siron, Snyder Schneider (Shni-der) Taylor, Sullenberger, Swecker Schwecker (Shveck-er), Swope Schwoop (Shvope), Wagoner Wagner (Vack-ner) Wagoner, Waybright (Winebright) Weinbrecht Bright Wine, White Weiss (Vise) White, Yeager Jaeger (Yay-ger) Hunter, Zickafoose Zwickenfus (Zvick-en-foos) Crippled Foot. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland, Virginia - Agricultural Interests & Customs

Vol 14, Iss 25 Highland County, VA - There is a ribbon of bottom land that follows each larger watercourse in Highland. They vary in breadth and sometimes, as on the Cow pasture, were interrupted for short distances. Along the larger streams, farmhouses succeeded one another at frequent intervals. Farms were also found on the lower courses of the tributary streams. Tillage land was also seen on the low tables in the Bullpasture Valley and on the broken hillsides of the Straight Creek basin. Elsewhere, the higher ground was very little reduced to tillage or pasturage, except where limestone belts occurred, as in the Bluegrass and Big valleys.

It was along the Bullpasture and Cowpasture that there was more general farming than anywhere else. These valleys were somewhat lower than those to the westward and had a quicker soil. W. P. B. Lockridge had grown in one season 2,000 bushels of corn and 700 of wheat, his bumper crop of wheat had been 33 bushels to the acre. Then there was T. M. Devericks on Shaw's Fork had grown 28 bushels to the acre. major J. H. Byrd, who had made a point of intensive cultivation, had grown four tons of timothy hay to the acre, and once took a state premium on his crop of 75 bushels of shelled corn to the acre. He sent 100 selected ears tot he exposition at Norfolk.

The valley of Jackson's River was better for grass than the eastern valleys, and little of the soil was kept in tillage. In Big Valley a yield of 93 bushels of corn to the acre had been reported, though. On the bottoms of Jackson's River, 25 stacks of hay would be seen in a favorable season in a field of only moderate size.

In the Bluegrass Valley the grazing interest was likewise supreme, very little tilled ground being seen.

The native strength of the river bottoms and bluegrass pastures was apparent in the fine big oaks, maples and hickories, especially on Jackson's River and in the Crabbottom. In former years, walnut trunks as high as six feet four inches in diameter were burned in log piles.

Yet such were the improvident methods of the early people, that the compiler of the Virginia Gazetteer of 1832, a man familiar with the worn soils east of the Blue Ridge, speaks of the Cowpasture bottoms as badly tilled, and those of Jackson's River and the Bullpasture as only in tolerable condition. He makes an exception of the Wilson farm at the mouth of Bolar Run, and calls it equal to any in the Valley of Virginia. But wiser methods were used in Highland with the smaller amount of land still kept in cultivation.

The Crabbottom, where my HULL (HOHL) ancestors settled, was the garden spot of Highland, although acre for acre the smaller basins of upper Jackson's River, Big Back Creek, and Big Valley compared with it favorably. The woods had only to be cut out or thinned, a bluegrass sod coming in spontaneously. On the pastures alone and without grain, huge cattle of the best breeds were made ready for market. The value of the fat cattle driven out of this valley would perhaps average $150,000 a year. The Crabbottom graziers thus were enabled to live a rather unlaborious life, and a holding of land was esteemed a choice possession. The soil changed hands often at much more than $100 an acre, comparing in price with land in the corn belt of Illinois.

The lands of the Bluegrass District, being largely limestone and supporting so large a grazing interest, were assessed at nearly as much as those of both the over districts. In the production of buckwheat Highland ranked fourth among the counties of Virginia. In maple sugar it lead them all. More than a thousand pounds were occasionally made on a single farm. The county was also well adapted tot he apple tree. One of these on the Vandevender farm grew during the century or more of its existence to a girth of ten and a half feet and its full crop was 80 bushels of fruit. Except in very unfavorable seasons the county had more than enough apples for home use. The other fruits usual to the latitude were also found, though to a less extent. large and fine specimens of apples, pears, peaches, and plums were to be seen in favorable years.

The result of the settlement of a new region was a community of purpose among the people, leading to a die acquaintance with one another. This also lead to a sameness in manners and customs and in the mode of living. The people became homogeneous in these respects much faster than they became homogeneous in blood. The stranger would hardly know that Highland was peopled from opposite directions, because the two elements of the immigration meeting on the divide which crossed the county. On either side of it they would find the same farm architecture, the same speech, and the same hospitality.

As a household tongue the German language had for some years been quite extinct in Highland. Exceptions to this statement, if any, were assignable to persons of Pendleton birth or parentage. The passing of the German speech was due to the blending of stocks in the north of the county. When one of two married companions was ignorant of the German idiom, the latter, as an alien speech in America, was the one which nearly always gives way.

It was well that our national tongue was here without any competitor. The neighborhood that clings to a broken-down jargon, like that of the upper South Fork Valley in Pendleton, threw itself, in a very sensible degree, outside the current of American life and thought, and stamps itself as unprogressive.

It tended to shut itself into its own corner and it reared citizens of narrow and uninformed views. The habit stands in the way of an easy use of English and a correct English pronunciation. It was a needless handicap on the child who started to school. The people who sued this patios in their homes had a very meager list of words, and could neither read German script nor German print. Their belief in witchcraft and signs was a result of their stagnation.

In Highland there was a close approach to social equality. The farm homes were comfortable and cozy. Modern furniture, musical instruments, things of ornament, and potted plants were quite the rule. The table fare was liberal and sensible. Destitution was hardly to be seen in the county.

It was thanks to the homogeneity of the people, and to the absence of mines and factories, the public order of Highland was very good. Serious crimes were very infrequent, and the county had no citizen in the penitentiary and but one boy in the reform school.

But . . . the good record of the county was marred by a lynching in the month of January, 1884 when a laboring man from Michigan, Porter (alias Atchison), came into the west of the county after his release from the Pocahontas jail. Atchison was not a well-behaved person. During a game of cards with a citizen of Back Creek, a quarrel arose, both men being intoxicated. Atchison struck the other person a blow with his knife, but inflicted only a slight wound in the breast. For this he was lodged in the Monterey jail. Exaggerated reports of the affair got abroad. A party of citizens broke into the jail, shot him in his cell, and then hanged him to a tree on the Vanderpool road, where the same crosses the brow of the conical hill south of the town. All but one of the lynching party was identifiable. One citizen was tried by a jury of Rockbridge men but acquitted. The others were assumed to be implicated in the unfortunate occurrence left the county and never returned. One of those assumed to be implicated in the 1884 hanging at Vanderpool may have been my great grandpa John Robert Warwick (1857-1937).

[We have written about this January 1884 lynching in our OkieLegacy Archives: 1884 Lynching In Monterey, Vol. 11, Iss. 41, 2009-10-12
The Good With the Bad Ancestry Stories, Vol. 13, Iss. 16, 2011-04-18
Lynching In Monterey, Vol. 13, Iss. 46, 2011-11-14
1884 Lynching In Monterey, Vol. 14, Iss. 20, 2012-05-14]

Cities and towns were formerly few and small because large ones could not be supported. So long as farming was done in the old way, every farmhouse being a workshop, it took a very large share of the people to feed the nation. The simple life and the home manufactures made the mills and factories of the cities comparatively unnecessary. The farming community could not spare much of its increase excel to open new farms. The country was seemingly more attractive than the town.

Towns were once compact, because men had to live within working distance from where they worked. Town life was no more comfortable than country life. In the minds of people the balance of attraction was strongly on the side of the town. People conceded the purer air and water, the fresher vegetables, and the freedom from nerve-racking noise to be found in the country, yet the movement to the city, the town, and the village went on unchecked. If food did not have to be produced front he soil, the rural neighborhood would become nothing more than a summoner playground.

Forest had other uses than as a supply of timber. They regulated the flow of water in the rivers and they afford a cover for game. Highland had once plenty of game, but it diminished through the years of inhabitants. The red man killed only for his own needs. The white man was short-sighted as in the matter of lumbering, slaughtered without restraint, using up principal as well as interest.

Highland was never designed as a region of general farming. Its specialty of livestock, for which its limestone aid, its pure water, and its temperate air so well adapted it, was very logical. Yet with ready transportation the tillable lands could yield a large and profitable supply of crops which the farmer used to think had a place only in the orchard and house garden.

The streams and rivers never fail and their currents were swift. The summer climate was in itself a valuable asset, but remained dormant so long as it retired an entire day to reach the county seat front he nearer railroad points.

The massing of population in the valleys paved the way to the coming of the centralized school. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland, Virginia - Biographic Paragraphs of Highland Men

Vol 14, Iss 24 Highland County, Virginia - This week we learn from reading Chapter XXIII, of the "History of Highland County" something about the biographical details of particular Highland men of more or less prominence. We ran across our HULL (HOHL) ancestors. I have found those names and the following names: Hiner, Sitlington, Stephenson and Keister lineage. There is also mention of the Ruckman lineage.

John Bradshaw, son of the pioneer, was county surveyor eighteen years and was also a veteran teacher, number of persons of some prominence being his pupils. He wrote the will of John Graham, which, through no fault of his, led to a noted lawsuit. Eighteen hours of rigid cross-examination failed to bring out any flaw in his testimony. His son, Captain Robert H. Bradshaw, had a promising career cut short by his death at Fort Republic.

Thomas Brown (Tomaso Bruno in Italian) merits mention as Virginia only pioneer of that nationality. He was said to have been a sea captain in the War of 1812, about which time he came to America. He lived a while near the city of Washington.

Andrew H. Byrd, legislative father of Highland county, served 12 years in the House of Delegates. His son, John T., was in the legislature one term, but declined a renomination. In the great war, he served with much ability as a leader of Confederate cavalry. Prior thereto he was a major of militia. As a farmer, he was one of Highland's best. His sons, Clifton E. Adam M., and H. Houston, were graduates of the University of Virginia, and all were in professional life, the last named being the Commonwealth's Attorney of Bath. The father and paternal grandfather of the pioneer Campbell were Presbytarian divines. His son Thomas possessed fine mathematical ability and was the first surveyor of Highland. Austin W. was one of its best read citizens and perhaps the first one to join the Masonic Order. Walter P., engaged in the real estate business at Roanoke, was Commissioner of the Revenue for 21 years. Still other members of the connection have held positions of honor and trust.

Cornelius Colaw was a justice of the war period. His son, John M., received the Master's degree from Dickinson College in 1892, and after taking his Bachelor's degree from the same college studied law at the University of Virginia. For three years he was principal of the Monterey High School. Though an active attorney, Mr. Colaw had cultivated his strong mathematical gift. He was a member of the American Mathematical Society, a frequent contributor to mathematical journals, and the author of mathematical textbooks.

Collingwood A. Dickson, a well-read merchant of Trimble, was a son of General Sir Collingwood Dickson of the British Army.

William W. Fleming a native of Nova Scotia, came to Highland shortly before the formation of the county. He was a man of strong intellect cultivated by constant reading. His personality was felt in every phase of public enterprise, and in particular he was a surfy friend to the cause of education. He as recognized as an honest, upright, and intelligent citizen.

Captain David Gwin (my 4th great grandfather) was a wealthy landowner of Jackson's River. Captain Gwin was a steadfast soldier in the wars with the Indians and British. He was one of the men who went tot he relief of the Wilson family, and his military career continued until the close of the Revolution.

Jacob Hevener, Jr., was a wealthy and prosperous stock grower of Crabbottom, as had been his sons.

Benjamin H. Hiner graduated in law in 1892, but even before his admission to the bar he was nominated as Prosecuting Attorney of Pendleton, holding that office eight years. In 1908 he was a candidate for Congress, and though defeated he ran ahead of his ticket by 1,500 votes. Mr. Hiner was a very active attorney.

The Hull (Hohl) family was very prominent in the early annals. The pioneer himself was a man of large means for his day. Peter (another of my ancestors), the oldest son, increased the estate, zoning a large portion of the Crabbottom, his possessions in 1818 including 16 slaves, 19 horses, 43 cows, and 60 sheep. Peter was an officer in the Revolution, a colonel of militia subsequent thereto, and a legislator also. Peter was very influential, but also domineering. Major Peter Hull, his son, lived at McDowell, where he was a heavy landholder. He also sat in the Legislature and held various local offices. This branch of the Hull family was locally extinct in the male line. The late Joseph, a well-to-do farmer and upright citizen, was kindly remembered by his associates.

The Jones connection had included quite a share of names of ability, education, and financial competence. Thomas, son of the pioneer Henry, was a prominent public man of Pendleton. Charles P., a grandson, took his LL. B. degree from the University of Virginia and had been in active practice since 1868 in Highland and adjoining counties. He had been leading counsel in numerous important civil and criminal cases. He had served in both branches of the State Legislature, and had been the only STate Senator form Highland. From 1898 until 1906 he was Rector of the State University. He was President of the Citizens' Bank of Monterey. Since 1900, his son, Edwin B., Commonwealth's Attorney, had been associated with him in legal practice. Dr. Harrison H., senior physician of Highland, had been a practitioner since 1867, and had given all his children a liberal education. He was well known as a Sunday school worker. His brother, Jared A., a popular, influential, and well-to-do citizen was County treasurer from 1879 until his death in 1910. Clarence A., son of Jared A., was a physician of Staunton, and Andrew L., another son, was an attorney of Monterey.

William H. Keister was the very popular and efficient Superintendent of the Harrisonburg schools.

Joseph Layne was a well-informed person, and very useful in public life, especially during the war period.

The sons of Samuel Life were of superior attainments and three were college graduates. William and George M. took theological courses at Princeton and became Presbyterian divines in New York and Iowa. The former was likewise an educator. He founded a seminary at Rye, NY, and remained connected with it until his death. Abraham had an inventive gift and constructed several useful appliances.

Paul Lightner took the Master's degree from Dickenson College and practiced law in Illinois. Returning he represented Bath and Highland in the House of Delegates and was considered one of the best educated men in Virginia.

Captain Jacob C. Matheny, twice wounded in the Confederate service, was County Clerk 44 years. The office had since been held by his sons.

Daniel G. McClung was a merchant more than 40 years, conducted a mercantile house at Richmond during the war and supplied the Confederate Army with uniforms. The latter part of his life was spent at Franklin, West Virginia, where he organized hand was President of the Farmers' Bank.

John S. McNulty was Supervisor and the holder of other local offices. He had seen more public service than any other living citizen.

Samuel Ruckman was a prominent and useful man, and had much to do with the organizing of Highland. His son, John H., invented a sewing machine.

The Rev. William J. Ryder was remembered as a man of high character and sterling qualities. Stewart Ryder was also a preacher.

Charles L. Siron, a graduate of Washington and Lee, spent two years in the Philippines as a teacher. He collected a large number of the folklore tales of the native, and it was his design to prepare these for publication.

John Sitlington, son-in-law to Colonel Peter Hull, was a large landowner and cattleman, first in Crabbottom and afterward at McDowell. he was also in local public life.

Washington Stephenson succeeded tot he ownership of the Wilson farm at Bolar Run, held the office of Sheriff longer than anyone else.

Lucius H. Stephenson took up the study of law at Lexington in 1859, and practiced his profession at Monterey until his death in 1911. he was Commonwealth's Attorney 26 consecutive years, a visitor of the Virginia Military Institute, and a Director of the National Valley Bank of Staunton. He was also an incorporator and promoter of the Citizens' Bank of Highland. Mr. Stephenson was not only an energetic, painstaking, and successful attorney, but a prosperous man of business. He acquired large possessions and during his long and active life he wielded a great influence among his fellow citizens. In matters of local history he was exceptionally well informed.

Samuel W. Sterrett was educated at Washington and Lee University. He taught in Crabbottom, and was ruling elder in the church at New Hampden. He served his adopted county as chairman of its Board of Supervisors, and represented it for three terms in the House of Delegates. He was there a member of the Finance Committee and drafted several important laws. His son, Robert S., was a graduate of the same institution, and principal of the Monterey High school.

J. R. Sitlington Sterrett, reared at McDowell, received a very thorough education at the University of Virginia and at several German universities, taking the degree of PhD. at Munich, in 1880. He also studied at Athens, Greece. For several years he was engaged in a archaeological work in Asia Minor, Assyria and Babylonia. Since 1886 he had been professor of Greek in Miami University, University of texas, Amherst College, and Cornell University. he received the degree of LL. D. front he Uninersity of Aberdeen, Scotland, was a member of the Board of Managers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and also was a member of several learned societies. As an author he was elsewhere mentioned.

Amos Thorp was an eccentric and versatile bachelor hermit of the Bullpasture. Though entirely without school education he made himself well informed and even scholarly. He acquired a practical knowledge of surveying, constructing his own instruments. He labored some time on a Dictionary of the Bible, the manuscript of which he burned.

William S. Thompson was another of those versatile men who were useful in a community. He surveyed land, taught school, and wrote numerous legal papers. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - The Highlander Abroad

Vol 14, Iss 22 Highland County, Virginia - In chapter XXII, History of Highland County, we come upon the Highlander abroad and their call of the West; their extent of emigration from Highland and the prominent emigrants and letters by Highland Emigrants.

The older states of the Union peopled newer states, but the Old frontier, which rested along the entire Alleghany front, was foremost in this movement, and contributed very heavily to the settlement of the Mississippi basin.

It was in 1783, after Highland had been settled almost forty years, there were yet but 10,000 people west of the Alleghanies. Seven years later there were 100,000 beyond the mountains, three-fourths of them in Kentucky, and nearly all these from Virginia. Up to 1847 it was estimated that a third of the emigration to the West had gone from the Old Dominion. The census of 1860 found 400,000 people of Virginia birth dwelling in other states. This was equal to a third of the white population remaining in the state.

The people of Highland have swarmed outward in great numbers. Families once quite numerous were now slimly represented or not at all. Occasionally a family name had scarcely more than maintained a foothold, even from the coming of the pioneer himself. Only leaving a few remaining in the old homesteads as the others had gone westward.

For many years the outflow from Highland was almost exclusively westward. The westward current first occupied the upper section of the Greenbrier Valley. Then it moved onward in a widening stream, scattering Highland surnames very widely in what is now West Virginia. It crossed the Ohio, keeping step with the opening of the country to settlement, and never halted, except for the waves of the Pacific Ocean.

There was an early rush into Kentucky, as it dispersed widely over the Southwest. The depleting of the East and the ultimate exhaustion of desirable land in the West, together with the changes wrought by the new industrial conditions, have caused the seaboard states to present a measure of attraction which once was unthought of and did not truly exist. Highland people had been moving somewhat into the Valley, pushing across the Blue Ridge into the counties of Piedmont and Middle Virginia.

There was not a Highland family but had kinsfolk abroad. Many were born abroad, having never seen their ancestral county, and were strangers to its people. There were nearer relatives, native to the county, who had migrated in all directions. Highland was represented throughout by two classes of people: 1) those of Highland birth and 2) those of Highland ancestry only.

They were to be found from New York to San Francisco and from Chicago to Mexican border. Some amassed wealth in industrial occupations. Some had gone into professional careers. Some had been judges and legislators. Even a governor's chair or a seat in Congress with a national reputation has not proved beyond the reach of the man of Highland birth or parentage.

In the broader field of opportunity which was outside of the little mountain valleys, the emigrant from Highland had made good. They were shown the capabilities of their stock, and had competed on even terms with Americans of other localities.

It was the Highlanders of parentage only of whom the residents of the county know the least. The larger share of these had been quite lost sight of. Yet several were known to have attained eminence.

The late John G. Carlisle of Kentucky, Senator and Cabinet officer, was a son of Robert and grandson of James, of the Bullpasture. His father left Highland in childhood and married a wife of Connecticut birth.

Joseph Benson Foraker, ex-governor of Ohio and ex-senator, was of the Bensons of Highland and had near relatives here.

Professor Robert A Armstrong, of the University of West Virginia, so well and favorably known in the educational circles of his state, was a scion of the Armstrongs of Doe Hill.

Benjamin Estill, Jr., of Washington County, Virginia, possessed an eloquence that matched his commanding presence. He served in Congress in 1824-6. His father's name was commemorated in Estillville, a town of this state, as an uncle's name was in that of Estill county in Kentucky. The name of General Knox, reared on the Cowpasture, was given to the metropolis of East Tennessee.

Highland had furnished a congressman who grew to manhood on its own soil. General William McCoy removed from Doe Hill to Franklin about 1800, where he went into the mercantile business. He was also a large landholder, and possessed a well-stocked farm. In 1811 he was elected to Congress for the district comprising the counties of Augusta, Rockingham, Bath, Pendleton and Hardy. His majority was 135, though he carried but his own county and Rockingham. He was re-elected for ten more terms, serving until 1833. He was a trusted friend of Andrew Jackson, and in Congress was a man of influence. For a number of years he held the important position of chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of Virginia in 1829. General Mccoy is scarcely remembered by any person now living, although he was known to have been tall and spare and of commanding presence.

This is just a few Highland men abroad that had varying instances of success:

  • Adam C.Snyder, judge of court of appeals of West Virginia
  • Dr. J. R. S. Sterrett, accomplished scholar and professor in leading American university, traveled extensively in Europe and the Orient. He knew sixteen tongues and conversed in several. His mastery of German being so complete as to cause him to be taken for a native German by the Germans themselves.
  • Rev. Robert H. Fleming, D. D., was at the head of the Presbyterian Orphanage at Lynchburg.
  • William and George M. Life were also thoroughly educated divines, and the former founded Rye Seminary in New York.
  • Professor Thomas H. Jones holds a prominent position in the Randolph-Macon system of secondary schools.
  • Clifton E. Byrd and William H. Keister were superintendents of city schools at Shreveport, Louisiana, and Harrisonburg, Virginia, respectively.
  • Charles S. McNulty was a leading attorney of Roanoke.
  • Henry Jones, who went to Texas bout 1825, left a million to his daughter.
  • Jacob W. Byrd, and original "Forty-niner," narrowly escaped being lost in his journey across the western plains. He reached El Dorado in safety and dug a competence out of its golden sands.
  • Edward C. Rexrode is a high-salaried salesman in a produce house of the city of New York.
  • Charles A. Bradshaw was a very successful insurance agent of Bluefield, West Virginia.

The following letter is from a Highland man who had gone West: "Franklin Co., Mo, Aug., 2, 1829 - Dear Friend, I rec'd your friendly letter on the 31 of July bearing date June 1st which gave rise to every sensation of old friendship and caused them to Reverberate through all the faculties I possess as though we were personally present. I hope we will have the pleasure of spending some time together yet and our latter days may be our best ones. This leaves me well thank god and hope they will find you all the same. I have many things to communicate but being in one of John homespun's bustles I must omit part of them. Tomorrow I start for Camp meeting on the Illinois a distance of 100 miles. I have been at 2 camp meeting on the Illinois a distance of 100 miles. I have been at 2 camp meetings one Methodist 6 miles from home and the other was a Cumberland Presbyterian meeting one mile from home. The one in Illinois is a methodist meeting, where I will see your mother's cousins and Cynthia's uncle and cousins.

"It appears uncertain whether Cynthia will come with the old people or not. Present my compliments to her. Tell her now is the time to exercise sound judgment. She is of age. Let her speak for herself. My opinion is made on the subject, therefore the prayer of her ever unthankful friend is that she may be enabled to rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing and in every thing give thanks and be kept blameless till the coming of our lord and saviour.

"My love to father and mother Pendleton and family. Tell Phebeann I want to see her and Susan very bad. I want to see Betsy Ann and infant, all of you. Sir, if you write about the time you start I will meet you in Illinois and assist you the balance of your journey as you will be wore out by that time. Write and let me know all the news. I must return thanks for the last being so satisfactory. Give my love to . . . . . and family. Tell him to send me some money all if he can by you or your father as he has the papers. I rote to them both last June. I also sent a note of $8.00 on the . . . . . to your father for collection. I hope he will not neglect to collect principal & interest to a fraction. I think hard of . . . . . 's not writing, also of your father and mother. I have written several times to them and they have turned a deaf ear to all my entreaties. Is this christian love? No, god forbid. Is this friendship. No. If ye only love them that love you how much more do ye than the Pharisees.

"You expect to winter in Boone. You will not like it as well as some other counties I think. George & Thomas B. & family are well and all the Moses Falls & families are well. John and Betsey are single. The people are in perfect health. A few shaking with the ague a sign of good health.

"I never expect see Virginia. My mind is firmly fixed on a residence for life if things cooperator with the present flattering prospect. I am Sir, Respectfully Yours, Henry M. McCann.

"P.S. My unremitted love to Miss Rebecca --, let me know where she is and how her health is. My compliments to old Mr. Tommy R and family. Tell Polly I was in hopes to have heard that her and friend -- have been spliced before this. Remember me to all enquiring friends -- to uncle John and aunt Betsy Cunningham, in particular and the family & to Nancy Campbell. her Brother Thomas was well not long since. I conclude by sending my compliments to old Miss Martha. (Note: the postage on this letter, from Union, Mo. to Hull's Store, Pendleton county, was 25 cents.)" View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Negroes In Highland

Vol 14, Iss 21 Highland, Virginia - This week we mention a bit about slavery in Highland, values of slaves, slavery regulations, slaveholders in 1800, Manumission, and free negroes.

The negro appeared in Highland within ten years from the settlement, if one or more members of the race did not come with the first pioneers on the Bullpasture. The first known individual was a girl or young woman who was purchased for Ann Jane Usher by her guardian before the Indian War. It was very possible that she was the one whom Mrs. Loftus Pullin (nee Usher) set free by her Will in 1805.

In 1801, Loftus Pullin owned nine slaves. In 1802, John Peebles also had nine, while his neighbors, Robert and James Carlile, had seven and three, respectively. The Bensons, the Lockridges, and the Wilsons on Bolar Run were also considerable slave owners. The better agricultural lands of Highland which had been reduced to tillage were mainly the fertile river bottoms. These were held in tracts of considerable size, and thus caused the plantation system to gain a foothold. Consequently the slaves were held almost exclusively by the well-to-do river farmers.

The slave population was not evenly distributed. Pendleton never owned slaves in anything like the same degree as Bath, and the number in Highland North of the central divide seems always to have been much less than to he southward. Here again, the laws of physical geography come into play. The northern half of Highland was a much smaller proportion of river bottom than the southern. Furthermore, the people of that section were largely of German origin, and this element was never inclined to make much us of slavery.

The limestone belt which runs the whole length of the Bluegrass Valley was a fine substitute for river bottom, yet it was esteemed better suited to grazing than tillage, and slavery was never much in vogue where field agriculture was not largely followed. Accordingly it had a small representation in their valley. It was on the Bullpasture and on the lower courses of Jackson's River and the Cowpasture in Highland that the most slaves were to be found.

The slave had but one name, which was often borrowed front he celebrities of old Rome or from its mythology. Thus Lancelot Graham had a slave named Neptune. The woman whom Mrs. Pullin freed was Daphne. The field hands were lodged in small log cabins. But few indeed are the visible relics of slavery in Highland at this date, and while here and there a slave cabin still existed, it was never, perhaps, as a dwelling, but only as a truck room, hardly suggestive of its former use.

In the earlier days of our local history, slaves were less valuable than in in the period before the great war. The ten slaves of David Gwin in 1822 were valued at $250 to $400 each. The fourteen of George Benson in 1816 were rated at $2,895. The nine of Loftus Pullin in 1801 were worth $2,070. An infant would be worth but $50, while an old man or woman had scarcely any value at all. At the William Sitlington sale in 1825, the boys and girls from three to thirteen years old sold tat $100 to $300 each, according to age. A man of twenty-four sold at $450, while another of fifty-five brought but $150. A woman of forty years was still reed at $200, but the value of one of fifty a had significantly dropped to $100. A woman of seventy and a demented man of thirty found no bidders.

In 1840 slaves were worth $250 to $600, and in the decade of the 50's they became still more valuable. It was this enhancement of value which made the South so tenacious in its support of the institution. Slavery was not voluntarily abandoned so long as slaves rise in value. Had the tendency been the other way in America the emancipation bill which came before the Virginia Legislature of 1832 would probably have carried. But it was lost by only one vote. Had it become a law, the border slave states would have followed the example of Virginia, and the war of 1861 might not have occurred.

While slavery continued, repressive laws and regulations were found necessary. If a slave gave a poisonous drug with intent to oil, the penalty was death without benefit of clergy. It was a misdemeanor with a penalty of not more than thirty-nine lashes for a slave to prepare to administer any medicines, unless by permission of the master.

Slave districts were regularly patrolled. Highland was divided into patrol districts, each with a captain and his party of five to seven men. It was the duty of such patrol party to visit all negro quarters at stated intervals, usually weekly or bi-weekly, and all other places which might fall under suspicion of unlawful assembly. Negroes were whipped by the patrol when found string away without permission.

Although, under slavery repressive rules toward the black people were unavoidable, the institution was not the pitiless tyrant it was represented to be by uninformed Northern Abolitionists. An occasional master was harsh toward his slaves, but in the main the relations between master and slave was kindly. When a man was hired out, as was often done, he was permitted to be at home from Saturday noon till Monday morning. A master on the Bullpasture required a man slave to perform work on Sunday, which the latter objected to doing, he as well as his master being a member of church. The master had his man "churched" for disobedient behavior, yet the latter was acquitted by a jury of slaveholders.

While the Southern men were at the front during the war of 1861, it was in the power of the negroes to work immense harm both positive and negative. A general uprising on their part would at once have disbanded the Southern armies, yet nothing of the sort occurred. Free labor being much more general in Highland than slave labor, there was a division of sentiment with respect to the latter. Salves were every now and then set free by their owners, especially by will. The widow of Alexander Hamilton freed forty slaves. Barbara Wilson freed a number, and the following paper appears to relate to still another, an infant which did not come within the provisions of her will.

Barbara Wilson's Will of 1822:

"Know all men by these presents that I, Barbara Wilson, of the County of Bath and Commonwealth of Virginia, being upon principle opposed to holding any person in slavery, and for other good causes me thereunto moving, have liberated, emancipated, and forever quit claim, and by these presents liberate, emancipate, and forever quit claim to and discharge from my service my white child slave named Sarah Jane, aged about five months, and I do hereby bind myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators forever, to release and discharge from my own or their service the said white child slave, Sarah Jane and her future increase. In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed my seal the fifth day of January in the Year of our Lord 1822. ~ Barbara Wilson."

The free negro's presence was not very welcome in communities where there were slaves, and he was very likely to lead an idle, worthless existence. If he became unable to work, the estate of the former master became responsible for his support. His sojourn in a given county of the state was dependent on the will of the county court. He had to be registered by the county clerk, a certificate there being given him for preservation. An objectionable freedman might be prohibited from entering a county, and a misbehaving freedman already in might be ordered out. If he were delinquent in his taxes he could be hired out by the county until the shortage was thus made good. The last mention of ante-bellum freedmen on the records of Highland was when, in the summer of 1864, Madison Douglas was allowed to remain.

During the war the small slave population of Highland became demoralized and scattered. some of the slaves were enticed away by Federal soldiers. At the close of the struggle the white people went to work without much reference to the help formerly derived from the colored race. Under freedom, the negro population of Highland was smaller than under slavery. In the Bluegrass District there was only one family. In Monterey District the representation was very slight in number and was wholly at the county. Stonewall District contains by far the largest share, the most of it being massed in the vicinity of McDowell, where, along the pike near the battlefield, there was a settlement called Stringtown.

For the year 1800, the following slaveholders were recorded in the Pendleton section of Highland:

  1. Armstrong, Mary
  2. Benson, Mathias
  3. Bodkin, John
  4. Chew Exekiel
  5. Curry, James, Sr.
  6. Devericks, John
  7. Devericks, Thomas
  8. Ervine, George
  9. Ervine, William
  10. Fleisher, CAtharine
  11. Fleisher, William
  12. Gum, Isaac
  13. Hull, Adam, Jr.
  14. Hull, Peter
  15. Hull, Samuel B.
  16. Malcomb, Robert
  17. Rymer, George
  18. Seybert, Jacob
  19. Sims, Silas
  20. Sitlington, John
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Highland County Virginia - Highland Soldiers

Vol 14, Iss 20 Highland county, Virginia - In researching more history of Highland County, Virginia we find that the men of Highland birth or residence had fought in several American wars with honor and with no little loss of life and limb.

In the Indian War of 1754-64 the county was on the very frontier, and possibility was before every settler of having to do battle in company with his fellows or in defense of his very cabin. The muster roll of 1756 shows a large proportion of Highland names. In the Dunmore War of 1774, Highland men must have constituted the greater part of two companies of the Augusta militia that marched to Point Pleasant. We do not know at hand the muster rolls of the companies, nor do we know how many of them were included among the 77 Augustans who were killed or wounded in that Dunmore battle.

It was highly possible that several of the Highland militia were in the Pendleton company that marched with Governor Henry Lee to put down the whiskey Insurrection of 1794. In that instance there was, happily, no fighting.

In the War of 1812, we find that a number of Highland men marched to the defense of Norfolk. Some of the soldiers enlisting for that war saw no actual service, news of peace arriving about the time they reached the front.

For the War with Mexico, no company was recruited from Highland, although a very few residents saw service there. The same remark became true of the War with Spain in 1898. But in the War of 1861, more than 500 Highlanders, out of the white population of 3,890 (1860), were enlisted soldiers, serving almost exclusively in the armies of the Confederacy. Of these soldiers of Lee and Jackson, 101 were known to have lost their lives in the service, and man more were wounded or captured. One considerable engagement was fought on Highland soil, and the men were killed in the same who were within a few miles of their homes. Highland men were prompt to enlist, and their first organization marched to Grafton before a hostile shot had been fired. Several were likewise among those who stacked arms in the final surrender at Appomattox. One of these brought home and set out a cutting from the historic apple tree.

Nearly all the Confederate soldiers form Highland served in the 25th, 31st, and 62d regiments of Virginia Infantry. A few were in the 38th and 51st Infantry regiments and in the batteries of McClanahan, Carpenter, and Shumate. A larger number were in the 11th, 14th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 26th regiments of Cavalry. One man was in naval service on board the "Patrick Henry" in James River.

The 25th Infantry took part in the battles of Philippi, Camp Alleghany, McDowell, Front Royal, Newtown, Winchester (1862), Cross Keys, Port Republic, Peninsula, Cedar Mountain, Second Manasses, Chantilly, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Brandy Station, Winchester (1863), Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor. It was one of the commands surrendered at Appomattox. An inspection of the list shows that it was with Stonewall Jackson in his Valley Campaign, and that it subsequently formed a part of the main army under General Lee.

The 31st Infantry, at first under Edward Johnson, had Jubal A. Early as a brigade commander after the battle of McDowell. It was still under Early after his promotion to the command of a Division in Ewell's Corps. It was with jackson in his Valley Campaign, and then formed a part of the Army of NOrthern Virginia. It had a share in nearly all of Lee's battles except Chancellorsville, being at that time with Imboden on his raid into West Virginia. In the fall of 1864 the regiment was with Early in his own Valley Campaign. It was one of the commands to surrender a Appomattox, at which time it numbered only about 60 men. At Port Republic it lost nearly on half its numbers, Company B alone losing more than 50 men.

The 25th, 31st, and 62d Infantry regiments formed with the 18th Cavalry, White's Battlaion, and McClenahan's Battery, the brigade under the command of General John D. Imboden. It was in these regiments that nearly all the Highland men served. In the May and June of 1863, the brigade raided beyond the Alleghanies, penetrating as far as Weston and Sutton. At Williamsport, the 62d helped to cover the retreat of Lee, and afterward guarded the 4,000 Federal prisoners who were marched to Stuanton. After suffering heavily at New Market it took part in Early's campaign in Maryland and the Valley. When it disbanded at Fincastle, April 15th, 1865, it numbered only about 45 men, one company being represented only by its captain.

The Highland county Confederate soldiers constituted a portion of the "foot cavalry" under Jackson, and shared the luster of that leader's energetic and brilliant exploits. A few Highlanders served as enlisted soldiers in the Federal Army. Several of these had removed format he county before the war. The Roll of Captain George Wilson's Company, August 11, 1756 included the following:

Officers

  1. George Wilson, Captain
  2. Hugh Hicklin, Lieutenant
  3. Thomas Hughart, Ensign
  4. Charles Gilham, Sergeant
  5. William Johnson, Corporal
Privates
  1. Robert Adair
  2. James Barton
  3. Joseph Bell
  4. William Black
  5. James, John & Richard Bodkin
  6. Samuel Bright
  7. William Burnett
  8. John, Robert (1) & Robert (2) Carlile
  9. Patrick Davis
  10. Simeon Deckert
  11. Samuel Delamontony
  12. Robert Duffield
  13. Andrew Elliot
  14. Benjamin & Boude Estill
  15. Felix Gilbert
  16. Robert Hall
  17. Hans, Matthew & Michael Harper
  18. John & Thomas Hicklin
  19. James & John Jackson
  20. Adam & John Jordan
  21. George & John Lewis
  22. Stephen Long
  23. James Mayse
  24. Elijah & William McClenahan
  25. James, John, Patrick, Valentine & William Miller
  26. Philip Phegan
  27. William Price
  28. William Sprowl
  29. Frederick Stull
  30. William Warwick
  31. Michael Wilfong
  32. Samuel Wilson
Soldiers of the Dunmore War

The only names we know of are the following, and it can not positively be affirmed that all were Highlanders:
  1. ? Bradshaw
  2. James Burnside
  3. Robert Carlile
  4. James Dinwiddie, killed at Point Pleasant
  5. Abraham Hempenstall
  6. ? McCoy, Lieut.
  7. Robert Wiley, Sr.
  8. Robert Wiley, Jr.
  9. John Wilson
  10. Capt. Samuel Wilson, killed at Point Pleasant
Soldiers of the Revolution

The following list has been gathered from a variety of sources. The persons with starred names were surviving pensioners in 1840, George Rymer, the oldest, being 90 years of age, and Edward Morton, the youngest, 75 years.
  1. John Bradshaw, served in Yorktown campaign
  2. Isaac Briscoe, on Washington's body guard at Yorktown
  3. Samuel Campbell, officer
  4. James Carlile, severely wounded at Guilford and taken home by his brother
  5. Richard Curry
  6. Thomas Devericks *
  7. Michael Eagle *
  8. James Gillespie
  9. Samuel Gilmer, very severely wounded in the Waxhaw massacre, 1780.
  10. Christopher Graham, in Henry Lee's legion.
  11. Isaac Gum, at Yorktown
  12. Capt. David Gwin, at Guilford
  13. Capt. Thomas Hicklin, under Maj. John Wilson, conveyed prisoners from Yorktown to Winchester.
  14. Henry Jones
  15. Thomas Kincaid *
  16. Willliam McClintic, severely wounded at Guilford
  17. Robert McCoy, at Guilford
  18. John McGlaughlin, in garrison under Capt. William Smith at Hinkle's Fort, 1781
  19. Edward Morton *, at Cowpens when 16 years old
  20. George Rymer *
  21. John Sharp
  22. John Slaven, at Yorktown
  23. James Steuart, guarded Augusta frontier at Clover Lick, about 1779, marched to Jamestown, 1781, under Col. John McCreary and Capt. Peter Hull, substitute for James Carlile, 1781.
  24. Edward STeuart, in Capt. Thos. Hicklin's company, substitute for Joseph Beathe, 1778, in garrison at Vance's Fort, Back Cr. to guard frontier against Indians, helped convey prisoners form Yorktown.
  25. John Steuart, in Capt. Thos. Hicklin's company, sword wound in hand at Yorktown.
  26. William Steuart
  27. Henry Towberman
  28. Maj. John Wilson, conveyed prisoners form Yorktown to Winchester
The muster roll given contains Pendleton as well as Highland names, was copied from the original paper in the handwriting of Nicholas Seybert. Muster Roll, Capt. Peter Hull's Company, 2nd Battalion, Augusta Militia, 1779 (those * are under 18 years of age.):

Officers
  1. Peter Hull, Captain
  2. Nicolas Seybert, 1st Lieutenant
  3. Henry Fleisher, 2nd Lieutenant
  4. Jacob Hoover, Ensign
Privates
  1. Adam, David, John & Micahel Arbogast
  2. Jacob, John & William Bennett
  3. Thomas Blizzard
  4. Hugh Bodkin
  5. John Bowman
  6. Abraham Burner
  7. Ulrich Conrad, Jr.
  8. Frederick Crummett
  9. Abraham Duffield *
  10. Abraham & Philip Eckard
  11. Jacob Ellsworth
  12. Christopher Eye
  13. Conrad Fleisher
  14. Francis Graham
  15. Isaac, Jacob & William Gum
  16. Balsor Hammer
  17. Nicholas Harper
  18. James Hoff
  19. John Hogg
  20. Michael Hoover
  21. George Huffman
  22. Adam Hull
  23. Uriah Ingram
  24. Andrew Jordan
  25. Conrad & Joseph Lantz
  26. Alexander McQuain
  27. John & James Mullenax
  28. Henry Noll
  29. John Peninger
  30. Christian Pickle
  31. George Puffenberger
  32. George Rexrode
  33. George Sheets
  34. George, John, Leonard, Mark, Michael & Peter Simmons
  35. Mark & Sebastian Smith
  36. Sebastian Stone
  37. George Stout
  38. Paul Summers
  39. Thomas Summerfield
  40. Adam Wagoner
  41. John, William & James* Wamsley
  42. Henry Whiteman
  43. Jacob Wilfong
  44. Philip Wimer
  45. John Yeager
British Service

A few of the Highland settlers had served in the British army during the Revolution. Among these were Charles Halterman, George Keitz, James Trimble(surrendered at Yorktown), and John White.

Wars of 1811 and 1812
  1. Jared Armstrong
  2. David Bird
  3. Capt. John Blagg
  4. Thomas Brown
  5. Andrew H. Byrd
  6. John Cunningham
  7. William Erwin
  8. John & Thomas (taken prisoner) Graham
  9. James Gwin
  10. Jacob Hiner
  11. John McCoy, killed at Tippecanoe, 1811
  12. James Mullenax
  13. Loftus Pullin, Jr.
  14. Christian Rexrode
  15. William Robertson
  16. George Varner
  17. William Wade, died in service

Roll of Captain Jacob Hull's Company, 1814:
  1. Daniel, George, Jonathan, Joseph, Michael & William Arbogast
  2. John Armstrong
  3. Mathias Benson
  4. David Berage
  5. Jacob Jr., John & Valentine Bird
  6. Jacob Bright
  7. Abraham, Daniel, George & Henry Burner
  8. Jacob Colaw
  9. James Curry
  10. Jacob & John Sr. Gall
  11. Samuel Gibson
  12. John Gothard
  13. John Grim
  14. Abraham, Adam, McBride & Jacob Gum
  15. Leonard Hammer
  16. Andrew Hardway
  17. Jacob, John & William Hidy
  18. Charles Huchin
  19. Daniel Huffman
  20. Jesse Johnson
  21. Jonas Lantz
  22. Christian & Samuel Life
  23. Henry McCan
  24. John McNulty
  25. Jacob, Joseph & Samuel Mullenax
  26. Francis & George Nicholas
  27. John Peck
  28. Adam Rexrode
  29. Thomas Roby
  30. John Sharrot
  31. Henry (Sr.), Henry (Jr.), Joseph & MIchael Simmons
  32. Adam & James Stephenson
  33. Cornelius Sutton
  34. George, Joseph & MIchael Wagoner
  35. George White
  36. Jacob & Henry Wimmer
  37. Samuel Wood
  38. Sampson Zickafoose
War of 1861 - Federal Service
  1. Francis M. Bird, W. Va. Reg't
  2. George W. Helmick, Penn. Reg't
  3. Thomas J. Jones
  4. Newton Lowery
  5. William McNett
  6. Leonard Rexrode, W. Va. Reg't, died in Andersonville
  7. John, Nathan & William Rexrode, W. Va. Reg't
  8. Wooddell, W. Va. Reg't
We will take up next week with the "Roster of Highland Men In Confederate Service." View/Write Comments (count 2)   |   Receive updates (2 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Highland Militia

Vol 14, Iss 19 Highland county, Virginia - In chapter XIX of Oren F. Fredricks book, History of Highland County, we learn something of the early Militia organization, officers and muster rolls of 1794. Yes! Colonial Virginia had a militia organization, which under independence was systematized. The state of Virginia was divided into five division districts and eighteen brigade districts, with each of the former being under the supervision of a major general and each of the latter under a brigadier general. Each county furnished at least one regiment.

Each division was attached one regiment of cavalry and one of artillery. The regiment, consisting of at least 400 men and commanded by a colonel, was divided into two battalions, one commanded by the lieutenant colonel and one by the major. Each battalion had a stand of colors. Each company had one captain, two first lieutenants, two second lieutenants, five sergeants, and six corporals.

On the staff of the colonel were one quartermaster, one paymaster, one surge's mate, one adjutant with the rank of captain, one sergeant major, one quartermaster sergeant, two principal musicians, and drum and fife majors.

Officers received their commissions through recommendation to the governor from the county court. A rigid anti-dueling oath was exacted of the officers. The best men to be found were appointed to office under the militia system.

Company musters took place in April and October, battalion musters in October or November, and regimental musters in April or May. Non-attendance led to a fine, usually of 75 cents, and this was turned over to the sheriff for collection. Excuses for cause were granted by a court martial, the clerk of the same having in 1794 a yearly salary of $6.67. In the same year wee find one man excused for an impediment in his speech, and another for a deficiency in intellect. Other were excused until in a better state of health.

Officers did not pay much attention to costume, the regimental and some of the company officers wore coats of the pattern of 1812; a dark-blue garment with long swallow-tail, epaulettes, and brass buttons.

The Highland regiment was the 162d Infantry. Have you found any of your Highland ancestors listed as such? George W. Hull was its colonel in 1860. The old militia system did not survive the war of 1861. We find that the regimental muster was an event of the far, and drew a crowd of spectators, as a circus does today.

The Muster Rolls of 1794 - Captain William Janes' Company, some of the names below I have run across in my ancestry search. Such as most of the names below:

  1. Arbogast, David
  2. Arbogast, George
  3. Arbogast, Henry
  4. Arbogast, John
  5. Arbogast, Michael
  6. Arbogast, Peter
  7. Beverage, David
  8. Bussard, Michael
  9. Coovert, Peter
  10. Eagan, John
  11. Fleisher, Conrad
  12. Fleisher, Palsor
  13. Fox, Michael
  14. George, Reuben
  15. Grogg, John
  16. Grogg, Philip
  17. Gum, Abraham
  18. Gum, Jacob
  19. Halterman, Cahrles
  20. Hammer, Balsor
  21. Harper, Adam
  22. Huffman, Christian
  23. Hull, Adam
  24. Hull, George
  25. Jones, James
  26. Keitz, George
  27. Lambert, John
  28. Life, Martin, Jr.
  29. Lightner, Andrew
  30. Lightner, Peter
  31. McMahon, John
  32. Michael, William
  33. Moore, David
  34. Markle, George
  35. Mullenax, Archibald
  36. Mullenax, James
  37. Murray, Edward
  38. Peck, Jacob
  39. Peck, John
  40. Peck, Michael
  41. Radabaugh, Henry
  42. Rexrode, George
  43. Rexrode, John
  44. Richards, Basil
  45. Rymer, George
  46. Seybert, Jacob
  47. Simmons, Henry
  48. Simpson, Alexander
  49. Smalley, Benjamin
  50. Smith, William
  51. Swadley, Nicholas
  52. Thomas, John
  53. Wagoner, Christian
  54. Wagoner, Joseph
  55. Wagnoner, Michael
  56. Walker, Joseph
  57. Wamsley, Joseph
  58. Waybright, Martin
  59. White John
  60. Whiteman, William
  61. Williams, Robert
  62. Wimer, Henry
  63. Wimer, Jacob
  64. Wimer, Philip
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Highland County Virginia - Civil Officers, Legislators, Justices and Officials

Vol 14, Iss 18 Highland county, Virginia - [The 1907 penny postcard featured this week is sent from Vanderpoole, Virginia by Robert Brill Doyle to Miss Constance Estella Warwick in Alva, Oklahoma. Robert Brill Doyle took care of the old "Pine Grove School" in Mustoe, Virginia and donated the land for the school. He was born 12 March 1875 on the Jackson River, Highland County, Virginia and died 14 December 1945. He comes down through the Doyle ancestry through Leona Doyle Dever. he and his mother are buried, without head stones, in the Scared Heart Catholic Cemetery, right beside the old school.]

The newness of Highland as a separate county, the roll of legislators from its territory was a short one. It is rendered all the shorter from the circumstance that the Senate and House rolls preserved in the stet capitol were defective, even in recent years.

From the portion formerly in Pendleton the following names appear with the session dates:

  1. Col. Peter Hull, 1789-91 and 1793-1805;
  2. Oliver McCoy, 1794;
  3. Nathaniel Pendleton, 1805-06 and 1813-15;
  4. Maj. Peter Hull, 1807-16;
  5. Harmon V. Gvien, 1816-7;
  6. Thomas Jones, 1819-24, 1827-9, and 1833-5;
  7. Harmon Hiner, 1825-6, 1829-33 and 1839-42;
  8. John Bird, 1842-4;
  9. Benjamin Hiner, 1844-6 and1848-50.
From the section formerly in BAth, no names appear to occur until Andrew H. Byrd became a delegate in the sessions of 1836-8, 1841, 1843, 1846 and 1848. When the new county was formed, he was the delegate from Bath.

Bath and Highland were in one legislative district until 1853, William Hevener being Delegate in 1852. From 1853 until 1891, Highland was a district by itself, yet for this period we find only the following names:
  1. Andrew H. Byrd, 1853;
  2. John Bird, 1857-8;
  3. William W. Fleming, 1859;
  4. Harmon Hiner, 1877-8;
  5. John T. Byrd, 1889-90.
It was in 1891, Alleghany, BAth and Highland were put into one district, which was represented in 1904-8 by Samuel W. Sterrett, and since then by John W. Stephenson, a resident of Bath but native of Highland.

Charles P. Jones, the only State Senator from this county, served as such from 1885 until 1897. George W. Hull sat in the State Convention in 1861. Under the Constitutions of 1776 and 1829, the following Justices of Pendleton appear to have come from the Highland section, their appointments being found in the years designated below:
  1. George W. Amiss, 1822
  2. Emmanuel Arbogast, 1843
  3. James B. Campbell, 1831
  4. Benjamin Fleisher, 1820
  5. Benoni Hansel, 1840
  6. Thomas Jones, 1831
  7. Peter Hull, Sr., 1788
  8. Peter Hull, Jr., 1825
  9. Nicholas Seybert, 1800
  10. Adam Sitlington, 1807
  11. John Sitlington, 1807
  12. John Slaven, 1797
  13. James Stephenson, 1797
  14. Thomas Wilson, 1797
Among the earlier Justices from Bath the following Highland names appear:
  1. William Dinwiddie, 1796
  2. John Erwin, 1794
  3. James Hicklin, 1795
  4. Timothy Holcomb, 1795
  5. Bartholemew Johnston, 1795
  6. William Lockridge, 1797
  7. John Peebles, 1790
  8. Stewart Slaven, 1815
  9. John Wilson, 1790
Highland Justices (Presidents indicated by a star):

Apponted, 1848: George W. Amiss, Abel H. Armstrong, Emanuel Arbogast, David H. Byrd, James Brown, Andrew H. Byrd, James B. Campbell, Benjamin Fleisher, George Hicklin, Petter Hull*, Thomas Jones, John H. Pullin, Samuel Ruckman, John Sitlington, Reuben Slaven, Adam Stephenson, Cahrles Steuart.

Felix H. Hull was appointed 1854, vice Peter Hull.

Elected 1856: John Bird, John C. Bird, Thomas L. Brown, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming*, Adam L. Gum, Henry Hevener, William Hevener*, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. Hull, Jacob Hull, James Hupman, Samuel Jones, John C. Marshall, Franklin McNulty, George T. Robson, Henry Seybert, David Stephenson.

Elected 1860: John Bird, Thomas L. Brown, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming, William Hevener*, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. Hull, Jacob Hull, Henery C> Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Adam Lightner, John C. Marshall, Franklin McNUlty, John H. Pullin, Henry Seybert, Adam C. Stephenson, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart, Zachariah Tomlinson. Marshall, Pullin, and the two hulls died in 1861. Joseph Layne was elected in the place of Felix H. Hull.

Elected 1864: Jared G. ARmstrong, John H. Byrd, Austin W. Campbell, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, Adam H. Fleisher, William D. Gibson, William Hevener, John M. Hook, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, James Moyers, Stewart C. Slaven, David Snyder, Robert A. Steuart, James M. Terry, Anson O. Wade.

Elected 1865: John Bird, Thomas L. Brown, John H. Byrd, benjamin B. Campbell, William M. Campbell, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming, John E. Gum, Benoni Hansel, John M. Hook, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Samuel M. Marshall, Jonathan Siron, Adam C. Stephenson, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart.

Fleming and Gum were declared ineligible. John Trimble was chosen in place of the former and John S. Newman in place of the latter. Later in the year, Henry Seybert and George Hamme Campbell were added to the board.

Election of 1868: Thomas L. Brown, John H. Byrd, Benjamin B. Campbell, William M. Campbell, George Eagle, Benoni Hansel, John M. Hook, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Samuel M. Marshall, John S. Newman, Henry Seybert, Jonathan Siron, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart, John Trimble.

Apponted by General Canby, 1869: Benjamin Arbogast, Joseph A. Beathe, William Brown, Anderson P. Devericks, C. H. Harouff, Robert S. Hook, Joseph Hull, Robert R. Hull, John Lamb, Michael Mauzy, Robert S. Miller, Charles H. Slaven.

Sheriffs under Pendleton and bAth: Peter Hull, Sr., 1798; William dinwiddie, 1812; Harmon Hiner, 1817-9; Peter Hull, Jr., 1821; John Sitlington, 1826; George Hicklin, 1832; Thomas Kinkead, 1833; Benjamin Fleisher, 1839; Samuel Ruckman, 1839; Reuben Slaven, 1843; Charles Steuart, 1844; John Graham, 1846.

Sheriffs of Highland: Peter Hull, 1848-9; Andrew H. Byrd, 1849-51; John Sitlington, 1851-2; Washington Stephenson, 1852-7; Andrew J. Bird, 1857-8; John M. Rexrode, 1858-63; William M. Summers, 1863-5; John A. Fleisher, 1869; William M. Summers, 1870-09; William M. Arbogast, 1879-99; J. Edward Arbogast, 1899-1911. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Land Ownership

Vol 14, Iss 17 Highland County, Virginia - [The photo on the left is a penny postcard sent by R. B. Doyle, Vanderpoole, Virginia, 6 September 1907, to Miss Constance Estella Warwick, received 10 September 1907, in Alva, Oklahoma.]

We have learned that the letter of the law, the unoccupied lands of colonial Virginia belonged to the king, as a personification of the state. The public domain was parceled out to private individuals in a way very much like the homestead law by which a great part of the West had been settled during the last half-century.



Old Postcards IV - Virginia
Those hunting land had a tract set off by the county surveyor, and this survey being the basis on which a patent was issued after a lapse of one, two or perhaps more than a dozen years. The patent was signed by the royal governor as the king's proxy. The fees for the survey and patent were small, but the head right, without which the land seeker might not lawfully enter a selection, was dependent on his having paid his passage from Europe.

The intent of this condition appears to have been the elimination of worthless persons, so that the land might be held by men who would make desirable citizens. The patent required that a least six per cent, of the entry be reduced to tillage within a specified time. The fulfillment of this condition was in favor of the genuine settler and against the land monopolist.

The survey could be transferred and was often patented by another person. Oftentimes, the size of the entry seemed very small, considering the unlimited appearance of the public domain. But in an age of hand labor, only a small tract could be made use of by a person controlling no labor but his own.

It was thought back then that proper and expedient to grant a large body of land to an individual or a company, who in turn would put settlers upon it within a stated time. So the governor and his senate would issue an Order of Council in favor of one, but usually a number of persons, authorizing the grantee or grantees to select 30,000 acres front he public lands. This would not be taken in a single body but in choice tracts, the cull lands being left on the hands of the state.

These choice selections were then sold to actual settlers at what might seem a nominal price, but which must have seemed none to light when money was not plenty and when a little would go a great way. But when, as in the case of the Bullpasture Valley, the surveyors found settlers already on the ground, their selections might at the pleasure of the grantee be confirmed to them without purchase.

Although the homestead regulations of the colonial and early state governments were generally good, the advantage of surveying a county by a regular system, such as was afterward used in the West, was not observed, and consequently the individual survey was likely to have some complex and perhaps absurd outlines. The line ran for different persons would often interfere with one another, and the patches of cull land would be left in shapes that would throw into the shade the figures on a crazy quilt. This utter lack of system was, therefore, a fruitful source of confusion and lawsuits.

At a later date the state was less careful of the rights of the actual settler, and huge areas would be conveyed to an individual or a company, the same being held indefinitely by absentee owners to the disadvantage of the counties in which they lay. This indefensible monopoly appeared in Highland in the Hollingsworth survey on the west side of the county, and the Chambers survey on the east side.

Before the crown government passed away in 1775, all the more desirable lands in Highland had passed into individual or corporate ownership. The second-class and the cull lands were gradually absorbed, being a long while before the entire area had come under private ownership.

The crown patent, under which all lands were conveyed by the state prior to American independence, was a cobweb of finely-spun legal verbiage. It seemed to have been the intent of the lawmakers of that age to throw a mystery into the processes of law, and to render them hard of comprehension to the uninformed. It was under our independence that a much simpler method of wording deeds came into use, though.

In the list of surveys and patents and dating from before 1790, compiled front he records in the Surveyor's office of Augusta and in the Land Office of Virginia, the name of the person for whom the tract was surveyed or patented was followed first by the number of acres, by the year of the survey or grant, and then by a description of its location. Unless this was followed by a capital P (Patent), the tract was a survey. Otherwise, it was a patent granted in the same year.

The descriptions on record were often vague, and sometimes of little or no service. Owing to this circumstance, doubtless a few of the tracts mentioned are really within the limits of Bath or Pendleton, while a few thought to belong to one or the other of those counties may belong really in Highland. The original descriptions have generally been followed, and sometime it was evidently better to give a landmark of the present day. The date of patent was not in every case given. This was not always owing to a difficulty in identification. Sometimes the tract has been thrown into an inclusive survey of later date. Many of the surveys toward the end of the period were not patented until after 1790.

Abbrevations: CP for Copasture; BP for Bullpasture and BPMn for Bullpasture Mountain; Jr for Jackson's River; CB for Crabbottom; BC for Back Creek; SC forStraight Creek; br for branch or draft; n for near; mo for mouth; NF for North Fork; SF for South Fork' SB for South Branch; h'd for head; adj for adjoining; for for corner; NW for northwest, etc. "Adjoining himself" referred to a tract surveyed or patented by the person at an earlier date.

Going down through the listing I did find a few ancestral names that married into my Warwick, Gwin and Hull (Hohl) ancestry. There were the ARbogast, Carlile, Estill, Given, Gum, Hines, Lockridge, Matheny, Seybert, Slaven, Steuart, Wiley, Lightner.

My 4th Great Grandfather, David Gwin, is listed as such:

  1. (1) 48- 1780 JR - P. 1787.
  2. (2) 380 - 1780 - n. h'd of BC - P. 1786.
  3. (3) 56 - 1781 - BC, adj. Sam'l Gregory - P. 1787.
  4. (4) 100 - 1789 - JR.
  5. (5) 268 - 1789 - Dry Br. - P.

My 4th Great Grandfather, Peter Thomas Hull, III, had listings such as:
  1. (1) 97 - 1772 - h'd of JR, at Osten's Camp - P. 1773.
  2. (2) 160 - 1781 - CB, adj. himself - P.
  3. (3) 341 - 1782 - CB, adj. himself - P.
  4. (4) 198 - 1783 - CB.
  5. (5) 198 - 1783 CB.
  6. (6) 157 - 1785 Straight Fork?
  7. (7) 115 - 1785 - CB.
  8. (8) 32 1787 - h'd of N.F. on an "old path".

Peter's half-brother George was also listed along side of Peter. Peter as a popular name in my Hull ancestry with three or four Peter's to follow, before it split to an Adam and the female Hull's married into the Gwin's and Warwick's. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Towns, Villages & Hamlets

Vol 14, Iss 16 Highland County, Virginia - We continue our little history of Highland Valley of Virginia with the mention of a few town, villages and hamlets. We find that Highland was organized in 1848 with 4,000 people and the only center which might be termed a village was the little place of McDowell. It was more properly considered a hamlet than a village, though.

Natural conditions foreshadowed the village which grew up on the Bullpasture. There was a gorge on the left bank of the river that was an easy ascent to the top of the Bullpasture plateau. Crab Run, meet the river at right angles, providing a still more easy approach to the Straight Creek Valley. At the intersection of the two streams was a large area of bottom land and low table, on the right side of the larger stream. In 1832, the place was known as Sugar Tree Grove. At that time it contained a Presbyterian church, a store, a schoolhouse, a sawmill, a blacksmith shop, and a few dwellings.

By 1860 it contained several more houses, such as the brick residences of Felix K. and George W. Hull. The schoolhouse was still a log building. The Stage came every other day. and the tavern had little custom, except from people passing through the county. Some years earlier it had received its present name in honor of one of the Virginian governors.

The battle bought on the ridge above in 1862 gave it a name abroad but nothing more substantial. Yet while the census of 1910 registered a six per cent decrease in the population of Highland, it showed a slight increase in that of McDowell. The place had two churches, a schoolhouse of three rooms, three stores, a hotel, a blacksmith shop, two saddler shops, and twenty-six families. Two rising industries were the large, modern flouring mill at the iron bridge, and the tannery which was taking form just below. It was the spring of 1848 that the site of Monterey was an opening in the woods and laurel thickets on the saddle between the two Straight Creeks. Here was a solitary dwelling on the pike which followed the crown of the saddle. As far back as 1774, Samuel Black appeared to have had a cabin in the near vicinity, and a portion of his patent was included within the corporate boundary. The site of Black's cabin was unknown in 1911. Maybe someone today has determined that location.

The decision to put the county seat at Monterey was enough to insure the early appearance of a village. The log house owned by James Bell and occupied by John Cook became a temporary courthouse and was also the first tavern. The turnpike was sixty feet broad and was quite straight, known as High Street. The town site was load off by Bell covered thirteen acres, including the public lot of three acres. The house lots were made 72-½ by 200 feet.

Samuel Ruckman, one of the justices, proposed the name Highland, and it was at first adopted, yet almost at once gave place to that of the Mexican city where General Taylor had just won a victory. The meaning of the Spanish term Monterey was the same as that of the French term Montreal -- "Kingly" or "Royal" Mountain.

When the war came on (1863) Monterey was a village of about one dozen houses, mostly log. One of the very oldest of these, standing a little above the Bishop store, was torn down in 1911. ON the rise of ground just east of the cemetery of 1911 stood the brick academy, afterward succeeded by an adobe structure just north of J. A. Whitelaw's.

The half century since the outset of the war, but far more especially the last two decades have witnessed the clearing away of the woods in the hollow between the bordering mountains, and the steady evolution of the place itself into one of the handsomest small towns of the state. In descending the slope of Jack Mountain one catches a glimpse of a seemingly compact village of red-roofed and white walled houses of substantial size embowered in rows of handsome shade trees. The original courthouse was enclosed by an iron fence and flanked on one side by a new jail, was still in use and suffices ordinary needs, in 1911. The log houses of an earlier day had either been leveled or their walls had been covered with weatherboarding.

The stores, shops and offices of Monterey were in number and variety about what might be expected in a town of its size. The High school was a modern building provided with an auditorium. The Masonic Temple was an imposing brick structure near the center of the town. Of the two hotels the Monterey House was a commodious three storied building, its size being significant of the attractive summer climate. Considerable local wealth was represented in Monterey, and the financial interests of the county and town were cared for by two banks.

The situation of the county seat on a saddle extending a mile from one mountain ridge to another and parting the waters in opposite directions, was very sightly. Thus the town was at once on a hilltop and in a valley. In the north was a handsome vista, embracing the valley of Straight Creek, but reaching well into Pendleton, and disclosing at the left the Devil's Backbone on the father side of the Crabbottom Gap. In the south the view was dominated by Sounding Knob, rising 1,300 feet above sea level.

If the turnpike had followed the cAmpbell survey, the three mountain ridges would have been avoided, and tot he greater ease of travel. Sugar Tree Bottom would have had to compete with a village at the mouth of Davis Run, and the county seat would have grown up at the lower entrance of Vanderpool Gap. The situation on Jackson's River would have given the town more ids trial advantage, though proving somewhat less sightly and picturesque. The steam flouring mill of Monterey would have been represented by a water mill.

Ten miles north of Monterey, and just above the upper entrance tot he Crabbottom Gap was the village of Crabbottom (where NW Okie's HULL/HOHL ancestry settled) called into being by the well-peopled and and wealthy basin beyond and the tributary region below. At Crabbottom there were three general stores, a water mill, two churches, a high school, several shops and about tenth families. Crabbottom was along while known as Hull's Store, and was but a mere hamlet until after the war.

If you go about a mile up the Crabbottom VAlley you might reach the somewhat newer village of New Hampden, a place half as large as the lower village, and also possessing a mill, a hotel, and a resident physician, but with one church and one store. New Hampden as laid out about 1858 by Dr. Life and others and had a regular appearance, in contrast with the village which grows up by chance along a crooked road.

Doe Hill was eight miles above McDowell, at the confluence of the three brooks which form the Bullpasture River. It took its name from the foothill ridge near by, on which many doe could often be seen.Oliver McCoy shot nine deer one morning before breakfast and within sight of his house. Doe Hill was an old place, having possessed a church and a store earlier than 1835. It once had a mill and a tannery. Its academy had a short career, unfortunately, and was on the border of the little village, a place with church and two-roomed school, two stores, hotel and about a dozen families.

Bolar lies in the narrow Bolar Gap, and is partly in Bath county. The county line approximating the course of the highway running through the gorge. The name came from Colonel John Bollar of Bath, whose wife inherited the land from her father, William Wilson. The place was no more than a hamlet, there being only seven families, although two or three stores and several boarding houses were found at Bolar. The chief interest of the locality lies in its mineral springs, the largest and best known of which was at the country pine on the land of Adam G. McGuffin. These mineral springs were at the base of a steep hillside, in which the thermal spring had a temperature of 74 degrees and an outflow of 52 barrels a minute. In the basin the waters had a greenish tinge and bubbles of gas were constantly rising. The discharge passed into a bath house and filled to a depth of four feet a tank 24 to 42 feet in dimensions.

This spring did not appear to have had a quantitative analysis, but it appeared to contain arsenic, iodine, chlorine, potassium, sodium and carbonic acid gas, besides a few other ingredients. In ailments of the skin and of the internal lining tissues the water had been found to have a very beneficial effect. Taken as a beverage it was diuretic and alternative and mildly aperient. At an early day it was found to be a speedy cure for itch and poison oak. Many people had derived great benefit in cases of eczema and other cutaneous affections, but in nasal catarrh its repute was even higher.

A mile above another thermal spring was found in 1910 on the land of J. Hamilton Burns. This spring was of less volume, but had a temperature of 79 degrees and appeared to be rather stronger in mineral properties than the other, in addition to containing lithia in small amounts. The curative effects of this spring appeared to be identical with those of the lower spring.

At the Eakle House was a mildly thermal soda spring, very wholesome as a beverage and beneficial tot he digestive organs. Still lower down was a cold spring of sweet chalybeate water, and toward the mouth of Bolar Run were two sulphur springs.

Bolar was frequented in some degree by summer guests, but not as much so as would be the case if it were still better known and more easy of access. The cool, shaded valley, swept by downward draft of air through the gorge was very conformable during a heated season.

Today Monterey, Virginia is located on U.S. Route 250, which was built through the area in the 1840's as a portion of the historic Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike which linked the upper Shenandoah Valley with the Ohio River. The town of Monterey is heavily dependent on agriculture and on niche tourism generated from its many events and shops catering to tourists visiting for the tranquility and mountain air. The biggest festival is the < href="http://www.highlandcounty.org/maplefestival.html">Highland County Maple Festival, held on the 2nd and 3rd weekends of March, which brings roughly 50,000 visitors to the area. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Civil War 1861

Vol 14, Iss 14 Highland County, Virginia - This week we explore Highland county of Virginia and it's history and attitude of Highland people and the militia companies and the Battle of Camp Alleghany (13 December 1861, 105 acres, Pocahontas County, West Virginia) in the war of 1861 (Civil War) and how it affected Highland.


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This is a Google interactive map of Monterey, Virginia that you can zoom in and out to get a view of the surroundings.

In the presidential contest of 1860 the two great sections of the Union were arrayed against one another, each having a radical and a conservative candidate. The North presented Lincoln and Douglas. The South presented Breckenridge and Bell. Lincoln and Breckenridge represented the extremes in the four-sided contest. Only a handful of Southern men, and these in the border states, voted for Lincoln (Republican). Only a handful of Northern men, except in the small area where a fusion of the Douglas and Breckenridge followers was attempted, voted for Breckenridge. The conservative Douglas had a considerable number of votes in the South and the conservative Bell a considerable number in the North. Lincoln won the election because he was the successful candidate of the more populous section. Lincoln lacked a million votes of having a majority over the other three men.

It was the temper of the times that caused the political fight be be followed by the appeal to arms. In each section the conservative element came over to a more or less complete support of the radical, except in portions of the border states.

Highland gave a majority of more than 100 to Douglas, the Northern conservative. The vote in Highland was significant of the feeling of the people. It was Unionist from the Southern viewpoint. Secession was not in favor. Nine-tenths of the people were white, and the organization of society was more Northern than Southern.Yet the political sentiment was Southern. The river bottoms were largely held by a wealthy and influential class of slave holders. The commercial outlets were eastward, where the distinctive Southern feeling was still more pronounced. Unlike many counties west of the Alleghany, its social and industrial contact with the North was slight.

When the crisis came, in April of 1861, the people of Highland Valley followed their honest conceptions of civic duty, just as people did in all sections of the Union, both North and South. The mass of the Highland people sided with the action of their state, but there were some persons of undecided convictions. Some could not bring themselves to uphold secession and kept out of military service or went within the Federal lines.

George W. Hull was a delegate to the convention of 1861, opposed secession until President Lincoln's call on Virginia for 2,700 volunteers to help put down the revolution in the cotton states brought matters to a crisis. George Hull reluctantly, supported the measure.

George W. Hull/Hohl was a my 1st cousin 5 times removed through the following ancestors:

  1. Hannah KEISTER (1757 - 1837), Mother of George W.
  2. Frederick KEISTER (1730 - 1815), Father of Hannah Esther KEISTER (1767 - 1825) Daughter of Frederick
  3. Esther (Hester) HULL (1804 - 1853), Daughter of Esther
  4. William Fechtig WARWICK (1822 - 1902), Son of Esther (Hester)
  5. John Robert WARWICK (1857 - 1937), Son of William Fechtig
  6. Constance Estella WARWICK (1882 - 1968), Daughter of John Robert
  7. Gene M MCGILL (1914 - 1986), father of Linda Kay McGill Wagner.

For the May term of court all the justices were summoned, and of the 20 the following were present: John Bird, Thomas L. Brown, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming, William Hevener, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. Hull, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Franklin McNulty, John H. Pullin, Henry Seybert, Adam C. Stephenson, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart, and Zachariah Tomlinson.

The Highland company was mustered into service at Monterey, May 18, 1861. Its officers were Felix H. Hull, Captain; J. William Myers, 1st Lieutenant; Samuel A. Gilmor, 2nd Lieutenant, and Jesse Gilmor, 3rd Lieutenant. It marched the same day to join the army under Porterfield in its advance on Grafton. It was in the skirmish at Philippi and the small battles of Laurel Hill and Rich mountains. The defeated army had to move down the Cheat to the Northwestern Turnpike, follow that road into the South Branch Valley at Petersburg. It then marched up the river, reaching Monterey July 19, 1861. In this retreat the men suffered severely from bad weather and roads, hard marches, and a lack of equipment and provisions.

It was by this time that re-enforcements reached Monterey. The Highland company was over 100 strong, but it was divided. All the men front he east of Highland were put into a separate company, styled B, with Robert H. Bradshaw, Captain; William R. Keister, 1st Lieutenant; Andrew S. T. Davis, 2nd Lieutenant; and Harrison H. Jones, Orderly sergeant. At West View, in May of the 1862, there was a reorganization, where Bradshaw being re-elected. W. R. Lyman, a cadet of the Virginia Military Institute who had acted as drillmaster and had volunteered as a private, was now elected 1st lieutenant. Jones was promoted to be 2nd Lieutenant, and William C. Kincaid became 3rd Lieutenant. After the death of Bradshaw at Port Republic, Lyman became Captain. He resigned in the early spring of 1864, and the company was thereafter commanded by its Lieutenants, Kincaid and Pullin.

The other company was designated as E. Its captain was S. A. Gilmor, later succeeded by J. C. Matheny. The Lieutenants were J. S. Gilmor, A. F. Swadley, and David Bird. The two companies were attached to the 31st Regiment, Virginia Infantry.

General Robert E. Lee took command in this section, and while in Monterey his headquarters was in the old corner house opposite the Methodist Church. He advanced to the Greenbrier, whence, September 11 and 12, he moved against General Reynolds, in position at Cheat Mountain and Elkwater. Finding the Federal position too strong he fell back after some skirmishing in which Colonel Washington was killed and some prisoners taken on each side. Some say that the orders of Lee were not properly followed. Son afterward he returned to Richmond leaving six regiments and two batteries not eh Greenbrier.

Finding transportation to the Greenbrier to difficult, Edward Johnson fell back up the Alleghany to pass on the turnpike a mile west of the Highland boundary. Here is where he established a fortified camp and went into winter quarters. Possession of this important thoroughfare was of much interest to each party.

On December 13th, guided by deserters, Milroy assailed Camp Alleghany at day break. Milroy's two columns of 900 men each failed to strike simultaneously and were repulsed and driven back after a hot engagement of eight hours. The Confederate force at this time consisted of the 25th, 31st and 52d Virginia Infantry, Hansborough's Battalion, the 12th Georgia, and the batteries of Lee and Miller; in all about 1,400 men. Four days after the battle the county clerk of Highland was ordered to remove his papers to a place of greater safety. The court protested against the use of its jail as a military prison, and orderd the commandant at Monterey to remove a Federal soldier named Thomas Carr.

The beginning of April the Army of the Northwest under Johnson consisted of 3,000 men and 12 guns. There were six regiments of infantry, the 12th Georgia, and the 25th, 31st, 44th, 52d and 58th Virginia, and a small force of cavalry. The main army was at Camp Alleghany, but there were small commands at Franklin, Crabbottom, Monterey, and Huntersville.

After the Civil War, the first county court after the close of hostilities met September 21, 1865. Eighteen members were present. During a subsequent period, ending with the restoration of local state government in 1870, many citizens were ineligible of local state government in 1870, many citizens were ineligible to office, being unable to act because of the nature of their connection with the Confederate army or government. Citizens on assuming office took the oath of allegiance to the Federal government. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Under Pendleton & Bath

Vol 14, Iss 13 Highland County, Virginia - This week our journey of Highland county, Virginia takes us back to a time when there was a subdividing of Augusta county with the formation of Pendleton and Bath, the Greenbrier District. We shall learn a bit about the Highland men as local officers and the growth of the Highland area and what some call the Turnpike.

Let us begin with Augusta, the mother of counties, extending at the first 240 miles along the Blue Ridge, westward to the Mississippi. County after county was lopped off in every direction except the east. The subdividing of Augusta began with Botetcourt in 1769, continuing rapidly in 1790 as Augusta was reduced in size.

In 1787 - Highland area was wholly a part of Augusta, and the portion of Rockingham lying west of the Shenandoah mountain was with the addition of narrow slices taken from Hardy and Augusta made into the county of Pendleton. The southern line of Pendleton passed through the Highland area by following the divide between the waters of the Potomac and the James in a crooked course. Less than two years after Pendleton was created, the county of Bath was stricken off from the parent county by being made to include that section of it west of the Shenandoah range. It took in the whole upper basin of the James, down to the point where it passes through the range just mentioned. The boundaries of Bath county followed natural lines.

In 1796 - The southern line of Pendleton was pushed southward a distance of four to twelve miles,made to cross the Highland area nearly through the center. The reason for such annexation was not clearly apparent at that time. Pendleton and Bath were enlarged by being made to take in the upper Greenbrier Valley, with their western border was changed from the crest of the main Alleghany to that of the "Back Alleghany," which diverged from the former on the west line of Pendleton and ran southwestward in a nearly parallel course at a distance of ten or fifteen miles. This enlargement was by petition of the few settlers on the Upper Greenbrier.

In 1821 - The remote section of the two counties became a part of the new county of Pocahontas, and Bath was diminished to the southward by the creation of Alleghany county. As the story goes, it was the intention to name the western county Alleghany and the eastern Pocahontas, but through a blunder of the engrossing clerk the names were transposed.

When Highland area had become identified with the new counties of Pendleton and Bath, it contained from one thousand to twelve hundred people. Some of those being my ancestors, I suspect. many new settlers had come into its valleys. The Back Creek basin was the last to be occupied, containing the Wade, Slaven, Bird, Matheny, Brisco, Chestnut, Ryder and Woods families.

In 1799, on Straight Creek, the following persons in a coroner's jury called together by a tree falling upon John Mifford, we find the following jurors: John Beverage (foreman), Henry and John James, James and Jacob Seybert, George Franklin, John Moon, Thomas Jones, George Fisher, John Warwick, James Trimble and George Rymer.

In May of 1800, we find at the sale of the late Christian Wagoner's effects, the following: Michael Arbogast, William Bennett, William Cunningham, Michael Fox, John Hickley, William Janes, James and Hopkins Jones, Martin and Christian Life, William Michael, Francis Nicholas, Michael Peck, John Rexrode, Christopher Reed, James Trimble, Philip Wimer, Martin Waybright, John White, Adam and Michael Wagoner, and Christina Joseph. Abraham Smith was during this time a dweller in Crabbottom.

Reading through this chapter XI, History of Highland County, Virginia, by Oren F. Morton, page 108, we find another ancestor, Peter Hull (HOHL) mentioned as the only justice from the Highland area. Henry Fleisher was appointed major of the militia regiment, Jacob Gum was a constable and George Nichalas was a road overseer. John McCoy was a constable in 1792. Michael Arbogast served on the first grand jury. John Wilson and John Peebles appear to be the only Highland representation among the first justices of Bath. Samuel Black, William Ruder and Stephen Wilson served on its first grand jury.

That section of Bath beyond the main Alleghany was given two constables and was one of the three districts to elect overseers of the poor. This area was populated by the overflow from the older section to the east. The Vurners, Houchins, Sharps and Sharrots removed to this place in a group and were joined by branches of the Arbogast, Gum and other families. John H. Peyton was an attorney, who visited Huntersville in 1823, shortly after the organization of Pocahontas, declaring it as much out of the world as Tartary. The town consisted of two log cabins, one of these being the residence of John Bradshaw, who had moved there from the Bullpasture Valley. The following is an ext rat from his letter: "The other hovel is called the Loom-house, for these people are self-sustaining. The big wheel and the little shell are birding in every hut. The homespun cloth is stronger anymore durable than that brought by our merchants from Northern manufacturers. In Bradshaw's dwelling is a large fireplace, which occupies the entire gable end. The chimney is enormous, and so short that the room is filled with light which enters this way. It is an ingenious contrivance for letting all the warmth escape through the chimney, while most of the smoke is driven back into the chamber. In the chimney corner I prepared my legal papers before a roaring fire, surrounded by rough mountaineers, who were drinking whiskey, and as night advanced growing riotous. In the back part of the room two beds were curtained off with horse-blankets; one for the judge, the other for myself. To the left of the fireplace stood Bradshaw's couch. In the loft, to which they ascended by a ladder, his daughter and the hired woman slept, and in time of a crowd, a wayfarer. The other guests were sent to sleep in the three beds in the Loom-house. The loom was used as a hatrack at night and for sitting on. My clients roosted on the loom while detailing their troubles. "Bradshaw's table is well supplied. There is profusion if not prodigality in the rich, lavish bounty of the goodly tavern. As a mark of deference and respect to the Court, I presume, we had a table-cloth -- they are not often seen on Western tables, and when they are, are not innocent of color, and clean sheets upon our beds. This matter of the sheets is no small affair in out-o-the-way places, as it not infrequently happens that wanderers communicate disease throughout he bed clothing. Bradshaw's family is scrupulously clean, which is somewhat remarkable in a region where cleanliness is for the most part on the outside.

"The support of the people is mainly derived from their flocks of cattle, homes, and sheep, which they drive over the mountains to market. There is little money among them except after these excursions, but they have little need of it -- every want is supplied by the happy country they possess and of which they are as fond as the Swiss of their mountains."

The Grand Juries

The grand juries of Pendleton during the first decade of its history were represented by the following: Adam, David and John Arbogast; John Armstrong; William Blagg; Thomas Duffield; Conrad and Henry Fleisher; Jacob Gum; Charles Halterman; James and William Janes; Henry Jones; Jospeh Lantz; Peter Lightner; Edward Morton; George Naigley; George Nicholas; Garrett Peck; Henry Seybert; William; David; and Elibab Wilson; and Peter Zickafoose. In 1788, my ancestor, Peter Hull took a storekeeper's license, and then years later Samuel Blagg took a license for an ordinary. In 1800 Peter and Jacob hull had two stores.

It was in 1788 that George Nicholas was road surveyor from the mouth to the head of Straight Creek. In 1790, Charles Erwin had the road from Mathias Benson's to the Augusta line, James Steuart, the road from the Pendleton line to Joseph Gwin's and Abraham Gum, the road from John Slaven's to the Pendleton line.

Robert Carlile, David Gwin and William Houchin were other road surveyors under Bath. In the same year (1788) Jacob Gum took the place of McKenny Robinson on the upper South Branch. Two ears later John Arbogast had the road form Michael Arbogast's to the intersection with the Dry Run road. Garrett Peck ahd the latter road around to the mouth of STraight Creek. The precinct of James Mullenax was from peter Hull's to the mouth of Straight Creek, and that of Isaac Gum was from Peter Hull's southward to the old Pendleton line.

In 1790 - On the other side of the county, William Jordan had the road from the head of the Cowpasture southward to the old Pendleton line. His assistants were Francis Hayworth, Thomas Douglas and three sons, Thomas Devericks and one son, Henry Jones, Edward Morton, William Harris, John Keezle and son, and John Hatton. Four years later, George Sheets cared for the road from Robert Malcomb's to John Hiner's, and Thomas Duffield, the road from Elibab Wilson's to Burnett's mill beyond the present Pendleton line.

By 1780 there was a pioneer road from the Crabbottom westward across the Alleghany, known as the Riffle road from Francis Riffle or Riggle, a pioneer of Tygart's valley. In 1790 - The Bath Court provided a jail by laying on a special levy of 13 pounds of tobacco (43 cents) per tithable. The more prominent offenses in this county during its earlier history were hog stealing, liquor selling, swearing and blasphemy and obstructing road surveys. But in 1799, 324 citizens were presented for not voting, and in 1881, 332 were likewise called up.

In 1800 - The heavier landholders int he Pendleton half were the following: Michael Arbogast (1037 acres), Joseph Bell (611 acres), John Beverage (559 acres), peter Hull (2712 acres), William Janes (566 acres), Nicholas Seybert (662 acres), Philip Wimer (772 acres), Peter Zickafoose (570 acres).

The railroad age dawned about 1830. It was some years before this date, and for some years later, the need of better highways for the growing American people became a very live topic. It was necessary to shorten the hours of travel. People beyond the mountains were in particular need of better roads to the Eastern markets. It was in 1822 that James B. Campbell, experienced surveyor, returned front he West to Crabbottom, and soon began to plan a turnpike to connect Staunton with Parkersburg. The route selected was from the top of Shenandoah mountain to Shaw's Fork nearly the same as the present pike. From this point his own route followed Shaw's Fork to its mouth, and there crossed Bullpasture mountain, reaching the river of the same name near the mouth of DAvis Run. This stream was followed to the Sounding Knob Gap. The next range was passed through Vanderpool Gap, and a course was thence traced through the Great Valley of Back Creek to the Townsend Draft near the Bath line. This is where it began the ascent of Alleghany mountain. But the survey did not become a road. In 1838 the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike was built under the supervision of Claude Crozet, a civil engineer of the first Napoleon, who work in Russia as we'll as France. Influential citizens induced him to abandon the easier route, to adopt the one by which the road was actually constructed.

The turnpike paralleled and crossed a common road constructed by the state, and the long-abandoned track was sometimes in full view for quite a distance. On the slope of Shenandoah mountain was a still older road, apparently the one laid out by Wallace Estill. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Fall 1947, W. B. Hull vs. State of OK

Vol 10, Iss 18 When David was going through stuff in our Maple street house, he found this interesting old Subpoena in Criminal Case No. 1091 -- District Court of Woods County, Oklahoma, State of Oklahoma vs. W. B. Hull.

The Subpoena commanded the following individuals to appear before the district court, 12 November 1947, 10:00 o'clock a.m., to give testimony, and the truth in the W. B. Hull case. Those mentioned in the subpoena were Gene McGill, Marion Gardner, Dewey Randall, Nels Nelson and G. B. Brown.

This was a few months before my time, so I no recollecion and not even a clue as to what this Fall 1947 case was about. Nor why my dad, Gene McGill, had to testify in the W. B. Hull case.

I was hoping this 1947 subpoena might jog some memories of some old timers out there -- causing them to remember back to the Fall of 1947 so we could fill in the "Rest of the Story." Thanks for any help or information that you might give to shed some light on the W. B. Hull Saga vs State of Oklahoma.
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Organizing Family Treasures

Vol 8, Iss 43 NW Okie has been busy organizing some of her great-grandmother's & grandmother's treasures this week.

We have been sorting the penny postcards, photographs into their own little sterlite containers. In so doing, NW Okie found some other treasures, such as grandma's namecards in a brown, leather holder which had "Jamestown, VA" inscribed on the outside. Do you remember those little namecards that our ancestors used as their calling cards? Most of the names on these namecards we recognized as surnames related to our Warwick, Gwin and Hull ancestors that settled around West Virginia/Virginia area. Here are the links for viewing our grandmother's early day namecards - Grandma's namecards - #1 - Grandma's namecards - #2 - Grandma's namecards - #3 - Grandma's namecards - #4

Another treasure that we found amongst Grandma's treasures was a "1954 Alva (Oklahoma) Southwestern Bell Phone Directory." We haven't gotten it scanned completely... yet! We think we also have a 1938 Alva Phone Directy, also! We will be working on it in the future, though.
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Shawnee Chief Cornstalk...

Vol 6, Iss 8 Another reader sent us some information he found online concerning the Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and the Battle around Point Pleasant and Lord Dunmores battle in Virginia in the late 18th century. The reason that tidbit of information is interesting to this writer is because one of my Warwick ancestors (Jacob Warwick the 2nd) was a captain in that battle. Jacob, II and John Warwick were two of the sons of Lt. Wm Jacob Warwick. I believe I figured that Jacob, II was my 5th-Great-Uncle and John was my 5th-Great-Grandpa. My 4th-Great-Grandpa (Wm. Warwick) married Nancy Agnes Craig and they settled in Greenbriar county above Sinking Creek near the Richlands. As the lineage progresses back to this writer it is as follows... Robert Craig Warwick & Esther Hull (3rd-Great-Grandparents)- Wm. Fechtig Warwick & Phebea Anthea Pray (2nd-Great-Grandparents) - John Robert Warwick & Signora Belle Guinn (Great-Grandparents) - Constance Estella Warwick & Wm. J. McGill (Grandparents) - Gene McGill & Vada Paris (Parents) - Linda McGill & David Wagner - Michael & Robert Wagner (sons). You can find out more about the Warwick's, Point Pleasant Battle starting over at ParisTimes.com/ Warwick/.

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More on W. B. Hull's 1946 Anit-Aircraft Shooting

Vol 10, Iss 22 I haven't been able to get any farther on this 1946-47 anti-aircraft shooting case #3442 and do not know if Hull actually served jail time or what happened in the case.

From rumors that we have come across in the Alva, OK area, we understand Hull never served time for shooting at Gene McGill's airplane in 1946.

We did our newspaper article search through December, 1947 and found nothing on the case after the last article of January 20, 1947.

While we were down in the musty courthouse basement, time was running short and we didn't want to get locked in the basement at closing time. So... we had to quit for the day. There are lots of shelves of old records and boxes and not enough time to go through all of the musty records in the Woods county courthouse basement.

WHAT IF... Hull's gunshots had struck the fuel tank and caused the light airplane to crash, killing Gene McGill and Marion Gardner? Where would Northwest Oklahoma and Woods County be today? There would have been no "Okielegacy Ezine" that you are reading today! This NW Okie had not even been conceived back in December 22, 1946. There would have been only two McGill Sisters. AND... What about Marion Gardner's family back in December 1946?

If anyone out there knows something more, we would love to hear and share your information on this 1946-47 aircraft shooting case #3442 in Woods County, Oklahoma.
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Our Great-Grandpa, John R. Warwick

Vol 9, Iss 30 I just love this old photo (dated January 1903) of Great-Grandpa John Warwick on the left. Great-Grandpa John Warwick is seated on the right with his brother, Pete, on the left. We are not quite sure who the gentleman standing in the background. It may have been another brother ... or friend.

Lots of things have happened since those 100+ years that our Warwick & McGill pioneers settled here in the northwest corner of the Cherokee Strip, near Alva, Freedom and Waynoka. It all began with our Great-Grandpa, John Robert Warwick, a pioneer citizen of Woods County (M), Oklahoma Territory.

John R. Warwick was born April 9, 1857 at Frost, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. John married Signora Belle Gwin at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, in January 16, 1882. Three children (Constance Estelle, Robert Lee & Wilbur) were born to this union.

As his obituary states, 'John Warwick, as known to the entire county, came from a long line of fighting stock, and was never known to be afraid. Panics, hard times, sickness, death itself could come, but he remained calm. He lived on the theory that the sun set - but that it later arose!

John Warwick's sense of humor never failed, nor his hospitality, as no one, either Friend or outcast, ever went away hungry. Much of his determined character may have come down to him through a family trait, as revealed in an old history of West Virginia. It tells of his ancestor, Major Peter Hull who, coming from England in 1772, settled in this same valley where John Warwick later was born. Of this Major Hull, the historian wrote, 'He was of great influence, but very domineering.'

This spirit which had run through the family for generations led him to independence of action later when he came to Kansas -- taught school at Coldwater, waiting for the opening of Oklahoma�s Cherokee Strip for settlement. John made the Run, September 16, 1893.

As he was accustomed to the water & wood in abundance on the wooded hills & plains of West Virginia, he looked first for wood & water when looking for a homestead. He staked a claim 7 miles south of Alva, on Eagle Chief, but learning by experience that more abundance lay in the level wheat lands - he sold his wood & water farm -- bought level wheat land 5 miles south of Alva. This is where John and his wife (known to many in the Freedom area as 'Sigga') lived until 1929 when they moved to Alva. John's wife preceded him in death three years, almost to the exact time of his death, dying in November, 1934.

John Warwick's land passed down to his daughter, Constance Estelle (Warwick) McGill - to his great-granddaughters - eventually, forming the McGill Sisters family farm Corporation which has continued in operation in the Fairvalley & Freedom area since 1982, in Northwest Oklahoma.
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Victoria California Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927)

Vol 18, Iss 29 This is what we found while researching information concerning Victoria California Claflin Woodhull was born 7th of ten children, September 23, 1838, Homer, Licking County, Ohio - June 9, 1927, died Bradon, Worcestershire, UK). She was later known as Victoria Woodhull Martin, an American leader of the woman's suffrage movement.

As the Claflin sisters grew older, Victoria became close to her sister, Tennessee "Tennie" Celeste Claflin (called Tennie), seven years her junior and the last child born to the family. As adults they collaborated in founding a stock brokerage and newspaper in New York City.

Victoria, at age 14 years, met 28 year old Canning (Cahnning) Woodhull, a doctor from a town outside Rochester, New York. Victoria's family had consulted him to treat the girl for a chronic illness. Channing Woodhull practiced medicine in Ohio at a time when the state did not require formal medical education and licensing. Channing Woodhull and Victoria Claflin were married on November 20, 1853, when Victoria was two months past her 15th birthday. Victoria soon learned that her new husband was an alcoholic and a womanizer. She often had to work outside the home to support the family. She and Canning had two children, Byron and Zulu (later called Zula) Maude Woodhull. After their children were born, Victoria divorced her husband and kept his surname.

Victoria Woodhull's support of free love likely started after she discovered the infidelity of her first husband Canning. Women who married in the United States during the 19th century were bound into the unions, even if loveless, with few options to escape. Divorce was limited by law and considered socially scandalous. Women who divorced were stigmatized and often ostracized by society. Victoria Woodhull concluded that women should have the choice to leave unbearable marriages.

It was in 1872, Woodhull (34 years of age) ran for President of the United States. There was election coverage by contemporary newspapers that did not suggest her age was a significant issue. The presidential inauguration was in March 1873. Woodhull's 35th birthday was in September 1873. Victoria Woodhull announced her candidacy for President by writing a letter to the editor of the New York Herald on April 2, 1870. Victoria Woodhull was nominated for President of the United States by the newly formed Equal Rights Party on May 10, 1872, at Apollo Hall, New York City. In 1871, she spoke publicly against the government being composed only of men; she proposed developing a new constitution and a new government a year thence. Her nomination was ratified at the convention on June 6, 1872. They nominated the former slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass for Vice President. He did not attend the convention and never acknowledged the nomination. He served as a presidential elector in the United States Electoral College for the State of New York. This made her the first woman candidate. Woodhull's campaign was also notable for the nomination of Frederick Douglass, although he did not take part in it. His nomination stirred up controversy about the mixing of whites and blacks in public life and fears of miscegenation (especially as he had married a much younger white woman after his first wife died). The Equal Rights Party hoped to use the nominations to reunite suffragists with African-American civil rights activists, as the exclusion of female suffrage from the Fifteenth Amendment two years earlier had caused a substantial rift between the groups.

Woodhull was an activist for women's rights and labor reforms. She was also an advocate of free love, by which she meant the freedom to marry, divorce, and bear children without government interference. She was a suffragist, politician, feminist and writer. She was known for politics, women's rights, women's suffrage, feminism, civil rights, anti-slavery, stockbroker, journalism. She was also a Spiritualist.

Woodhull's spouse(s) were: Canning "Channing" Woodhull (m.1853–?); Colonel James Blood (m. c. 1865–1876); John Biddulph Martin (m. 1883–1901). Her children were: Byron and Zula Maude Woodhull. Woodhull's parents were: Reuben Buckman Claflin, Roxanna Hummel Claflin.

Woodhull went from rags to riches, her first fortune being made on the road as a highly successful magnetic healer before she joined the spiritualist movement in the 1870s. Many of her articles and speeches she authored were disputed. Her speeches on these topics were collaborations between Woodhull, her backers, and her second husband, Colonel James Blood. Woodhull's role as a representative of these movements was powerful. Together with her sister, Tennessee Claflin, the was the first woman to operate a brokerage firm on Wall Street; they were among the first women to found a newspaper, Woodhull & Claflin's weekly, which began publication in 1870. Woodhull was politically active in the early 1870s, when she was nominated as the first woman candidate for the united States presidency, for which she is best known. Wood hull was the candidate in 1872 form the "Equal Rights Party," supporting women's suffrage and equal rights.

A few days before the presidential election, U.S. Federal Marshals arrested Woodhull, her second husband Colonel James Blood, and her sister Tennie California Claflin on charges of "publishing an obscene newspaper" because of the content of the issue. It was her arrest on obscenity charges a few days before the election, for publishing an account of the alleged adulterous affair between the prominent minister Henry Ward Beecher and Elizabeth Tilton, that added to the sensational coverage of her candidacy. She did not receive any electoral votes, and there was conflicting evidence about popular votes.

The three ( Victoria, her 2nd husband and sister) were acquitted on a technicality six months later, but the arrest prevented Woodhull from attempting to vote during the 1872 presidential election. With the publication of the scandal, Theodore Tilton, the husband of Elizabeth, sued Beecher for "alienation of affection." The trial in 1875 was sensationalized across the nation, and eventually resulted in a hung jury.

Woodhull again tried to gain nominations for the presidency in 1884 and 1892. Newspapers reported that her 1892 attempt culminated in her nomination by the "National Woman Suffragists' Nominating Convention" on 21 September. Mary L. Stowe of California was nominated as the candidate for vice president. The convention was held at Willard's Hotel in Boonville, New York, and Anna M. Parker was its president. Some woman's suffrage organizations repudiated the nominations, however, claiming that the nominating committee was unauthorized. Woodhull was quoted as saying that she was "destined" by "prophecy" to be elected president of the United States in the upcoming election.
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Warwick, Gwin, Hull and Eckard Relations

Vol 16, Iss 28 Monterey, VA - I recently gathered some old family photos my Warwick, Gwin, Hohl (Hull) and Eckard relations that lived in the vicinity of Monterey, Vanderpoole and Mountain Grove, Virginia. I have put them on my Facebook page in a photo album entitled Monterey Virginia.

Check them out below and see if any are related to your ancestors. My dad (Gene McGill) is the young boy, seated on porch, third from left. I believe it was taken in the 1920s when my grandmother (Constance Estella Warwick McGill) was doing her research for her DAR for Capt. David Gwin. Anyway . . . Grandmother got her DAR papers around 1925. Besides the Facebook album (Monterey Virginia), you can see more Warwick-Gwin photographs at Paristimes Pioneers (Warwick Album).

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1914 - Proposes Home Like Hull House

Vol 16, Iss 13 Oklahoma - Does anyone remember a proposed home in the 1914 time frame that was to be erected by Miss Kate Barnard from profits of oil lease for a home for homeless, friendless women in the territory?

Muskogee, Tulsa and Oklahoma City would be requested by Miss Barnard to submit bids for the home. It was Miss Barnard's intention to have one of the cities donate the land of which the home was to be erected. Did Barnard's Hull House ever get built? Where was it located?

The following article was found in The Daily Ardmoreite, dated 14 April 1914, as one of the front page headlines: Proposes Home Like Hull House.

Oklahoma City, April 13 (1914) -- Erection and maintenance of a home in Oklahoma patterned after Jane Addams' famous Hull-House in Chicago, and which was to become the property of the state at the time of her death. This was the promise made to the state by Kate Barnard, commissioner of charities and corrections, and in consideration of which together with the usual royalties, she has been awarded oil and gas leases on approximately two miles of proven territory in the Cimarron river bed.

The leases were awarded to Miss Barnard by the commissioners of the state land office Monday morning over three competitors, two of whom submitted bids offering the state a greater royalty than was offered by Miss Barnard.

Development on the leases, Miss Barnard says, will begin at the earliest time convenient, and under the terms of her bid the money derived from the operations on the lease will be used for the erection and maintenance of a home for friendless and homeless working girls in Oklahoma.

The territory covered in Miss Barnard's lease is in sections 18 and 19, township 18 north, range 7 east of the Indian meridian, in the famous Cushing field in Creek county.

As soon as blue prints are prepared showing the location of the territory and the possibilities of development it offers, and when the home is erected, Miss Barnard says she would leave for the east, where she will visit some of the most noted philanthropists and charity givers in the country with the view of interesting them in the project.

Muskogee, Tulsa and Oklahoma City would be requested by Miss Barnard to submit bids for the home. It was Miss Barnard's intention, she says, to have one of the cities donate the land of which the home was to be erected. Donations aggregating $3,100 have been made by Oklahoma men interested in the establishment of such an institution.

In Miss Barnard's letter addressed to the commissioners of the land office, and which was made a part of her bid, Miss Barnard said:

"This home will become state property when I have completed my work in same. I have taken out articles of incorporation for this home and have raised $3,100 toward same, and as as son as my term of office expires I shall devote the rest of my life toward making this one of the greatest institutions for God's work in the world. As soon as my buildings are up I shall take blue prints and go east for additional funds. I shall conduct a school of philanthropy to teach the boys and girls of Oklahoma this human service work. The other bidders are asking to take something from the state. I am offering to give a great and needed institution to the state. This institution will be for those same girls whom you have schooled and educated and without which they must become vagabonds on your city streets.

"Therefore the money received from this tract of river bed I hereby give and bequeath to and hold in trust for the benefit of the home for working women and girls not of African descent, who are without means and are homeless and friendless, and I agree that so far as said funds shall permit to maintain a home for these friendless women and girls of the state of Oklahoma.

"I further agree to keep an accurate account of all money received from the sale of oil and gas from said lands and all expenditures made in the erection and maintenance of the said home and failure on my part to expend the same for such purpose, shall of itself cancel and hold for naught my rights obtained hereunder and this lease shall immediately revert to the state." View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Calfpasture Families of Bath & Highland County, Virginia

Vol 15, Iss 15 Bath County, VA - From the "Annals of Bath County, Virginia," by Oren Frederic Morton, on page 169, mentions the Calfpasture families and their prominent part in settling the valleys of Bath and Highland counties. Afterward those of Greenbrier and Pocahontas, helped to people the uplands of the Carolinas.

The Calfpasture families were prompt to taking a share int eh settling of Kentucky. In 1779, Captain James Gay and Alexander Dunlap, Jr., headed a party which settled in the bluegrass region of the state and founded Pisgah church, said to be the first presbyterian organization in Kentucky. The school which grew up by the side of the church developed into Transylvania University.

One of our ancestors, Captain James Gay, was twenty-one years old when he turned westward, and had served under Andrew Lockridge. Captain Gay's second wife was Elizabeth, a daughter of John Dunlap. Gay was himself a son of James Gay, who married Jean Warwick.

Alexander Dunlap, Jr., married James Gay's sister, Agnes. Major Samuel Stevenson, whose mother was a daughter of John Warwick, was a third member of the emigrating party, and he also wedded a Gay. Thus the Gays, Dunlaps, and Stevensons, as well as the Hamiltons, Kinkeads, Warwicks, and other Calfpasture families, have gained both affluence and prominence int he Bluegrass State and other commonwealths of the Great West. A Warwick gave his name in a changed spelling to Warrick County, Indiana. Lieutenant-Governor Walkup, of California, was a descendant of Captain John Walkup, who came to the Calfpasture about 1760.

On page 163 of this same book we found the mention of of the Point Pleasant campaign, where Sampson Mathews and charge of the commissary department of the army under Lewis. Sampson Mathews was a Colonel of militia and saw active service in the war for American Independence. In July, 1781, Col. Mathews was quelling the Tory organization of William Ward in Pendleton. A little later he was leading his regiment in the Yorktown campaign. In the preceding year he was a member of the State Senate. He favored the formation of Bath and took an active part in its organization. Col. Mathews died in Augusta in 1807 at the age of about seventy. His first wife, to whom he was married in 1759, was Mary, a sister to his partner, Jacob Lockhart. Other sisters were the wives of Matthew Arbuckle and William Ward of Greenbrier. The last wife was Mary, a daughter of Jacob Warwick. Mathews's sons identified themselves with Greenbrier county.

On page 202 of that same book, we find mention of another ancestor on the Warwick side of the family, William Warwick and Elizabeth Dunlap. It mentions that William Warwick came from Williamsburg and married Elizabeth Dunlap. His sons were Charles and John. The latter (John) was a scout in the Indian war and went to Kentucky in 1789. Captain Jacob Warrick, a son, was killed at Tippecanoe, and Warrick County, in Indiana, is named for him. General Harrison complimented his company by saying he had never seen a finer body of men. Major Jacob Warwick owned for a while the Fort Dinwiddie farm. He moved to Pocahontas about 1800. Three sons-in-law were Charles E. Cameron, Sampson Mathews, and William Gatewood.

Battle of Green Spring

As to those who took part in the Battle of green Spring, we find on page 96, of the same book, "Annals of Bath County, Virginia," another mention of our ancestor, Capt. David Gwin (my grandmother, in 1925 did research on for her D.A.R. certificate), and that McCreery and Mathews were in the the battle, which took place near Jamestown, July 6th. Under McCreery were the horsemen of Captain Peter Hull (another ancestor on the Hull side of the family). Under Mathews were Captains David Gwin, Thomas Hicklin, William Kincaid, and John Brown. Brown was taken prisoner and was succeeded by Charles Cameron, who had served as adjutant. Brown's lieutenant was Robert Thompson. Gwin's subalterns were Lieutenant William McCreery and Ensign Alexander Wright.

Battle of Guilford

On page 95 of this book we find mention of some of our Gwin ancestors that took part in the Battle of Guilford. What was mentioned was: "Arnold's marauding career on the lower James, and the approach of Cornwallis in the spring of 1781 were far more serious. than the Dunmore war. Nearly 1700 of the Virginia militia took part in the battle of Guilford, where their conduct was unusually good, owing to a stiffening in their companies of some experienced men who had seen service in Washington's army. Among these troops were militiamen from Bath county under Robert McCreery, John Bollar, and David Gwin. Gwin's men, and probably the other commands, rode on horseback until they had crossed the Can into North Carolina. The horses were then sent home under guard. Robert Sitlington, William Gillespie, and James Sloan were privates under McCreery. Sitlington grieved at the loss of the knife he had used as a gun-rest. "Bullets," he said, "were flying so thick that by god, sir, I had to leave that knife sticking where it was."

At Guilford the Virginia militia gave a good account of themselves. Their deadly rifle-fire repelled several assaults by the redcoats. Cornwallis was virtually defeated and his shattered army was driven to the sea coast. he gave up his attempt to subdue North Carolina and joined Arnold at Petersburg. While the British leader was pursuing the small American army under Lafayette, his cavalry under Tarleton burned the little village of Charlottesville, where the Assembly was in session. The legislature fled to Staunton, and sat there from June 7th to June 23rd. But Tarleton remembered his overthrow at Cowpens and did not try to force his way through Rockfish Gap. He seemed to have had a wholesome respect for the Scotch-Irish militia of the Valley. The whole British army presently fell back toward the coast. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement In Virginia

Vol 15, Iss 3 Augusta County, VA - The Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement In Virginia was extracted front he original court records of Augusta county, Virginia of 1745-1800, by Lyman Chalkley, Dean of the College of Law of Kentucky University, late judge of the county court of Augusta county, Virginia. It was publish by Mary S. Lockwood, honorary Vice-president general, National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, and completed in three volumes, copyrighted 1912.

We find that in 1745, all that portion of the Colony of Virginia which laid west of the Blue Ridge Mountains was erected into a county which was named Augusta. In December, 1745, the county court was organized and held its first sitting. Prior to that time it had become the refuge and abiding place of a strong body of Scotch-Iris immigrants. The bounds of the new county were limited on the north by Fairfax's Northern Neck Grant and the boundaries of Maryland and Pennsylvania to the westward of Fairfax. On the east by the Blue Ridge mountains; on the south by the Caroline line. On the west its territory embraced all the soil held by the British without limit of extent. The county court of Augusta, for twelve years, was the only curt and repository of records within that district.

At frequent intervals, its jurisdiction was restricted by the erection of other counties as the den ads of the settlers required. Its original constitution embraced all Virginia west of the Blue Ridge, with the exception of the Northern Neck Gran, whose southern boundary was in the present county of Shenandoah, and western, through the counties of Hardy, Hampshire and northward tot he Potomac. It also included the whole of the present state of West Virginia, and a portion of the present Western pennsylvania, including Pittsburgh, which was, at times, the seat of the county court. It also included the lands on the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

The abstracts of the original court records of Augusta county, Virginia, were compiled by Judge Lyman Chalkley, and were purchased by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1905. The 21st Congress, NationalSociety of the DAR, held in Washington, DC, April 15-20, 1912, presented these records as a gift outright to Mrs. Mary S. Lockwood, Honorary Vice-president General, National Society of the DAR. We did a search of Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement In Virginia for some of our ancestry surnames: Gwin, Warwick, Magill, and Hull. The following, sorted by date is some that we found.

11 February 1745
Of interest to this NW Okie, I found mention of a Wm Magill and Thos. Stinson, dated 11 February 1745, same from North River to John Anderson's. I am assuming it had something to do with the overseers road form David Davis Mill to top mountain above Wm. King's. Do not which Wm. Magill is or how I am connected. More research is need.

12 May 1746
Robert Gwin was appointed Constable at head of Great Calfpasture. Road ordered from the Great Lick in the cow pasture at Col. Lewis's land to Andrew Hamiltons in Calfpasture. Andrew and George Lewis, Commanders, to mark it off. There was also mention of Edward Boyle sentenced to stacks and fined for damning the court and swearing 4 oaths in their presence.

18 June 1746
James Hogshead, Thomas Black, William Wright, William Guy, Robert Gwin, Charles Hays, George Anderson, Adam Miller, James Robinson, Thomas McCulloch, appointed Constables last court qualified.

20 November 1746

Hugh Thompson and This. Stinson appointed overseers from Wm. Thompson's to the Meeting house. Wm. McGill appointed Constable.

28 May 1751

Edward Davis, servant of John Gilmore of Albemarle, died at the home of James Brown, near the court house, in the town of Staunton, leaving goods and money supposed to have been stolen from Samuel Dunlop of Isle of Wight.

31 May 1751
Margaret, relict of Wm. McGill.

30 November 1751
John Madison to have made books and presses for the preservation of the books and pears of the county. John Warwick, a witness.

2 December 1751
James Brown asks administer of estate of Edward Davis. Benjamin Borden says administer was already granted in General court to James Dunlop; James's wife, Agnes, comes and says she would not believe Benjamin on oath and is fined 40 shillings.

21 August 1752
James Patton and Wm. Elliott ask counter security from Anne Dunlop, Admx. of her decd. husband. She has since married Robert Bratton. Rev. Alexander Craighead, a dissenting minister, took the oaths, subscribed the test, and the 39 articles, except what is exempted by the Act of Toleration, which is ordered to be certified. Robert Bratton in open court made oath to his deposition in favor of Margaret Woods, proving her to be the lawful wife of James Woods. Nicholas Smith, a free mulatto, has moved out of the county and left five small children, to be bound out.

1751-1752
Petition, 1752, of inhabitants from Forks of Roanoke to James Neiley's Majority have to travel 25 to 30 miles to work on ye road from Reed Creek to Warwick. Petition to have road laid off into precincts. William Bryan, John Bryan, James Bryan, William Walcker, James Campbell, Alexander Ingram, Robert Bryan, Henry Brown, James Bane, William Bryan, Jr., Joseph Love.

23 March 1753
Sheriff to sell estate of James Gwin, who lately died in the house of James Miles.

17th July 1753
Inquistion on body of Nicholas Grout (Trout), 17th July 1753. Jurors do say that the said Nicholas Trout, in simplicity, without malice, playing with Peter Hull and seizing a gun in said Hull's hands and pulling its muzzle towards him she accidentally went off without any act or knowledge of the said Hull and discharged herself with a ball and two great shots into ye breast of said Trout, of which he died immediately on ye spot, and quit ye gun wherewith he same as done was entirely in fault for not keeping her bounds, but going off without force or consent. In test: Peter Scholl, Coroner; John Stevenso, Ledwick Francisco, John Mac Michel, James Bruster, Thomas Wats, Thomas Crawford, patrick Milican, John Wilson, Jacob Harman, Niclas Noll, Hennery DAly, Jacob Nicholas.

19 January 1754
19th January 1754, Andrew Lewis entered two 400-care tracts on petter's Creek, a branch of James River, between Adam Dickinson's and the Indian Path; 200 on Warm Spring Mountain, joining the tract formerly Hurden's; three 400-acre branches of James River, near a survey made for William Warwick, and on some of the head branches of ye Back Creek.

March, 1754
Kinkead vs. Lockridge - William Kinkead, an infant under the age of 21 years, son and heir-at-law of Thomas Kinkead, late of county of Augusta, by James Lockhart, his next friend. Bill filed May, 1753. Thomas Kinkead, in 1747, removed from the Province of pennsylvania with orator and Thomas's family. On 19 November 1747, Thomas bought 263 acres joining John preston, Robert Lockridge, Robert Gwin, in Augusta county. Thomas died in 1750 intestate, leaving a widow and children, of whom orator is eldest. Bond of James Lockridge, of Augusta county, with Thomas Kinkead of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, dated 19 November 1747.

29 April 1756
Claims, propositions and grievances: James Beard, claim for ranging; John McClenachan, claim for going express; Robert Bratton, claim for ranging; George Wilson, claim for ranging and provisions for his Company; Abraham Smith, claim for ranging and provisions for his Company; Israel Christian, claim for ranging and provisions; Joseph Kenaday, claim for ranging; Patrick Lowrey, claim for ranging; George Campbell, claim for ranging; John Dickinson, claim for ranging and provisions for his Company; James Dunlop, claim for ranging and provisions for his Company; Archibald Stuart, claim for ranging; John Campbell, claim for ranging.

17 February 1762
Ordered that Michael O'Hara, aged 12, September 11th last, be bound to Alexander Millroy. James Lettimore, servant of Alexander Stewart. john Stuart, aged 18, orphan of James Stuart, chose Joh Hamilton his guardian. Ralph Stuart, aged 15, orphan of James Stuart, chose Robert Stuart his guardian. Ordered that the following orphans be bound: William Meek to William Warwick, Mary Meek to Andrew Settleton, Martha Meek to James Walker, James Meek to William Wilson, Jane Meek to Moses Moore.

25 March 1767
John Warwick and John Davis (Hunter), sureties.

18 August 1767
John Robinson appointed surveyor of highway from his mill by the Den to the County Road leading to Warwick.

16 March 1768
Following orphans of Charles Whitman to be bound: Hurson Mathias Whitman, to James Gregory, to learn trade of a weaver. Catherine Whitman, to Andrew Sitlington. Jacob Whitman, to John Warwick, to learn trade of shoemaker.

10 March 1772
James McGill vs. John McClure - Slander. Writ, 1770. "Would hang as high as Gilderoy." John declares that Archibald Campbell, of Caroline county, is a material witness, and that as he is a single person and, from his father's declaration, he cannot get the benefit of his evidence in the usual way. Prays a commission. 10th March 1772.

18 May 1774
Ephraim Richardson and Wm. Martin, road surveyors from Francis Wier's, on Monongahela River, to Thorny Creek, on waters of Greenbrier. John Warwick, Richard Elliott and Ralph Stewart are exempted form working on above road until it is built. William Hadden is ordered to clear from Thorny Creek to Nap's Creek, with tithables living below him on Nap's Creek, and from Alexander Dunlap's to William Sharp's on Greenbrier. Jacob Warwick, road overseer, from William Warwick's to Back Creek, with tithables from Thomas Cartmell's up Greenbrier to the the head and down Nap's Creek to Moses Moore's.

20 August 1776
Christopher Warwick, servant of Joseph Bell, punished for raising a riot in the court yard.

20 May 1777
Mathew Wilson, recommended Captain; John Boyd, recommended Lieutenant; Samuel Weir, recommend Ensign;Michael Coger, recommend Captain, vice Capt. William Nalle, resigned; Samuel Vance, recommended Captain; Jacob Warwick, recommend Lieutenant; John Boyd, recommended Ensign.

21 May 1778
Jacob Warwick as First Lieutenant, David Gwinn as Second Lieutenant, Jonathan Humphreys as Ensign - recommended for appointment in Capt. Samuel Vance's Company.

16 March 1779
Joseph Crouch as Catain, Jacob Warwick and Slexander Maxwell as First Lieutenants, qualified.

15 February 1780
John Kinkead allowed certificate for 50 acres for services as a soldier in Capt. Wm Preston's Company of Rangers. major Andrew lock ridge, guardian of orphan of Robert Graham, deceased, is allowed certificate for land for Graham's services as a soldier in Capt. preston's Company, 1758. Following allowed certificates for land for military services: John Kinkead, Thomas Hicklin, Robert Gwin, Lofftus Pullin, William Black, patrick Miller, William Jackson, in Capt. Wm. preston's Company of Rangers, 1758. Wm. Kinkead, Thoms Kinkead, John Montgomery, of Capt. Lewis's Company, Boquet's Expedition, 1764. Thomas Smith, eldest son and heir-at-law of Thos. Smith, who served as a soldier in Capt. Dunlop's Company of Rangers, 1758, and also as proper heir-at-law of Wm. Elliot, who served also, granted certificates for land. Andrew McCaslin, James Gay, Anthony Johnston, appointed Constables. (?) Gay to be summoned to show cause why he doth not use his apprentice, John Harris, according to law.

14 March 1780
John Warwick allowed 50 acres for services as soldier in Boquet's Expedition in 1764. Samuel Erwin, of Capt. Hog's Company, 1757, allowed 50 acres. Robert Stuart, of Capt. Dickenson's Company, 1758, allowed 50 acres. John Blair, of Capt. Hog's Company, 1758, allowed 50 acres. John Kinkead appointed road surveyor from Wm. Black's to Joseph Givin's.

21 August 1781
Barnette Lance appointed road surveyor, vice john Gum. John Hogshead appointed road surveyor, vice John Kirk. Administer of estate of John Hogshead granted to An Hogshead. William Tate qualified Captain. Charles Cameron recommend Colonel of 2d Battalion, vice Colonel Hughart, resigned. Samuel VAnce recommended Colonel, vice John McCreery, who had resigned. William Jordain exempted from levies. Thomas Hicklin recommended Captain of the Company he formerly commanded; James Bratton in room of Capt. Kinkead, resigned; Joseph Gwin as First Lieutenant in Capt. Hicklin's Company; Joseph Day as Ensign in Capt. Poage's Company. John McKittrick was appointed Ensign in the room of Ensign Gardner of Capt. Trimble's Company, resigned. Thomas Bratton and James Hicklin qualified Captains.

21 May 1784
Hugh Gwin exempted from pole tax and levies on account of age and infirmities.

March, 1786
Ann Warwick, infant, by John Warwick, her next friend, vs. Mary Moor, daughter of Levy Moor. Case Writ, 19 July 1781.

April, 1793
We, the undersigned jurors for the Commonwealth of Virginia, present that Alex. Sproul did, on the 18th day of January let, in the county aforesaid, unlawfully make a forcible entry into the house and possession of George Almarode, with arms, of which he was then possessed, and does continue to keep out the said Almarode, to his hurt and damage. In witness whereof the under named jurors have hereunto set their hands and seals this 13th day of February 1792. (Signed) Francis Hull, John Summers, Robt. Morris, Robert Cooper, Samuel McCutchan, Andrew Donaldson, Thomas Boyd, John McCoskry, David Humphreys, James Cunningham, George Everts, Jacob Wehrly, John Cunningham, Robert Hanna, John McCutchan, Henry Venus, Ro. Tate, Hugh Dougherty, Henry Minger, William McCutchan, John Foulwidder, John Logan, Mexard Berryhill, James Henry.

September, 1802 (A to G)
Court of Rockbridge vs. Steel. - List of delinquents in county levy with the District of Hawkins Windell, Commissioner, for the year 1796: Lasty F. Ayten, Frecnhbroad; Eden Bales, Kentucky; James Bales, Kentucky; James Buckerage, Cumberland; John Cowan, Cumerland; James Curry, removed; John Collins, Holsteen; John Duff, Tennessee; Samuel Aires, Bath county; Mark Biggs, runaway; John Brown, Botetourt; Caleb Beggs, Botetourt; Jacob Collier, Pennsylvania; Samuel Corwen, Botetourt; James Caul, removed; Jesse Dolter, Augusta; Adma Dickey, dead; George Gabbert, Greenbrier; Cutlip Gannert, Augusta; James Henton, Rockingham' John Hamilton, Kentucky; Joseph Hanmin, Botetourt; James McGill, Roanoke; Jacob Oyler, Botetourt; George Rule, Botetourt; Joseph Snodgrass and Benjamin Snodgrass, Kentucky; Henry Standoff, Bath county; Anthony Watson, Tennessee; John Miller (shoemaker), runaway; Humphrey Ellis, Botetourt; Armstrong Ellis, Botetourt; william Gill, Botecourt; Jean Henry, Clinch; David Henry, Pennsylvania; John Jinkins, runaway; Mark Morris, Jr., Roanoke (Botetourt; Wm. Reid, runaway; James Sewell, Kentucky; Wm. Stuart, removed; Nicholas Lusong, Tennessee; John Varner, Botetourt; Jacob Way, runaway; Robert Shields, Tennessee. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Under the British Crown

Vol 14, Iss 10 Highland County, Virginia - This week's journey through the early day of Highland County, Virginia takes us to Chapter IX of Oren Frederic Morton's book entitled, The History of Highland County, Virginia. It deals with Highland under the British Crown; Settlers after the Indian War; Pioneer Homes; Manner of life; Farming customs, roads, mills and Taverns; Church and School interests organization of Augusta; County courts, punishments, lawsuits wills, deeds and surveys and White servants.

When the war for Independence broke out, there was a considerable population in these valleys. The favored localities after the Indian war were the heads of the Cowpasture and Bullpasture rivers, the Crabbottom, and the vicinity of Vanderpool Gap.

James Burnside lived on the Bodkin homestead for a number of years. Andrew Lockridge in 1774 purchased a large boundary of land in the Bullpasture Valley just above the Bath line. Dawson Wade lived near the mouth of Davis Run, but sold to William Steuart and went to Boteourt. Edward Hines was on Crab Run in 1768. At Doe Hill, Abraham Hempenstall became a neighbor to the Wilsons. Tully Davitt lived in the same neighborhood, but at the close of 1775 he sold to John Hiner. John McCoy was another neighbor by 1733. It is said that in coming through Panther Gap most of McCoys seed potatoes fell into the river. On the Cowpasture, George Benson purchased in 1776 at the run which bears his name. In the near vicinity there is mention of William Renick and William and Francis Jackson. Higher up the river was Henry Erwin in 1772.

The limestone soils of Bullpasture Mountain caused this upland to be thought the only one much worthy of being reduced to private ownership. The first entry we find here was that of William Price as early as 1754. In 1772, Thomas Wright appears to have been living on the mountain and he was soon followed by others, in the section above the turnpike.

The Middle Valley is where we find that George Nicholas came to the Forks of the Waters in 1770. The first entry on Straight Creek proper seems that of David Bell in 1771. The Bell's were for some time considerable landholders in Highland, and at an early day appear to have lived here. A little over the Monterey divide was David Frame in 1767, and "Frame's Cabbin" is spoken of as a well known landmark. His neighbors about Vanderpool Gap were Robert and John Dinwiddie, William Given and James Morrow. Robert Dinwiddie was a man of some education and property, but the notion that he was the same as Governor Robert Dinwiddie is entirely wrong. The latter had no sons and after his term of office went back to England and died there. But that the pioneer was a relative is very possible. Down the river at the mouth of Dry Branch was Robert Wiley, In 1773.

Peter Hull sold his farm in the Valley of Virginia and became a heavy purchaser in the center of Crabbottom in 1765. Below him were Bernard Lantz about this time, Michael Arbogast and John Gum in 1766, Pallor Naigley in 1768, and Peter Zickafoose in 1772.

The raid on the Wilsons one half of Highland was still an unbroken forest, yet there were more than fifty households scattered a long the river bottoms of the other half. This region had begun to take on the semblance of stable community, and was not with Highland as with the remote regions of the Appalachians. The distance to the seaboard was not prohibitive, and the people did not mean to lie outside the pale of civilization.

The usual type of Highland dwelling was the round log cabin, with a single door, a stick and daub chimney and one or two little openings closed by shutters. The building was small, low and hastily constructed. It was the offspring of necessity, just as was the sod house on the far Western prairies. This single-roomed house were neatly or slovenly kept depended on the habits of those who lived in them.

The settler who wished to live in decent quarters put up a well-built structure of hewn logs, supplied it with a massive chimney of hewn stone. It accommodated the parents and the eight, ten or fifteen children who shared the house with them. Nails were made by the blacksmith and were sparingly used. Wooden pins being a substitute. Window panes were not only small but few, since it was tedious and expensive to bring glass from the seaports. Boards used were made by the slow, toilsome process of whipsawing. The roof was clapboards held down by weight poles that took the place of shingles.

The clapboards gave place at length to shingles, the walls were weatherboarded, the windows became larger, and the rooms were veiled. The yawning fireplace was closed up and a stove set in front of it. Houses of brick or stone were even rare. After the steam sawmills came into being no more log houses were built.

It was the rule among all classes all people wore homespun and lived on cornbread and wild meat and fish. Spoons were of pewter or wood. Furniture was handmade. The barns and stable were primitive and were not needed for housing farm implements. The livestock had to be strongly penned to keep off the wolves, panthers and bears. The tilled area was very small. The pioneer grew no more than what his family and his livestock could consume. pasture lands were even small and trees were cut down for the farm animals to browse upon the twigs. The pioneer farm was well supplied with cattle, horses, sheep and hogs. Animals could walk to market and were the chief agricultural resource. Sheep were necessary, because the only woolen goods were those made on the hand loom in the farmhouse. The sowing of a half-bushel of flax was considered good for fifty to seventy-five yards of cloth.

Wallace Estill was directed 29 May 1751 to clear a road from his mill to a road already opened to the head of the Calfpasture. The settlers appointed by the court to help him were Loftus Pullin, Richard Bodkin, Samuel Ferguson, Matthew Harper, John Miller, William Price, James Anglen, James Hall, Philip Phegan, John Shaw, Hackland Wilson, two John Carliles, and Robert and William Carlile. By petition of May 18, 1753, this road was extended from Estill's mill to William Wilson's mill on Bolar Run. Stephen Wilson and Hugh Hicklin were overseers for this section, and to work under them were John Miller, William and John Wilson, Samuel and Robert Gay, Robert and John Carlile, John and Thomas Hicklin, and Loftus Pullin.

This thoroughfare was 32 miles long and was the first public road in Highland. It was no more than a narrow lane through the woods, to be traveled by horses with packsaddles. According to law, posts of direction were to be set up at necessary points. The neglected wagon path up the west face of Jack Mountain from Bolar appears to be the course of this old road.

The house of public entertainment was called an ordinary, and the prices it charged for its services were regulated by the county court with Greg Minuteness. Taverns were too few to keep the rates down.

We will have more on Highland county and chapter nine next week in the OkieLegacy Ezine. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


Highland County Virginia - Exploration Of...

Vol 14, Iss 8 Highland County, Virginia - Exploration beyond the mountains is where our next journey takes us in discovering the lands of our ancestry that settled in the Pastures and Valley of Virginia. This is our discovery of Highland County, Virginia where our Gwin, Hohl (Hull), Kincaid and Warwick settled after they they took the journey across the Atlantic Ocean for religious and economic persecution back in the "Old" country back home.

We will begin with Governor Alexander Spottswood of Virginia in 1716 deeming it important to learn the truth regarding this land beyond the Blue Ridge mountains that he supposed lead to only a few days march to the Great Lakes. Spottswood was not impelled by curiosity or far-sightedness, though. It was the land hunger which impelled the American step by step to the Pacific that was making itself felt. It was the pillaging of the Tidewater soil had begun to counsel a decisive exploration beyond the mountains.

Governor Spottswood left the capital with a mounted party of 50 companions following no road the greater part of the distance. It took him from August 20, until September 5, 1716 to cover a distance of 220 miles. The Spottswood party encountered many rattlesnakes while climbing the Blue Ridge mountains through Swift Run Gap. On the summit they found trees blazed by the Indians. Spottswood and his party descended to near where Elkton now stands as they reached a fine river which they named "Euphrates. They crossed to the left bank and held a banquet the next day, September 6, 1716. To chronicler the expedition it is careful to enumerate the considerable variety of wines and liquors which had been brought along. Each toast was followed with a volley from their firearms.

BUT . . . Governor Spottswood and the "gentlemen" of the party did not go any farther. Some rangers were left behind to prosecute the exploration. At the disbanding at Williamsburg, after an absence of eight weeks, the governor took steps to present each of his companions with a miniature horseshoe of gold containing the Latin motto, Sic juvat transcend ere montes Translated it is, So let it be a joy to pass over the mountains.

It was not the swilling of liquor or the presentation of badges that were the results of the expedition, though. They instead found a highly inviting region. On the mountains they crossed and on those they saw in the blue distance were noble forests. Between was a broad, grassy prairie with a more fertile, homelike soil than that of Tidewater. The wilderness was abound with game and fish, and there was no Indian village within a hundred miles. The land beyond the mountains was now officially and practically discovered and attractive reports of the same were soon circulating in Europe. In 1720 another county was formed and named Spottsylvania, in honor of the governor and took in the locality he visited.

The governor declared that his chief purpose was to assure himself that it was practicable to reach the Great Lakes. According to Indian reports they could be seen from the mountains in the distance. Surprising as it was Spottswood did not push on to those mountains to see for himself, instead he merely wrote in his official recommendation that settlements be established on the Lakes and communication secured by means of a chain of forts. In any cue, it was the passing through meadow of tall grass to look for another where the grass might be a bit taller. Spottswood was good even though it came to nothing. Other men were more practical than Spottswood.

The exploration of the great Valley of Virginia and the minor valleys beyond were tolerably rapid. By 1727 the Cowpasture Valley had been prospected, and a year or two earlier a Dutch trader by the a name of John Vanmeter has ascended the South branch as far as the vicinity of Franklin. Another Dutch explorer, John Vanderpool, discovered the gap which bears his name, and told of a beautiful valley beyond with impassable mountains in the distance. While hunters and rangers were prospecting this land of promise, a new wave of immigration was setting in, destined within a half century to supply the colonies with at least a fifth of their whole population.

In 1732, George Washington was born and the Scotch-Irsih and the Germans had only begun to float across the Atlantic. six hundred thousand people already were in the lowlands of Virginia and had nowhere penetrated the Alleghany watershed.

Some of the Scotch-Irish arrived at Charleston and went direct to the Carolina uplands. The greater share of the immigrants of both nationalities came to Philadelphia, because of the reputation of the Pennsylvania colony for its civil and religious liberty. The district along the Delaware River and westward toward the mouth of the Susquehanna was quite well occupied by a substantial class of English Quakers. The people already here looked with distrust on the stance appearing immigrants from Ireland and Germany. These newcomers that were not bound to servitude had therefore pushed inland through the zone of settlement.

The earlier colonists did not receive the new immigrants with wide open arms, they liked the Scotch-Irish the less of the two because of their assertive manner. Restrictive laws were accordingly passed. The Germans were required to adopt English names, which appears to explain the s=wholly English form of the surnames of not a few of the German pioneers.

Many of the newcomers made only a short stay i Pennsylvania. They moved to the southwest, because in this direction lay the door of wider opportunity. The Germans, lovers of peace and on the whole the less aggressive of the two races, remained in Pennsylvania and occupied the inland districts as far as the western rim of the Cumberland Valley. The overflow pushed through that valley into the adjacent section of Maryland, across the Potomac into the valleys of the Shenandoah and the South Branch (then known as the Wappacomac).

The Germans occupied the west side of the Shenandoah Valley as far southward as the vicinity of Harrisonburg. In the valley of the south Branch, the attempt of Lord Fairfax to make his extensive grant a feudal barony of the English pattern caused many of the immigration to push above Fairfax boundary, which lay in the vicinity of Moorefield and Petersburg.

The Scotch-Irish we find were more numerous and more venturesome and their area of their distribution was much wider. They occupied the western section of Pennsylvania, and filled the Valley of Virginia southward of the German district. They also filled the Valley of East Tennessee, but they took possession of the uplands of both the Carolinas. They became a frontier community, which extended from the vicinity of the Great Lakes southward into Georgia. Their development of this frontier was quite rapid and greatly hastened the westward advance of the American people.

The Scotch-Irish pathfinders were particularly fixed on that section of the Valley of Virginia which lies southward of Massanutton Mountain. They occupied this region in force. Their earlier selections were not int he smooth, open plain between the mountains. Why was it they should appear to scorn fettle lands that needed no clearing? Their motive was substantially the same as that which led the earlier settlers beyond the Missouri to shun the open prairie and ling to the creek bank, where drinking water had only be be dipped out of a spring and where timber was at hand for shelter and fuel. The limestone plain in the valley was deficient in surface water. The Scotch-Irishman did not shirk at the trouble of felling trees, but he had no mind to dig a deep well if he could help it.

In 1727, a year before the first permanent settlement in Rockingham, and five years before there was anybody at or near where the city of Staunton grew up, we find an attempt to colonize the Cowpasture Valley. It was in that same year that Robert and William Lewis, Willaiam Lynn, Robert Brooke, and Beverley Robinson petitioned the Gvoernor and Council to with the following:

  • "Your Petitioners have been at great trouble and charges in making discoveries of lands among the mountains, and are desirous of taking up some of those lands they have discovered; wherefore your petitioners humbly gray your Honours to grant him an order to take up fifty thousand acres, in one or more tracts, on the head branches of James River to the West and Northwestward of the Cow Pasture, on seating thereon one Family for every thousand acres, and as the said lands are very remote and lying among the great North Mountains, being about two hundred miles at least from any landing -- Your petitioners humbly pray Your Honours will grant them six year' time to seat the same."

  • This is where we find in the very same year when the first actual settler came to the Shenandoah Valley, there was an earnest effort to colonize the Highland area. This was only 120 years after the landing at Jamestown, when the entire population of the Colonies did not equal the present number of people int he city of Baltimore. BUT . . . was the above petition sever granted? It is doubtful, but in 1743 there was an order of council in favor of Henry Robinson, James Wood and Thomas and Andrew Lewis, for 30,000 acres in the same region.

    There were considerable number of Scotch-Irish in the upper Shenandoah Valley by this time and even southward. In 1738, the region west of the Blue Ridge had been set off into the counties of Augusta and Frederick, with the line between the two crossing the Shenandoah Valley in the vicinity of Woodstock. The county machinery of Augusta was not set in motion until the close of 1745. It was during this interval that Augusta remained attached to the parent county of Orange.

    We find that the Augusta colony was the starting point of the Scotch-Irish settlement of upper Virginia. The dispersion from this center was governed by the position of the gaps in the mountains. Pioneer travel never climbed a steep rocky ridge when it was possible to find a grade line along a crooked watercourse.The settlers did not go over the rugged Shenandoah Mountain as they moved westward into Bath and Highland, but they flanked it by way of Panther Gap, 30 miles southwest of Staunton.

    Highland was settled by the Scotch-Irish land seekers coming through Panther Gap and along the upper James, moving up the valleys of the Cowpasture and Jackson's River, until they reached the laurel thickets along the cross rigs separating the waters of the james from those of the Potomac. The German land seekers cam from the opposite direction as they crept up the three valleys of the South branch waters until they had come to the divide. Likes attracted likes in the settlement of a new region. Pioneers of the same class preferred to be together.The Scothc-Irish and the German settlers were not like oil and water, but in communities of either the other was in some degree represented.

    In the pioneer days of Highland we find these two defined areas of settlement. The Scotch-Irish filling the vie valleys which opened southward and the Germans occupying Straight Creek and the Crabbottom. A few of them made homes south of the divide, with a larger number of the Scotch-Irish settling north of it. When Pendleton county was established in 1787, its southern line folioed this water-parting. It was not only a natural geographic boundary, but it was also a boundary between tow provinces of settlement. Pendleton was predominantly German. Bath would soon be sticker off and was distinctly Scotch-Irish.

    In the valleys of the Cowpasture, the Bullpasture, Jackson's River, and Back Creek, the family names were mainly Scotch-Irish. In the Crabbottom and in Straight Creek, family lineage was mainly German but thoroughly Americanized. There had been much blending of the two. Some families not German innate had become almost German in blood, while the present generation of the German immigrant cannot point back to an unmixed German ancestry. Northeast of Highland the divide passes very near the county boundary. Crossing into Pendleton one finds a large number of the people using a broken down German idiom. South of the divide it is an unknown speech never having much foothold.

    Besides families coming from the east of Virginia, some even came from the distant New England. We find that Welsh, French and Celtic and saxon irish scattered freely though out all the colonies, without seeking to found distinct settlements of their own. The venturesome Hollanders of the New York colony were not quite unrepresented. The actual beginnings of settlements in the counties of Highland and Bath show the latter county lying directly against the gateways to the Valley of Virginia. The settlement of BAth was a bit earlier than that of Highland. The Cowpasture valley was first reached and first settled, while the valley of Back Creek came last, just as we might suppose. The German influx did not reach the divide as soon as the Scotch-Irish. There were people at the head of the Bullpasture 15 years before there appears to have been any in Crabbottom.

    The Calf Pasture Valley lies eastward across the mouth of panther Gap, and it was supposed that settlement would be a little earlier than in the valleys beyond. It was on Arpil 2, 1745, when deeds for 2,247 acres were given by James Patton and John Lewis to William Campbell, Jacob Clemens, Samuel Hodge, Robert Gay, Thomas Gillam and William Jamison.

    August 17, 1745, other deeds for 5,205 acres were given by the same men to Francis DONALLY, Robert GWIN, Robert BRATTON, John DUNLAP, Loftus PULLIN, John WILSON, John KINCAID, John MILLER, Robert GAY and James CARTER. Almost all these names occur shortly afterward in Bath or Highland, though purchaser himself or a son. Of those names I see many that connect to my paternal ancestry. Such as GWIN, BRATTON, DUNLAP, KINCAID and GAY. [Click the following link for more information on my pioneer ancestry at Paris Pioneers Genealogy. Is there anyone out there researching their ancestry roots of Highland county, Virginia that have you ever come across any of the miniature, inscribed, "gold horseshoes that Governor Spottswood handed out to his travel companions that we mentioned earlier in this article?

    On the South Fork in Pendleton we have knowledge that number of German families, to whom deeds were given on one and the same day, had been living on their lands ten years and in recognized occupancy, yet the lands had already passed into private ownership.There was no record any permit for those persons to settle, though. The authorization would seem to have been verbal and for a definite term of years. The country beyond the Shenandoah ridge and above the confluence of the Cowpasture with Jackson's River, we find that in 1744 a survey of 176 acres a was granted to one William Moor on the last named stream and in what is now Alleghany county. The following year ten other persons took surveys on the Cowpasture below Williamsville.

    In 1746, nineteen more surveys were recorded for the lower Cowpasture, thirteen for Jackson's River, and five for Back Creek. All these appear to be below the Highland line. How long these people had been here, we do not know with any certainty. John Lewis was directed by the Orange court, May 23, 1745, to take the list of tithables for the district between the Blue Ridge and the North (Shenandoah) Mountains, "Including the Cow and Calf Pastures and the settlers back of the same." It is not conclusive that any settlers had actually gone beyond the Cowpasture. The order was worded so as to include all settlers, however far to the west they might be found. Aside front he report of the county surveyor, there seems to be no evidence that people had located west of Shenandoah Mountain prior to the coming of Moor in 1744, or perhaps 1743.

    The order of council in favor of the LEWIS and their associates was granted in 1743. Adam DICKENSON's Fort stood four miles below Millboro and appears to have been the leader of the settlers on the lower Cowpasture. Dickenson was a large landholder and on the organization of Augusta in 1745 he became one of its first justices.

  • Colonel John Lewis,of Scottich-Welsh descent, came from Ireland and lived two miles east of Staunton. He died in 1762 at the gage of 84. All Lewis sons were prominent in the early history of Augusta.
  • Colonel James Patton was the rich manor the Augusta settlement and said to have made 25 voyages across the Atlantic, bringing immigrants every time. He was also county lieutenant and fell in battle in 1755.
  • Gabriel JAMES was a Welshman and first resident lawyer, being appointed prosecuting attorney when only 22 years old. He lived near Port Republic but owned land in Bath. He was brother-in-law to Thomas Lewis, and both these men were members of the state convention that considered the Federal Constitution and they voted in favor of its adoption.
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    Great Grandpa Wm. Fechtig Warwick

    Vol 11, Iss 32 The picture on the left is an old photo of William Fechtig & Pheobe Anthea (Pray) Warwick, parents of John Robert (great-grandpa) and Paul (great-uncle) Warwick, of Mountain Grove, Virginia.

    William Fechtig WARWICK was born Aug 11 1822, Augusta Co, Virginia and died Dec 20 1902 (Age: 80). Phoebe Anthea Pray/Prey was born May 3, 1833, and died May 1, 1905 (age: 71).

    Their children were Amanda "Gabie", born 1871, married John Landes; George Craig; Charles Fechtig; Peter Hull; John Robert (G-Grandpa); PaulMcNeel; Amelia E; James; Louisa Catherine; Sallie; and Nelson Pray Warwick.

    You may view my McGill/Warwick genealogy by clicking on the following link showing William Fechtig Warwick Family Tree.
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    Looking Back ... Great Grandpa J. R. Warwick

    Vol 11, Iss 31 Besides being born April 9, 1857, at Frost, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, John Robert Warwick was later a pioneer citizen of Woods (M) county, Oklahoma Territory.

    John R. Warwick came from a long line of fighting stock, and he was never known to be afraid. Panics, hard times, sickness, death itself could come along during his life, but he remained calm. John Warwick lived on the theory that the sun set --but that it later arose!

    John Robert Warwick was one of a family of 11 Children, four of whom survive him. He was also raised in the Methodist faith.

    John's sense of humor never failed, nor his hospitality, as no one, either friend or outcast, ever went away hungry. Much of his determined character may have come down to him through a family trait, as revealed in an old history of West Virginia. It tells of his ancestor, Major Peter Hull who, coming from England in 1772, settled in this same valley where John Warwick later was born. Of this Major Hull the historian wrote. "He was of great influence, but very domineering."

    This spirit which had run through the family for generations led him to independence of action later when he came to Kansas and taught school at Coldwater, waiting for the opening of Oklahoma's Cherokee Strip for settlement. He "made the run" Sept. 16, 1893. As he was accustomed to the water and wood in abundance on the wooded hills and plains of West Virginia, he looked first for wood and water when looking for a homestead. He staked a claim 7 miles south of Alva, on Eagle Chief, but learning by experience that more abundance lay in the level wheat lands--he sold his wood-and-water farm and bought level wheat land 5 miles south of Alva. [also known as the 3/4 Quarters that was in dispute in Gene McGill's Trust.]

    Here is where John R. and his wife, Signora Belle Guinn Warwick lived until 1929 when they moved to Alva. John's wife preceded him in death three years, almost to the exact time of his death, dying in November, 1934. John R. Warwick loved his chewing tobacco and eventually died of cancer of his jaw.

    John Robert Warwick loved land and became a large land proprietor. He also was vice-president and director of the Hopeton State Bank, Hopeton, Oklahoma, for many years. Until the day he died John took care of his own business and managed his farms South of Alva; East of Freedom at Fairvalley; and North of Waynoka along Hwy 14.
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    National Republican Convention of 1872 Nominates Gen. Grant Unanimously

    Vol 18, Iss 29 Looking back at Presidential Conventions of the 19th century, we find this mention of the National Republican Convention, on the second day, nominated Gen. Grant unanimously, with Henry Wilson for Vice President. This news item can be found on page 2, of the Harrisburg Telegraph, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, dated 6 June 1872, Thursday. This was also the year that Victoria Claflin Woodhull was the first women nominated for president on the "Equal Rights Party," with Frederick Douglas as her Vice President.

    Found on Newspapers.com

    As to the National Republican Convention of 1872, and Pres. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the day opened clear and beautiful and the streets were unusually crowded. The session commenced at then o'clock, but the discussion of the resolutions would delay nominations until the afternoon. The friends of Henry Wilson were certain of his nomination as Vice president. Governor Hawley's withdrawal and the strong support of Pennsylvania having greatly encouraged them. On a platform, the committee sat nearly all night. It was believed there was a little difference on the tariff question. Wendell Phillips desired a plank inserted promising protection for capital and the fairest opportunities for labor, its ally.

    Susan B. Anthony and other female champions were laboring hard to get a recognition of woman suffrage in the platform/ and the manufacturing interest were working hard for a protection plank. The withdrawal of ex-Gov. Pierrpont, of West Virginia, from his delegation on account of avowed hostility to Grant, and disappointment in finding that he would be nominated, created some talk but little excitement. Before the delegate left home he had expressed himself against Grant and for Greeley.

    The delegates from eh Pacific States had a reunion the night before, attended by Senator Nye and others of note. Colonel Forney gave a dinner to the newspaper correspondents, and the Republican invisibles of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania opened the campaign with a grand rally. There were speeches by Governor Fairchild, of Wisconsin, and others.

    The cannon would be fired when the nomination of President was announced, and the people were cautioned to have their windows raised to prevent the breaking of glass.

    George Francis Train made himself conspicuous at the Continental constantly asserting that he would be the next president. The Virginia delegation, consisted of eleven white and eleven colored, divided the whites for Wilson, the colored for Colfax. Indiana was solid for Colfax. Massachusetts was solid for wilson. Ohio stood 40 strong for Wilson and 6 for Colfax. Kentucky and Iowa would go for Harian on the first ballot, but would change to Wilson. A National Convention of Irish Republicans would be held in Philadelphia on July 4th.

    The night before, in the committee on resolutions, Col. Swann, of West Virginia, stated that he had been in the confederate service, and made a speech stating that he thought the time had now arrived when the government could afford to be magnanimous, and a plank should be inserted in the platform giving pensions to the widows and orphans of the confederate soldiers who fell in the war.

    All the states were fully represented. Dakotah was allowed to cast two votes. The Utah delegates elected at Corrine were admitted. Emotion to admit both delegations from that territory as one set was ruled out on account of being Mormons.

    Governor Parsons, of Alabama, offered a resolution asserting that "We ever desire the peace and welfare of all nations as the greatest earthly boons, and the cultivation of friendly relations with them on the principles of right, and we are willing to make all proper concessions to our cousins of Great Britain, who would find the people of the Untied States as firmly untied in the maintenance of our rights then as in 1776 and 1812, and would uphold the arm of the National government in asserting them."

    Resolutions presented by the Union League were received, announcing adherence to the principles of the Republican party;, and that they found no principle in a so-called third party worthy of admiration and support. That all citizens, regardless of color, were entitled to the protection of the government. Congress urged to pass the Civil Rights bill, and should not adjourn until that was done. The national debt should be steadily reduced. The administration of Grant approved by the people. On motion the resolutions were entered on terminates of the convention.

    Mr. Straubach, of Alabama, a German, proceeds to the platform. He said he addressed the convention as a naturalized citizen. None of the twenty delegates from Alabama were office holders. He spoke of the Ku Klux outrages in his county, giving illustrations. One man was burned for marrying a black woman. He considered it a matter of taste. He wished Grant to be nominated. Grant was the only man who had strength to keep down the Ku Klux. He spoke at length, having had his time extended. The audience got restless, and time was called several times. The gentleman was finally applauded off the platform, and the band played.

    After everyone some, a motion was made to suspend the rules and proceed to ballot for president, and a vote was taken which resulted in great confusion. The chairman declared the motion lost. The following was the speech of Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, in nominating President Grant:

    "Mr. Chairman, in the name of the Republican party of the Untied States, in the name of liberty and of loyalty, of Justice and law, in the interests of economy, good government, peace and the equal rights of all men, remembering with profound gratitude his glorious achievements on the field and his noble statesmanship as the chief magistrate of this nation, I nominate for president of the Untied States, for the second term, Ulysses S. Grant."
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    Listen To the People, Independence Day, 1941

    Vol 17, Iss 3 USA - Written by Stephen Vincent Benet and printed in LIFE, Defense Issue, 7 July 1941. This dramatic poem is being presented over the National Broadcasting company's Blue Network at 4:15 p.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time, Friday, Juy 4, 1941. LIFE herewith prints the full radio script in order that its readers may follow the performance at that time.

    It does so because its editors believe that Stephen Vincent Benet, one of America's great poets, has experimented boldly and successfully in a new technique for dramatic radio presentation while at the same time ceating a fine piece of patriotic literature. In this program, sponsored by the Council for Democracy, famous actors will be the different Voices -- Henry Hull, Narrator; Howard Lindsay, Conservative Voice; Otto Preminger, Totalitarian voice; Robert Gray, Radical Voice. Supporting the voices is an original musical score composed for a 40-piece orchestra by Vaclav Moravan.]

    Narrator:

    This is Independence Day,
    Fourth of July, the day we mean to keep,
    Whatever happens and whatever falls
    Out of a sky grown strange;
    This is firecracker day for sunburnt kids,
    The day of the parade,
    Slambanging down the street.
    Listen to the parade!
    There's J. K. Burney's float,
    Red-white-and-blue crepe-paper on the wheels,
    The Fire Department and the local Grange,
    There are the pretty girls with their hair curled
    Who represent the Thirteen Colonies,
    The Spirit of East Greenwich, Betsy Ross,
    Democracy, or just some pretty girls.
    There are the veterans and the Legion Post
    (Their feet are going to hurt when they get home),
    The band, the flag, the band, the usual crowd,
    Good-humored, watching, hot,
    Silent a second as the flag goes by,
    Kidding the local cop and eating popsicles,
    Jack Brown and Rosie Shapiro and Dan Shay,
    Paul Bunchick and the Greek who runs the Greek's,
    The black-eyed children out of Sicily,
    The girls who giggle and the boys who push,
    All of them there and all of them a nation.
    And, afterwards,
    There'll be ice-cream and fireworks and a speech
    By somebody the Honorable Who,
    The lovers will pair off in the kind dark
    And Tessie Jones, our honor-graduate,
    Will read the declaration.
    That's how it is. It's always been that way.
    That's our Fourth of July, through war and peace,
    That's our fourth of July.

    And a lean farmer on a stony farm
    Came home from mowing, buttoned up his shirt
    And walked ten miles to town.
    Musket in hand.
    He didn't know the sky was falling down
    And, it may be, he didn't know so much.
    But people oughtn't to be pushed around
    By kings or any such.
    A workman in the city dropped his tools.
    An ordinary, small-town kind of man
    Found himself standing in the April sun,
    One of a ragged line
    Against the skilled professionals of war,
    The matchless infantry who could not fail,
    Not for the profit, not to conquer worlds,
    Not for the pomp or the heroic tale
    But first, and principally, since he was sore.
    They could do things in quite a lot of places.
    They shouldn't do them here, in Lexington.

    He looked around and saw his neighbors' faces...

    An Angry Voice:

    Disperse, ye villains! Why don't you disperse?

    A Calm Voice:

    Stand your ground, men. don't fire unless fired upon. but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here!

    Narrator, Resuming:

    Well, that was that. And later, when he died
    Of fever or a bullet in the guts,
    Bad generalship, starvation, dirty wounds
    Or any one of all the thousand things
    That kill a man in wars,
    He didn't die handsome but he did die free
    And maybe that meant something. It could be.
    Oh, it's not pretty! Say it all you like!
    It isn't a bit pretty. Not one bit.
    But that is how the liberty was won.
    That paid for the firecrackers and the band.

    A Young Voice Radical:

    Well, what do you mean, you dope?
    Don't you know this is an imperialist, capitalist country, don't you?
    Don't you know it's all done with mirrors and the bosses get the gravy, don't you?
    Suppose some old guy with chin whiskers did get his pants shot off at a place called Lexington?
    What does it mean to me?

    An Older Voice, Conservative:

    My dear fellow, I myself am a son of a son of a son of the American Revolution,
    But I can only view the present situation with the gravest alarm,
    Because we are rapidly drifting into a dictatorship
    And it isn't my kind of dictatorship, what's more.
    The Constitution is dead and labor doesn't know its place,
    And then there's all that gold buried at Fort Knox
    And the taxes -- oh, oh, oh!
    Why, what's the use of a defense-contract if you can't make money out of your country?
    Things are bad -- things are very bad.
    Already my Aunt Emmeline has had to shoot her third footman.
    (He broke his leg passing cocktails and it was really a kindness.)
    And, if you let the working-classes buy coal, they'll only fill bath-tubs with it,
    Don't you realize the gravity of the situation, don't you?
    Won't you hide your head in a bucket and telegraph your congressman, opposing everything possible, including peace and war?

    A Totalitarian Voice, Persuasive:

    My worthy American listeners,
    I am giving you one more chance.
    Don't you know that we are completely invincible, don't you?
    Won't you just admit that we are the wave of the future, won't you?
    You are a very nice, mongrel, disgusting people --

    But, naturally, you need new leadership.
    We can supply it. We've sent the same brand to fourteen nations.
    It comes in the shape of a bomb and it beats as it sweeps as it cleans
    For those of you who like Benito Mussolini, we can supply him
    (He's three doors down to the left, at the desk marked second Vice President).
    Now be sensible -- give up this corrupt and stupid nonsense of democracy.
    And you can have the crumbs from our table and a trusty's job in our world-jail.

    Radical Voice:

    Forget everything but the class-struggle. Forget democracy.

    Conservative Voice:

    Hate and distrust your own government. Whisper, hate and never look forward.
    Look back wistfully to the good old, grand old days -- the days when the
    Boys said "The public be damned!" and got away with it. Democracy's a nasty word, invented by the Reds.

    Totalitarian Vice:

    Just a little collaboration and you too can be part of the New Order.
    You too can have fine new concentration camps and shoes made out of wood pulp. You too can be as peaceful as Poland, as happy and gay as France. Just a little collaboration. We have so many things to give you.
    We can give you your own Hess, your own Himmler, your own Goering -- all home grown and wrapped in Cellophane. We;ve done it elsewhere. If you'll help, we can do it here.

    Radical Voice:

    Democracy's a fake --

    Conservative:

    Democracy's a mistake --

    Totalitarian:

    Democracy is finished, We are the future.

    (Music Up and Ominous)

    Narrator, Resuming:

    The sky is dark, now, over the parade,
    The sky's an altered sky, a sky that might be.

    There's J. K. Berney's float
    With funny-colored paper on the wheels
    Or no -- excuse me -- used to be J. K.'s.
    But the sotre's under different management
    Like quite a lot of stores.
    You see, J. K. got up in church one day,
    After it all had happened and walked out,
    The day they instituted the new order.
    They had a meeting. held it in the church.
    He just walked out. That's all.
    That's all there is to say about J. K.
    Though I remember just the way he looked,
    White-faced and chin stuck out.
    I think they could have let the church alone.
    It's kind of dreary, shutting up the church.
    But don't you say I said so. Don't you say!
    Listen to the parade!
    There are the pretty girls with their hair curled,
    Back from the labor camp.
    They represent the League of Strength Through Joy.
    At least, I guess it's that.
    No, they don't go to high-school any more.
    they get told where they go. We all get told.
    And, now and then, it happens like Jack Brown,
    Nice fellow, Jack. Ran the gas-statiion here.
    But he was married to a You-know-Who.
    Fond of her, too.
    I don't know why we never used to mind.
    Why, she walked round like anybody else,
    Kept her kids clean and joined the Ladies' Social.
    Just shows you, doesn't it? But that's all done.
    And you won't see her in the crowd today,
    Her or the kids or Jack,
    Unless you look six feet under the ground,
    The lime-washed ground, the bitter prison ground
    That hides the martyrs and the innocent,
    And you won't see Dan Shay.
    Dan was a Union man
    And now we don't have Unions any more.
    They wouldn't even let him take his specs,
    The day the troopers came around for him.
    Listen to the parade!
    The marching, marching, marching feet,
    All with the same hard stamp!
    The bands, the bands, the bands, the flags, the flags,
    The sharp, mechanical, inhuman cheer
    Dragged from the straining throats of the stiff crowd!
    It's Independence -- sorry, my mistake! --
    It's National Day -- The Day of the New Order!
    We let it happen -- we forgot the old
    Bleak words of common sense, "Unite or Die,"
    And the clock struck -- and the bad dream was her.

    A Voice:

    But you can't do this to me! I subscribed to the Party funds!

    A Voice:

    You can't do this to me. We got laws. We got courts. We got unions.

    A Voice:

    You can't do this to me. Why, I believe in karl Marx!

    A Voice:

    you can't do this to me. The Constitution forbids it.

    A Voice:

    I was always glad to cooperate.

    A Voice:

    It looked to me like good business.

    A Voice:

    It looked to me like the class struggle.

    A Voice:

    It looked to me like peace in our time.

    Totalitarian Voice:

    Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Democracy is finished. You are finished. We are the present!

    (Music up and Down)

    Narrator:

    That is one voice. you've heard it. Don't forget it.
    And don't forget it can be slick or harsh,
    Violent or crooning, but it's still the same
    And it means death.

    Are there no other voices? None at all?
    No voice at all out of the long parade
    That marched so many years.
    Out of the passion of the Puritans,
    The creaking of the wagons going west,
    The guns of Sharpsburg, the unnumbered dead,
    Out of the baffled and bewildered hosts
    Who came here for a freedom hardly known,
    Out of the bowels of the immigrant ship,
    The strange, sick voyage, the cheating and the scorn
    And yet, at the end, Liberty.
    Liberty with a torch in her right hand,
    slowly worked out, deceived a thousand times,
    But never quite forgotten, always growing,
    Growing like wheat and corn.
    "I remember a man named Abe Lincoln.
    I remember the words he used to say."
    Oh, we can call on Lincoln and Tom Paine,
    Adams and Jefferson,
    Call on the great words spoken that remain
    Like the great stars of evening, the fixed stars,
    But that is not enough.
    The dead are mighty and are part of us
    And yet the dead are dead. This is our world,
    Our times, our choice, our anguish, our decision.
    This is our world. we have to make it now,
    A hundred and thirty millions of us have to
    And make it well, or suffer the bad dream.
    What have we got to say?

    A Woman's Voice:

    I don't know, I'm a woman with a house,
    I do my work. I take care of my man.
    I've got a right to say how things should be.
    I've got a right to have my kids grow up
    The way they ought to grow. Don't stop me there.
    Don't tread on me, don't hinder me, don't cross me.
    I made my kids myself. I haven't got
    Big words to tell about them.
    but, if you ask about democracy,
    Democracy's the growing and the bearing,
    Mouth at the breast and child still to be born.
    Democracy is kids and the green grass.

    Narrator:

    What have we got to say, People, you people?

    Man's Voice:

    I guess I haven't thought about it much.
    I been too busy. Way I figure it
    It's this way. We've got something. If it's crummy
    The bunch of us can change what we don't like
    In our own way and mean it.
    I got a cousin back in the old country.
    he says it's swell there but he couldn't change
    A button on his pants without an order
    From somebody's pet horse. Maybe he likes it.
    I'm sticking here. That's all. Well, sign me off.

    Narrator:

    People, you people, living everywhere,
    Sioux Falls and Saugatuck and Texarkana,
    Memphis and Goshen, Harrodsburg and Troy,
    People who live at postmarks with queer names,
    Blue Eye and Rawhide, Santa Claus and Troublesome,
    People by rivers, people of the plains,
    People whose contour-plows bring back the grass
    To a dust-bitten and dishonored earth,
    And those who farm the hillside acres still
    And raise up fortitude between the stones,
    Millions in cities, millions in the towns,
    People who spit a mile from their front doors
    And gangling kids, ballplaying in the street,
    All races and all stocks, all creeds and cries,
    And yet one people, one, and always striving....

    A Man:

    I'm on relief
    I know what they say about us on relief,
    Those who never were there.
    All the same, we made the park.
    We made the road and the check-dam and the culvert.
    Our names are not on the tablets. Forget our names.
    But, when you drive on the road, remember us, also.
    Remember Johnny Lombardo and his pick,
    remember us, when you build democracy,
    for we, too, were part and are part.

    Narrator:

    One nation, one.
    And the voices of young and old, of all who have faith,
    Jostling and mingling, speaking from the ground,
    Speaking from the old houses and the pride,
    Speaking from the deep hollows of the heart.

    Man's Voice:

    I was born in '63.
    There were many then who despaired of the Republic,
    Many fine and solid citizens.
    They had good and plausible reasons and were eloquent.
    I grew up in the Age of Brass, the Age of Steel.
    I have known and heard of three wars.
    All through my life, whenever the skies were dark,
    There came to me many fine and solid citizens,
    Wringing their hands, despairing of the Republic,
    Because we couldn't do this and shouldn't do that.
    And yet, each time, I saw the Republic grow
    Like a great elm tree, through each fault and failure,
    And spread its branches over all the people.
    Look at the morning usn. There is the Republic.
    Not yesterday, but there, the breaking day.

    Totalitarian Voice:

    But, my worthy American listeners,
    All this is degenerate talk.
    The future rolls like a wave and you cannot fight it.

    A Voice:

    Who says we can't?

    A Voice:

    Who says so?

    A Voice:

    How does he get that way?

    A Voice:

    You mean to tell me
    A little shrimp like that could run the world,
    A guy with a trick moustache and a bum salute
    Run us, run you and me?

    Totalitarian Voice:

    You mistake me.
    Others have oftten made the same mistake
    Often and often and in many countries.
    I never play upon their weaknesses and fears.
    I make their doubts my allies and my spies.
    I have a most convincing mask of peace
    Painted by experts, for one kind of sucker,
    And for another -- I'm a business man,
    Straight from the shoulder, talking trade and markets
    And much misunderstood.
    I touch this man upon his pocketbook,
    That man upon his hatred for his boss,
    That man upon his fear.
    I offer everyting, for offering's cheap.
    I make no claims until Imake the claims.
    I'm always satisfied until I'm not
    Which happens rather rapidly to those
    Who think I could be satisfied with less
    Than a dismembered and digested world.
    My secret weapon is no secret weapon.
    It is to turn all men against all men
    For my own purposes. It is to use
    Good men to do my work without their knowledge,
    Not only the secret traitor and the spy.
    It is to turn all en against all men
    For my own purposes. It is to use
    Good men to do my work without their knowledge,
    Not only the secret traitor and the spy.
    Ut us ti rause a qyestuib abd a diybt
    Where there was faith. It is to subjugate
    Men's minds before their bodies feel the steel.
    It is to use
    All envy, all despair, all prejudice
    For my own work.
    If you've an envy or a prejudice
    I'll play on it and use it to your ruin.
    My generals are General Distrust,
    General Fear, General Half-a-Heart,
    General It's-To-Late,
    General Greed and Major-General Hate,
    And they go walking in civilian clothes
    In your own streets and whisper in your ears.
    I won't be beaten just by sitting tight.
    They tried that out in France. I won't be beaten
    By hiding in the dark and making faces,
    And certainly I never will be beaten
    By those who rather like my kind of world,
    Or, if not like it, think that it must come,
    Those who have wings and burrow in the ground.
    For I'm not betting only on the tanks,
    but on your own division and disunion.
    On your own minds and hearts to let me in,
    For, if that happens, all I wish for happens.
    So what have you to say?
    What have you got to bet against my bet?
    Where's your one voice?

    American Voice:

    Our voice is not one voice but many voices.
    Not one man's, not the greatest, but the people's.
    The blue sky and the forty-eight States of the people.
    Many in easy times but one in the pinch
    And that's what some folks forget.
    Our voice is all the objectors and dissenters
    And they sink and are lost in the groundswell of the people,
    Once the people rouse, once the people wake and listen.
    People, you people, growing everywhere,
    What have you got to say?
    Ther's a smart boy here with a question and he wants answers.
    What have you got to say?

    A Voice:

    We are the people, Listen to us now.

    A Voice:

    Says you we're puny? We built Boulder Dam,
    We built Grand Coulee and the T.V.A.
    We built them out of freedom and our sweat.

    A Voice:

    Says you we're faint of heart and little of mind?
    we poured like wheat through the gaps of the Appalachians.
    We made the seas of wheat, the seas of corn.
    We made five States a sea of wheat and corn.

    Voice Laughing:

    We built the cities and the skyscrapers,
    All the proud steel. We built them up so high
    The eagles lost their way.

    A Voice:

    That's us. When did you do a job like that?

    A Voice:

    Wasn't enough.

    A Voice:

    No, and you bet it wasn't.
    Not with the apple-sellers in the streets,
    Not with the empty shops, the hungry men.

    A Voice:

    But we learned some things in that darkness and kept free.
    We didn't fold up and yell for a dictator.
    We built, even in the darkness. We learned our trade
    By the licks we took and we're bulding different now.

    A Voice:

    We lost our way for a while but we've found our way.
    We know it and we'll hold it and we'll keep it.
    We'll tell it to the world. We're saying it.

    A Voice:

    Freedom to speak and pray.

    A Voice:

    Freedom from want and fear.

    A Voice:

    That's what we're building.

    A Voice:

    Now and here and now.

    Narrator:

    People, you epople, risen and awake....

    A Voice:

    That's what we're building and we'll build it here.
    That's what we're building and we'll buld it now,
    build it and make it shine across the world,
    A refuge and a fortress and a hope,
    Breaking old chains and laughing in the sun.
    This is the people's cause, the people's might.
    We have set up a standard for the free
    And it shall not go down.
    That's why we drill the plate and turn the wheel,
    Build the big planes.
    That's why we drill the plate and turn the wheel,
    Build the big planes.
    That's why amillion and a half of us
    Learn here and now how free men stand in arms.
    Don't tread on us, don't hinder us, don't cross us.
    We son't have tyranny here.

    A Voice:

    We'll stick by Rosie Shapiro and Dan Shay,
    Paul Bunchick and the Greek who runs the Greeks,
    And all of 'em like that, wherever they are.
    We'll stick by the worn old stones in Salem churchyard,
    The Jamestown church and the bones of the Alamo.
    We won't have tyranny here.

    A Voice:

    It's a long way out of the past and a long way forward.
    It's a tough way, too, and there's plenty of trouble in it.
    It's a black storm crowding the sky and a cold wind blowing,
    Blowing upon us all.
    See it and face it. That's the way it is.
    That's the way it'll be for a time and a time.
    Even the easy may have little ease.
    Even the meek may suffer in their meekness.
    But we've ridden out storms before and we'll ride out this one,
    Ride it out and get through.
    It won't be done by the greedy and the go-easies.
    It'll be done by the river of the people,
    The mountain of the people, the great plain
    Grown to the wheat of the people.
    It'll be done by the proud walker, Democracy,
    The walker in proud shoes.
    Get on your feet, Americans, and say it!
    Forget your grievances, wherever you are,
    The little yesterday's hates and the last year's discord.
    This is your land, this is your independence.
    This is the people's cause, the people's might.
    Say it and speak it loud, United, free....

    Many Voices:

    United, free.

    A Voice:

    Whatever happens and whatever falls.
    We pledge ourselves to liberty and faith.

    Many Voices:

    To liberty and faith.

    A Voice:

    We pledge ourselves to justice, law and hope
    And a free government by our own men
    For us, our children and our children's children.

    Many Voices:

    For us, our children and our children's children.

    A Voice:

    Not for an old dead world but a new world rising.

    A Voice:

    For the toil, the struggle, the hope and the great goal.

    (Music up and down)

    Narrator:

    You've heard the long parade
    And all the voices that cry out against it.
    (quietly)
    What do the people say?
    Well, you've just heard some questions and some answers,
    Not all, of course. No man can say that's all.
    But look in your own minds and memories
    And find out what you find and what you'd keep.
    It's time we did that and it won't be earlier.
    I don't know what each one of you will find,
    It may be only half a dozen words
    Carved on a stone, carved deeper in the heart,
    It might be all a life, but look and find it --
    Sun on Key West, snow on New Hampshire hills,
    Warm rain on Georgia and the Texas wind
    Blowing across an empire and all part,
    All one, all indivisible and one --
    Find it and keep it and hold on to it,
    For there's a buried thing in all of us,
    Deeper than all the noise of the parade,
    The thing the haters never understand
    And never will, the habit of the free.
    Out of the flesh, out of the minds and hearts
    Of thousand upon thousand common men,
    Cranks, martyrs, starry-eyed enthusiasts
    Slow-spoken neighbors, hard to push around,
    Women whose hands were gentle with their kids
    And men with a cold passion for mere justice.
    We made this thing, this dream.
    This land unsatisfied by little ways,
    This peaceless vision, groping for the stars,
    Not as a huge devouring machine
    Rolling and clanking with remorseless force
    Over submitted bodies and the dead
    But as live earth where anything could grow,
    Your crankiness, my notions and his dream,
    Grow and be looked at, grow and live or die.
    But get their chance of growing and the sun.
    We made it and we make it and it's ours.
    We shall maintain it. It shall be sustained.

    All Voices Up:

    WE SHALL MAINTAIN IT. IT SHALL BE SUSTAINED.

    (Music up to Climax)

    (Curtain)
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    Jane Addams of Hull House of 1893

    Vol 16, Iss 29 Chicago, IL - In researching Jane Addams' Hull House history, we find that Jane's childhood experiences taught her the importance of helping those worse off than herself. Jane's mother died when Jane was two; later, a bout with tuberculosis left the young girl (Jane) with a deformed spine. As Jane grew up motherless and physically disabled, making her sympathetic to other disadvantaged people.

    In 1877, Jane Addams entered the Rockford Seminary, as her three sisters had done before her. By that time, it was a generally accepted idea that women could benefit by going to college. Before, many people believed that college was too strenuous for women.

    Rockford Seminary had been a finishing school, where women studied religion and how to become graceful and efficient homemakers. The curriculum changed while Addams was there, though. Jane and her classmates studied regular college subjects, including mathematics, philosophy, Latin and Greek. Jane graduated in 1881 with full ambitions but with nowhere to go.

    It was William O'Neill that wrote, "Graduation was often a traumatic experience for young women who had been educated to fill a place that did not yet exist." Their education did not give them an entrance to the men's world of politics and business. A woman's choices after college remained essentially the same as before. Either marry and raise a family, or stay single and become a schoolteacher.

    None of the above choices interested Jane Addams. Her family was not helpful, either. If Jane did not marry, her family expected her to settle down and help care for relatives. But Jane wanted to put to work what she had learned in school.

    Jane drifted for the next eight years trying to decide on a career. She entered a woman's medical college, but dropped out after one term. Her crooked spine caused her such pain that she was bedridden for six months. Surgeons finally repaired her spine, but she was frail for the rest of her life. When Jane's father died, the inheritance left her with enough money to live on. Addams traveled to Europe, and during one of these trips, Jane decided what she wanted to do with her life.

    It was in 1888, Jane visited Toynbee Hall in London, England. It was operated by Oxford University students, and Toynbee Hall served one of London's poorest neighborhoods. It offered recreation and educational programs to the poor. Jane left England determined to set up a similar "settlement house" (community center) in America.

    It was in 1889, Jane Addams and a friend, Ellen Gates Starr, rented a rundown mansion that once had belonged to a man named Charles Hull. The house stood in one of Chicago's industrial areas. Many European immigrants who had come to the America seeking a better life, lived in the neighborhood. They spoke little English and lived in crowded, dirty tenements. Most worked in nearby factories, earning barely enough money to feed their families.

    Addams and Starr hoped that Hull House would bring some light into these people's lives. One of the first things they did was set up a daycare center for small children. Mothers who worked all day had no way to care for their children, and they would tie their young children to a table leg and leave them in the tenement while they went off to work. Older children worked or roamed the streets. The daycare center provided children a safe environment and a least one meal a day.

    The Hull House also began a kindergarten and a boys' club for older youths, and later opened a coffee shop where adults met and socialized.

    Addams and Starr alone could not do all this work alone. Others came to Hull House, offering their help. Many were women from middle-class families. Like Jane, they wanted to experience the real world, but had no existing outlet to do so. Hull House offered them a way to serve the community.

    It (Hull House) was more than just a meeting place, though. A resident named Florence Kelly convinced Addams that improving immigrants' lives meant more than just providing them with a place to socialize.

    The conditions in Chicago's slums were dreadful at that time. Garbage, sewage littered the streets. Youths even as young as 14 worked in the factories. Younger children worked at home, helping their parents sew clothing that would later be sold in stores. These tenement workplaces were called "Sweatshops" because of their overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    2nd Great Grandmother Ellen Dever Gwin

    Vol 16, Iss 28 Virginia - Two years ago we published, The OkieLegacy, Vol 14, Iss 50, concerning information on my 2nd Great Grandmother (see photo on the left showing Eleanor "Ellen" Dever Gwin, mother to Signora Belle Gwin, my great grandmother).

    In the Rockbridge History of Virginia there is mention of John Gilmore (1700-1759), my 6th great grandfather, that was killed in an Indian raid 10 October 1759, along with four members of his family and five of the ten members of Robert Hamilton's (my 7th great grandfather) family were afterward slain. The Indians did not go any farther.

    The GILMOREs come into my family through the DEVER side of my paternal ancestry with John DEVER (1798-1862), who married Elizabeth GILMORE (1802-1882), daughter of Samuel Gilmore (1760-1848) and Eleanor BAILEY (1758-1832). Samuel Gilmore was a son of James Gilmore (1710-1782) and Martha B. DENNISON (1720-1785). James Gilmore was the son of John and Agnes A. (Hamilton) Gilmore that died in the Indian raid.

    John DEVER and Elizabeth Gilmore had a daughter, Eleanor DEVER (1834-1896), my second great grandmother, who married Samuel Gwin (1825-1871). And that brings us to Signora Belle Gwin that married John Robert Warwick (1857-1937).

    And that brings us to my paternal McGill-Warwick ancestors, where I found the following information concerning the CRAIG family: genealogical and historical notes about the CRAIGs of America, Fayette county, Ohio, which shows the Craigs and Warwick families marrying with the mention of Andrew Warwick, son of John (or William, Jr. Could this have been William John, and he used the John as his first name?) Warwick of Pocahontas county, West Virginia, married Elizabeth Anna Craig, daughter of Robert Craig 2nd, and Nancy Agnes Johnson. Do not know how accurate this information is but found some known relatives listed in these historical genealogical notes.

    If I am reading this correctly, Andrew Warwick and Nancy Agnes Johnson Warwick's third son, John Warwick Esq., resided near Edray, Pocahontas county, West Virginia, and was a prominent and influential citizen. His first wife was Hanna Hanna Moffett, only daughter of Andrew Gatewood. His second wife was Caroline Craig, youngest daughter of George E. Craig, merchant, in Hunersville, and Ruling Elder. [from Southern Historical Mag. for August, 1892, page 65.]

    It also shows that Andrew Warwick had a brother William Warwick (my 4th great grandfather), who married Nancy Craig, sister of Elizabeth (wife of Andrew). They settled on Bear Creek and were the parents of three children: Elizabeth (married Benjamin Tallman); Margaret (married John Hull); Robert Craig Warwick (my third great grandfather), who married Esther Hull and had three sons and six daughters. Robert and Esther's daughter Catherine Hidy Warwick married Major William Wallace Bird (Bird children were: Elvira Louisa, Robert Craig, John Henry, George Newton, William Lee). Other daughters were: Nancy Jane (married Jacob Lightner); Sarah Elizabeth (married Daniel Matheney); Margaret Ann (married Nelson Pray); Hanna Rebecca (married Capt. George Siple). [Part of sketch of William Warwick from History of Pocahontas county, West Virginia.] View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Jane Adams' Hull House

    Vol 16, Iss 13 Chicago, IL - The Hull House was a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. It was located in the neat west side of Chicago, Illinois, and opened it doors to recently arrived European immigrants.

    Social settlements of this kind began in the 1880s in London in response to problems created by urbanization, industrialization, and immigration. The idea spread to other industrialized countries. Settlement houses typically attracted educated, native born, middle-class and upper-middle class women and men, known as residents, to live and settle in poor urban neighborhoods. Some social settlements were linked to religious institutions. Others, Like Hull house, were secular. By 1900, the US had over 100 settlement houses. By 1911, Chicago had 35.

    In the 1890s, the Hull-House was located in the midst of a densely populated urban neighborhood peopled by Italian, Irish, German, Greek, Bohemian, and Russian and Polish Jewish immigrants. During the 1920s, African Americans and Mexicans began to put down roots in the neighborhood and joined the clubs and activities at Hull-House. Jane Addams and the Hull-House residents provided kindergarten and day care facilities for the children of working mothers; an employment bureau; an art gallery; libraries; English and citizenship classes; and theater, music and art classes. As the complex expanded to include thirteen buildings, Hull-House supported more clubs and activities such as a Labor Museum, the Jane Club for single working girls, meeting places for trade union groups, and a wide array of cultural events.

    The Hull House residents and their supporters forged a powerful reform movement. Among the projects that they helped launch were the immigrants' Protective League, the Juvenile Protective Association, the first juvenile court in the nation and a Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic. The Illinois legislature enacted protective legislation for women and children in 1893. With the creation of the Federal Children's Bureau in 1912 and the passage of a federal child labor law in 1916, the Hull-House reformers saw their efforts expanded to the national level.

    It was in the early years of the twentieth century that Jane Addams become involved in the peace movement. During the first World War, she and other women from belligerent and neutral nations met at the international Congress of Women at the Hague in 1915, attempting to stop the war. Jane Addams maintained her pacifist stance after the United States entered the war in 1917, working to found the Women's Peace Party (WILPF), which became the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1919. As a result of her work, Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    1895 Oct. 11 - Highland Recorder News

    Vol 15, Iss 22 Highland, VA - As we were searching through The Highland Recorder, Monterey, Highland County, Virginia, dated 11 October 1895, we found on page three the funeral services of Johnnie Hull at Vanderpool. I am not sure the relationship of Johnnie Hull to my Hull's of Vanderpool, but I need to check this out.

    The funeral services of Johnnie Hull were largely attended at Vanderpool, on Sunday last. The place of worship was much too small for the congregation of friends and relatives that attended. It was becoming more apparent that a church was much needed for the congregations that worship there. The singers from Straight Creek, led by Mr. Wm. Samples, attended the services and added much to the interest of the occasion. Johnnie Hull was much thought of by all who knew him and especially by the lung men; and those from STraight Creek did their last act of kindness by the part they took in the funeral services. They were assisted by Capt. Matheny. The hymns were appropriate and well sung and found response in the hearts the large congregation.

    Also on this page there is mention of Lockridge, Trimble, Dever Waybright, Arbogast Yost, and other Highland residents and happenings. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Populism & Progressivism

    Vol 14, Iss 37 America - The 1890's and early 1900's saw the establishment of the Populist and Progressive movements. Both were based on the people's dissatisfaction with government and its inability to deal effectively in addressing the problems of the day.

    Populism during the 1880's, farmers believed that industrialists and bankers controlled both the republicans and the democrats within the government. Western farmers formed the Populist Party. They initiated a program in 1882 in Omaha, Nebraska. They sought free and limited coinage of silver and graduated income tax so the wealthy pay more than the poor; sought government ownership of railroad, telephone and telegraph systems; wanted the government to get more involved in the economy and wanted to stop laissez faire; aimed for a secret ballot and direct election.

    Progressivism was a movement to improve American life by taking advantage of democracy. Progressives were optimistic and forward-looking; against restoring the rule of America, more for accepting industrialization and urbanization; wanted to correct evils of industrialization but were pro-machinery.

    One historian defined Progressivism as the "political movement that addresses ideas, impulses, and issues stemming from modernization of American society. Emerging at the end of the 19th century, it established much of the tone of American politics throughout the first half of the century."

    The following is a timeline of Populism and Progressivism in America:

    • 1869 - Wyoming passes the first law in the United States giving women the right to vote.
    • 1871 - Yellowstone Park is created. Pressed by a growing agitation for the conservation of the badly exploited natural resources of the country, Congress begins to reverse its wholesale giveaway programs and creates the park as a public preserve in Wyoming.
    • 1873 - Grasshopper plagues have devastated western farms. Droughts have exacerbated the harsh conditions under which farmers struggle for survival. In debt to banks and merchants for seed, tools, and machinery, the farmers' dream of an independent life is dissipating.
    • 1873 - The Comstock Law bans obscene articles, including information about birth control, from the mail.
    • 1874 - The Women's Christian Temperance Union is formed.
    • 1876 - The first amendment relating to prohibition is proposed by Henry W. Blair of New Hampshire.
    • 1876 - Frederick Law Olmsted completes the Central Park in New York City.
    • 1878 - The Women's Suffrage Amendment is introduced into Congress.
    • 1878 - Felix Adler founds the Workingman's School.
    • 1879 - Henry George analyzes the problems of urbanizing America in Progress and Poverty.
    • 1880 - The National Farmers' Alliance is formed. The farmers' plight has taken on catastrophic proportions in the face of high tariffs, flood and drought, unfair railroad rates and high interest on loans and mortgages.
    • 1881 - Kansas is the first state to prohibit the sale of liquor.
    • 1881 - President Hayes, whose wife is nicknamed Lemonade Lucy because she serves no alcohol in the White House, decrees that no alcoholic beverages are to be sold at military posts.
    • 1881 - James Garfield is inaugurated president, and Chester A. Arthur becomes vice president.
    • 1881 - James Garfield is assassinated by a madman named Charles Guiteau.
    • 1881 - Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is founded by Booker T. Washington. At Tuskegee Washington advocates an education limited to vocational skills, and from this base,Washington rises to national prominence.
    • 1885 - The American Economic Association is established. A number of young economists have become disillusioned with the premises standing behind the philosophy of laissez-faire. The organization is the first economic group to argue that the state must contribute actively in the way of "positive aid" to the just progress of its citizens. These economists contend that unless concerted efforts are made to prevent further degradation of the new class of workers, the American dream will turn into a nightmare of class warfare. Woodrow Wilson and Henry Adams are among the 186 founding members.
    • 1887 - The Interstate Commerce Act is passed by Congress and signed into law. A five man commission is created to see that rates are just and "reasonable;" to forbid double-tiered rates for long and short hauls on freight carriers; to stop discriminatory rates between competitive and non-competitive localities and to stop the practice of pooling.
    • 1887 - Edward Bellamy promotes the idea of socialist utopia in Looking Backward
    • 1887 - The Dawes Severalty Act is passed by Congress. It provides for 160 acres to be given individually to each Indian family.
    • 1888 - Congress establishes a Department of Labor.
    • 1888 - Benjamin Harrison is elected president of the United States, and Levi Morton becomes vice president.
    • 1889 - Jane Addams opens Hull House in Chicago.
    • 1889 - Frederick Winslow Taylor develops his principles of scientific management. His book, The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) is widely read by managers.
    • 1890 - The National Women's Suffrage Association and the American Women's Suffrage Association, both formed in 1869, merge to consolidate the women's suffrage movement.
    • 1890 - Sherman Anti-trust Act is passed. It makes illegal "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations."
    • 1890 - Wyoming enters the Union as the first state to have women's suffrage.
    • 1890 - Yosemite Park is created by an act of Congress.
    • 1890 - The Southern Farmers Alliance, the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, and the Colored Farmers' Alliance meet in Ocala, Florida, to see if there is some way to take joint action on their respective grievances. Racial barriers are too strong in the South and nothing comes of the meeting.
    • 1890 - Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives.
    • 1891 - The Populist Party is formed at the national level in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    • 1892 - The Populist Party, also known as the People's Party, holds its first national convention in Omaha, Nebraska. James B. Weaver is nominated as the party's candidate for president, and the party issues forth its platform: Their important demands include government ownership of railroads, free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, an eight hour day, the popular election of senators, the secret ballot, government ownership of telegraphs and telephones, and government-owned warehouses.
    • 1893 President Cleveland is inaugurated for a second term.
    • 1895 - U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co. The Supreme Court finds that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act is applicable only to monopolies involved in interstate trade. Ruling that a sugar combine is beyond the law, the Court draws a fine line between manufacturing and commerce. This ruling temporarily renders the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, which had been designed to regulate all forms of trusts, useless.
    • 1896 - William Jennings Bryan gives his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He wins the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party.
    • 1896 - McKinley wins the presidential election. Garret Hobart is vice president.
    • 1896 - John Dewey's laboratory school for testing and practice of new educational theory opens at University of Chicago 1898 Holden v. Hardy. The Supreme Court upholds the validity of the Utah statute which limits daily working hours in mining industries to eight.
    • 1900 - McKinley wins a second term as president. Theodore Roosevelt is vice president.
    • 1900 - Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is published.
    • 1901 - President McKinley is shot by Anarchist Leon Czolgosz as he attends a reception in Buffalo. He dies a week later of his wounds.
    • 1901 - Under the leadership of John Mitchell, 140,000 United Mine workers go on strike that lasts through spring and summer. In October, President Roosevelt summons both sides to the White House to reach a settlement. A commission of arbitration is formed to investigate the miners' grievances and will make recommendations as to which demands should be met. Roosevelt's assertion of the federal government as the arbitrator of such disputes becomes known as the defining aspect of his "Square Deal" policies.
    • 1902 - Publication of Ida Tarbell's muckraking exposé, The History of the Standard Oil Company. Along with other such publications as Frank Norris' The Octopus, Lincoln Steffens' The Shame of the Cities, journalists will have a direct impact on the course of political action.
    • 1902 - The special commission set up by Roosevelt to settle the Anthracite coal strike recommends shorter hours, a 10 percent wage increase, and an "open shop."
    • 1903 - Wisconsin is the first state to adopt direct primary elections.
    • 1903 - The Elkins Act is passed by Congress. The act declares illegal all rebates on published freight rates.
    • 1903 - W.E.B. DuBois publishes Souls of Black Folk.
    • 1904 - Northern Securities Co. v. U. S. The Supreme Court finds that the company violates the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. This is the first case that Roosevelt has undertaken in his campaign to bring big business within the restraint of law.
    • 1904 - Theodore Roosevelt is elected president. Charles W. Fairbanks becomes vice president.
    • 1905 - Lochner v. New York. The Supreme Court finds unconstitutional a state law which limits maximum working hours for bakers. The Court holds that such a law interferes with the right to free contract and is an improper use of police powers.
    • 1905 - The Niagara Movement is inaugurated, advocating integration and equal opportunity for African Americans
    • 1906 - The Hepburn Act is passed by Congress with Roosevelt's strong endorsement. It gives teeth to the Interstate Commerce Act by permitting regulation of rates charged by railroads.
    • 1906 - Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act are passed by Congress, largely due to the of Upton Sinclair's muckraking book, The Jungle.
    • 1908 - William Howard Taft is elected president, and James S. Sherman is vice president.
    • 1908 - Muller v. Oregon. The Supreme Court rules that an Oregon law instituting the maximum hours a woman can work is constitutional and denies that it curtails the liberty of contract.
    • 1909 - The Payne-Aldrich Tariff is passed by Congress with no disapproval from Taft, a president generally known for his endorsement of Progressive legislation.
    • 1909 - The NAACP is founded by W.E.B. DuBois.
    • 1910 - The Mann-Elkins Act is passed by Congress. It increases the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission and extends the Commission's jurisdiction to include telegraph and telephone companies.
    • 1910 - The Mann Act is passed by Congress. Known as the "white slave traffic act," it prohibits the transportation of women across state lines for immoral purposes.
    • 1911 - Senator Robert La Follette helps to found the National Progressive Republican League to protect more responsive government at all levels. The new League advocates the initiative, referendum, and recall; direct primaries; and more Progressive legislation in general. Later this year, La Follette is the party's nominee for president.
    • 1911 - A Children's Bureau is formed within the U.S. Department of Labor to investigate means for the greater protection of maternal and infant health.
    • 1912 - Roosevelt's followers form the "Bull Moose" Party, draining remaining liberal elements from the Republican Party.
    • 1912 - Woodrow Wilson is elected president, and Thomas R. Marshall becomes vice president.
    • 1913 - The 16th Amendment to the Constitution is adopted by the nation, providing the necessary legal basis for a graduated income tax.
    • 1913 - The Underwood Tariff Act is passed, under the encouragement of Wilson. The tariff is lowered for the first time since the Civil War, in order to "abolish everything that bears even the semblance of privilege or of any kind of artificial advantage." Congress will enact the graduated income tax to make up the difference in revenues.
    • 1913 - The Owen-Glass Federal Reserve Act is passed. It creates 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks, and all national banks are forced to join the system. A Federal Reserve Board is created to manage the new network.
    • 1913 - Henry Ford enacts the $5 a day plan when many laborer are not making not much more a week.
    • 1914 - The Clayton Anti-Trust Act is passed by Congress. It is a victory for labor, as it exempts unions from anti-trust laws, and it makes strikes, picketing, and boycotting legal.
    • 1916 - Woodrow Wilson is reelected for a second term. Thomas Marshall is vice president.
    • 1916 - Margaret Sanger forms the New York Birth Control League.
    • 1916 - The Keating-Owen Act, limiting child labor, is passed by Congress, but the Supreme Court declares the Act unconstitutional in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).
    • 1919 - The 18th Amendment to the Constitution is passed, instituting the Prohibition of alcohol. The Volstead Act will be passed to enforce Prohibition.
    • 1920 - The 19th Amendment to the Constitution, giving women suffrage, is enacted.
    • 1921 - The Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act is passed, helping to fund maternity and pediatric clinics.
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    OBIT: VIRGIL LEROY RUSSELL (93) - Fairvalley & Freedom, OK

    Vol 13, Iss 4 Fairvalley, Oklahoma - Maybe there are a few Fairvalley and Freedom, Oklahomans out there that remember Virgil Leroy Russell. I remember seeing him out at Fairvalley a few times when I was out there, but that has been awhile ago. Virgil would ride his 4-wheel vehicle from his homestead south of McGill Sisters land to his mailbox at the curve of the Freedom/Fairvalley blacktop road. Virgil has been and will be missed around the Freedom and Fairvalley, in Northwest Oklahoma

    Virgil Russell passed away on January 18, 2011 at the Clinton Veterans Center at the age of 93 years. Funeral services for Virgil Leroy Russell, were held at 2 p.m., Saturday, January 22, 2011, at the United Methodist Church, Freedom, Oklahoma with Rev. Ray Hull, officiating. Interment was held in the Fairvalley Cemetery under the direction of Marshall Funeral Home of Alva.

    Virgil Leroy Russell was one of eleven children of the late James and Amanda (Littrell) Russell. Virgil was born March 16, 1917 in Woods County, Oklahoma near Fairvalley. He passed away on January 18, 2011 at the Clinton Veterans Center at the age of 93.

    Virgil was born, raised and lived his entire life on land homesteaded by his parents. He attended Fairvalley School. On January 2, 1942 he was united in marriage to Helen Dutton Russell at Freedom, Oklahoma. He was soon sent to World War II where he served as a tank driver in the U. S. Army, receiving a Purple Heart for injuries sustained in battle.

    After Virgil's return from military service he and Helen raised a family on their farm southeast of Freedom. Throughout his life, he was active in the Morning Star, Freedom, and Woodward Baptist churches where he especially enjoyed singing hymns. In addition to raising cattle, Virgil worked on the railroad and drove a school bus for many years.

    Helen preceded him in death on August 29, 2004. He was also preceded in death by 5 sisters and 2 brothers.

    Survivors include six children and their spouses, Bob and Debi Russell of Jackson, Tennessee; Sherry and Bobby Russell, Lida and Tom Russell of Minco, Oklahoma; Jim and Annette Russell of Los Alamos, New Mexico; Tom and Julie Russell of Freedom, OK; and JoNell and Greg Roszyk of Crestline, CA; nine grandchildren, Jeannie Snow, Angie and Galen Humphrey, Nathan Russell, Paul Russell, Cody Dodson, Corey and Jill Russell, Jordan and Jessica Russell, Lucas Russell and Sarah Russell; 8 great-grandchildren; brothers Ralph Russell of Waynoka, Harley and Alice Russell of Ruskin, Florida and one sister Bonnie Dutton Glasgow of Winfield, Kansas; other relatives and friends.

    In later years, Virgil was blessed with a very special friend Leta Williams of Woodward. They enjoyed attending church, having lunch, and visiting over the phone. Marshall Funeral Homes Obit - Virgil Russell View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    The Apron

    Vol 12, Iss 48 America - Ellis sent us this little memory jogger about the Apron. Notice that a "medium" is a size 14 - 16. Remember making an apron in Home Ec? Do our kids know what an apron is?

    The principal use of Grandma's apron was to protect the dress underneath because she only had a few. It was also because it was easier to wash aprons than dresses and aprons used less material. But along with that, it served as a potholder for removing hot pans from the oven.

    The Apron was wonderful for drying children's tears, and on occasion was even used for cleaning out dirty ears. From the chicken coop, the apron was used for carrying eggs, fussy chicks, and sometimes half-hatched eggs to be finished in the warming oven.

    When company came, those aprons were ideal hiding places for shy kids. And when the weather was cold Grandma wrapped it around her arms. Those big old aprons wiped many a perspiring brow, bent over the hot wood stove.

    Chips and kindling wood were brought into the kitchen in that apron. From the garden, it carried all sorts of vegetables. After the peas had been shelled, it carried out the hulls.

    In the fall, the apron was used to bring in apples that had fallen from the trees.

    When unexpected company drove up the road, it was surprising how much furniture that old apron could dust in a matter of seconds. When dinner was ready, Grandma walked out onto the porch, waved her apron, and the men folk knew it was time to come in from the fields to dinner.

    It will be a long time before someone invents something that will replace that "old-time apron" that served so many purposes. Remember when Grandma used to set her hot baked apple pies on the window sill to cool? Her granddaughters set theirs on the window sill to thaw.

    They would go crazy now trying to figure out how many germs were on that apron. Have you ever caught anything from an apron other than ... Love? View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Gunpowder Gertie - Pirate Queen of the Kootenays

    Vol 12, Iss 47 Kootenay Lake, - It was in the late 1800's where few roads ran to the Kootenays. The rivers and railways were the main routes of travel. Most used shallow bottomed sternwheelers to ply the often treacherous waterways. That is how they supplied the towns and carried passengers. They also ged the mining boom and transported the valuable metals for smelting.

    Where there are ships and treasures, there are pirates. The Kootenay Lake system saw many of these pirates. The roughest, toughest and most to be reckoned with was Gunpowder Gertie, the Pirate Queen of the Kootenays.

    What a name for a girl (Gertrude Imogene Stubbs) born in 1879, in Whitby (a port town on the east coast of Britain), England, the daughter of George Stubbs, a train engineer and his wife, Violet, a seamstress.

    Gertrude was noted as a bit of a wild thing from the first. She liked oohing better than to spend her time down at the busy docks, listening to the stories of sea captains in port between voyages. Gertie also liked riding with her father on his route from Whitby to Pickering and Scarbourough.

    Gertie and her father and mother emigrated to Sandon, B.C., Canada in 1895 when her father accepted a job to run trains for the newly copleted K & S Railway. Gertie's mother, Violet, was a little apprehensive about the decision to move to the wilds of Western Canada, but George was convince that they could make a good life for themselves in the boomtown. They traveled to Canada by steamer from England.

    Gertie was very taken with life on board the steamer, as it made a profound impression that was to forever affect her life.

    It was less than a month after they had arrived in the thriving town of Sandon, that Gertie's mother was tragically killed in an avalanche that destroyed their home on the steep mountainside at the north end of town.

    Gertie was coming home from her job at a general store in town and witnessed the whole thing. Gertie's heart broken father (George) blamed himself for Violet's death and sank into drinking and gambling. George pretty much left his only daughter to fend for herself. Gertie had to make sure her father actually made it for his shifts and accompanied him on his routes to Kaslo, helping him shovel coal.

    Gertie's father slid further into debt and depression, and she was pretty much doing the actual running of the engine herself to enable her constantly drunken father to keep his job so they would not starve. After George's death in 1896, the Railway refused to allow Gertie to continue working for them because their policies did not include hiring women.

    Gertie was stranded in Kaslo without as much as a penny after paying off her father's debts. She found that what honest work she could get as a woman paid only starveling wages. AFter barely eking out a living through the winter, she cut her hair off short, disguised herself as a young man and hired on as a coal hand on the sternwheelers.

    Gertie was happy and her knowledge of steam engines soon proved so useful that she was given more responsibilities. BUT ... unfortunately, Gertie's disguise was finally discovered. her ship and another were racing to establish which vessel had the superior speed when the boiler ran dry. The explosion in the engine room blinded her in her right eye and knocked her unconscious.

    Gertie was taken to the hospital where the attending doctor realized she was a woman. Without even compensation for her injury she was given the sack, nor would any other steam company hire her on. Furious that she was not allowed to do the work she was good at merely because she was not allowed to do the work she was good at merely because she was not a man, GErtrude Imogene Stubbs swore vengeance on the steaminess and Gunpowder Gertie was born.

    The Provincial Police were most thoroughly embarrassed by her when she stole their own patrol boat to mount her buccaneering campaign against the paddle-wheelers that had treated her so poorly.

    Originally it was christened the "Witch" when it was built in Scuttle Bay, just north of Powell River, this 42' (12.8m ) long patrol boat was purchased and refitted by the Provincial Police with the intention of using it to patrol inland lakes and rivers. The "Witch" was transported to the interior by railcar where her hull was sheathed in iron and her stern was modified and fitted with two of the first ever ducted propellers.

    It was this gunboat (Witch) that was Gunpowder Gertie's first ill-gotten prize. The "Witch" arrived in Nelson on February 12, 1898, by railcar. On the morning of February 13, it was gone. To this day no one has figured out how she managed to steal the ship from its railcar and transport it to the water without so much as being seen, but Gertie did. The next time the ship was spotted, it was sporting Gunpowder Gertie's handsewn Jolly Roger and robbing the S.S. Nasookin at gunpoint.

    From 1898 to 1903 Gunpowder Gertie steamed up and down the rivers in her gunboat, rechristened the "Tyrant Queen," attacking and robbing steamboats of their cargos (gold and silver) from local mines and payrolls on their way to towns. She would appear out of nowhere brandishing the small but deadly Gatling gun, relieve the passengers of their valuables and the paddle-wheelers of their payloads at pistol point and then vanish. With communication much slower in those days, by the time word got through to the Provincial Police that Gunpowder Gertie had struck again, she would be long gone. The law could never catch Gertie and her Tyrant Queen. The Tyrant Queen could outrun anything else in the water at the time and Gertie knew every little twist and turn, isle and inlet on the lake system.

    One of Gunpowder Gertie's own men, Bill Henson, an engine man who was dissatisfied with his share of the booty, betrayed Gertie in 1903. Henson went to the Provincial Police for a handsome reward and a promise of clemency as he sold out Gunpowder Gertie.

    Henson gave Gunpowder Gertie a phony tip about a supposed fat payroll coming into Kaslo on the S. S. Moyie. When Gertie ordered the vessel to heave to and prepare to be boarded, near what is now known as Redfish Creek, she found it full of lawmen, bristling with guns. Knowing when she was outgunned, Gertie turned tail and prepared to make her escape but the devious Henson had sabotaged one of the gaskets and as soon as the steam pressure reached full, it blew, crippling the Tyrant Queen and making her an easy target for her pursuers. The battle was ferocious! They say the river ran red with blood before the lawmen were able to board the gunboat and capture Gunpowder Gertie, who put up an enormous fight before finally being clapped in irons.

    Gunpowder Gertie was sentenced to life imprisonment but died of pneumonia during the terrible winter of 1912. She never revealed where she had hidden her ill-gotten gains. Rumor has it that she buried it somewhere along the river system she had plundered and left a hidden map that would lead to the treasure. All her crew perished in the final battle, including the turncoat Bill Henson, who Gertie shot in the back when she spotted him trying to jump ship during the fray.

    Gunpowder Gertie took her secret to the grave and to this day no one has yet discovered the resting place of Gunpowder Gertie's gold. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    W. B. "Birdie" Hull

    Vol 11, Iss 46 Awhile back in our OkieLegacy Archives we had an article entitled, 1947 Criminal Case #1091, Alva, OK. This week we heard from "Birdie" Hull's grandson with more information about W. B. Hull.

    Bill Betts (EMAIL: okpeye@aol.com) says, "W.B. Hull was known as Birdie Hull. His full name was Willis Berten Hull. This case may relate to Hull shooting down Gene McGill's airplane. The case was moved to Woodward county. I talked with Gene at Hull's funeral and Gene offered to help the family if he could.

    "Gene (talking about himself) said he was an SOB but everyone knew it. You had to like Gene, he was direct and knew the truth of what happened. I'm W. B. Hull's Grandson and still have the rifle that shot down Gene's plane." -- 1947 Criminal Case #1091, 1947, Alva, OK
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    Class of '38 NWHS

    Vol 7, Iss 5 Did you all find the list of NWHS seniors that graduated in the Class of 1938, Alva, Oklahoma. Here is a list and photos... starting from the Top-row (1) and reading left to right, down through seven rows they are: (Click the small image to the right for a larger view.)

    Row-1 - Pauline Snow, Treasurer; Neal Cook, President; Mary Alice Fisher, Secretary; Marvin O'Neal, Vice-president
    Row-2 - Loren Kornel, Esther Terwort, Lyle Fugit, Faith Ann Shirey, Eldon Hall
    Row-3 -Betty Jean Nida, Ted Kline, Serina Terwort, Gene R. Smith, Glory Ann Crop
    Row-4 -Barton Litton, Leola Mapes, Oliver Benjamin, Evelyn Goucher, Ray Dimmick
    Row-5 -Patricia Bloominger, Dean Johnson, Verline Bixler, Elmer Meyers, Dorothy Scripsick
    Row-6 -Kenneth Farrel, Maxine McWilliams, Edward Link, Wilma Venosdel, Dale Fisher
    Row-7 -Earl A. Miller, Veron Hull, Lucille Cunninham, Jack Sidman, Wilber Ricord View/Write Comments (count 1)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Formation of Pendleton County, W Virginia

    Vol 18, Iss 30 According to Oren Morton's book, "History of Pendleton County, West Virginia" in 1910, we discover the formation of Pendleton county, West Virginia, at the close of 1787 with population of Rockingham nearly 7000. That included 700 slaves, also.

    The state legislature passed the Act establishing Pendleton county, (West) Virginia, 4 December 1787. The population in its beginning was about 2200, almost exclusively white. The distribution of the inhabitants between the three valleys was not very unequal. The people lived mainly along the larger watercourses, the mountains being still an almost unbroken forest.

    The organization of the county government was described in the records:

    "Be it remembered that at the house of Seraiah Stratton, in the county of Pendleton, on the 2nd day of June and in the year of our Lord 1788, and in the 12 year of the Commonwealth, Commissions of the Peace and of Oyer and Terminer, directed to Robert Davis, john Skidmore, Moses Hinkle, James Dyer, Isaac Hinkle, Robert Poage, James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, peterHull, James Patterson, and Jacob Hoover, Gentlemen, was produced and read, and thereupon the said Robert Davis took the Oath appointed by the Act of assembly giving assurance of fidelity to the Commonwealth, and took the Oaths of a Justice of the Peace, of a Justice of the County Court in Chancery, and of a Justice of Oyer and Terminer, all of which Oaths were administered to him by the said John Skidmore and Moses Hinkle. And thus the said Robert Davis administered all the aforesaid Oaths to the said John Skidmore, Moses Hinkle, James Dyer, Isaac Hinkle, James Skidmore, Matthew Patton, and James Patterson.

    "A Commission from his excellency the Governor to Robert Davis, Gent. to be high Sheriff of this County during pleasure as produced by the said Robert Davis and read, thereupon together with Seraiah Stratton, Francis Evick, Roger Dyer, James Davis, Isaac Hinkle, and George Dice, his securities, entered into and acknowledged two Bonds for the said Robert Davis's due and faithful performance of his Office, which are ordered to be recorded. And then the said Robert Davis took the Oath for giving Assurance of fidelity to the Commonwealth and was sworn sheriff of said county."

    Of the eleven justices, Davis, Dyer and Patton were brother-in-law. The Hinkles were of one family, and the Skidmores were of one other, and were related to the Hinkles. Regimental Militia Officers; Co. Robert Poage; Lt. Col. Peter Hull; Maj. Henry Fleisher.
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    1872 Presidential Candidates

    Vol 18, Iss 29 This news item of 1872, comes from the Harrisburg Telegraph, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, dated 7 May 1872, Tuesday, page 2, gives us a view of the 1872 Presidential candidates.

    Found on Newspapers.com

    The voters of the United States could not complain of not having a variety of candidates for President from which to choose. In the order of their political strength they were, so far as nominated, as follows: David Davis, Labor Reformer; Horace Greeley, Sorehead Republican; James Black, Temperance Reformer; Victoria Woodhull, Free Love and Suffragist; George Francis Train, "People's" candidate, and Gen. Thomas A. Davies, "Uon Candidates Oaths and Pledges."
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    Jane Addams Campaigns Against Sweatshops (1893)

    Vol 16, Iss 29 Chicago, IL - It was Jane Addams that launched a campaign against the sweatshops and for better working conditions. But not everyone appreciated her efforts. Opposing here were factory owners, politicians, and even some slum parents who depended on their children's meager incomes for support.

    A representative of a manufacturers' association offered Hull House $50,000 if Addams would drop the nonsense about a sweat shop bill. Addams said she would rather see Hull House close than accept a bribe.

    Jane's determination paid off. In 1893, Illinois passed a workshop and factories bill, which banned the exploitation of minors in the workplace.

    Addams also pushed for the creation of a juvenile-court system. Because they were cold and hungry, immigrant children sometimes broke the law. They stole coal from trucks to heat their homes, and fruits and vegetables from produce stands. If they were arrested, found guilty, they were placed in the care of probation officers or sent to a clean detention center. The first probation officers were the Hull House staff members.

    Jane Addams also supported other causes, such as trade unions and winning suffrage (the vote) for women. Not all of her efforts won public support, though. During World War I (1914-18) Addams organized the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, which worked to end the war. Jane Addams was called many things and some people called her an enemy of the people because of her antiwar stance.

    In the end, Addams was lauded for her life's work, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her work with the peace organization. Jane died in 1935. The Hull House filled an entire city block, and it had inspired the creation of hundreds of similar houses across the United States. Many Hull House residents went on to pursue other important social reforms. It was through Jane Addams' efforts, that women had blazed a pioneering role in improving the lives of others. Addams always insisted that Hull House served her own needs as much as other. Addams said, "I should at least know something of life firsthand." View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Historical Sketches Pocahontas County, West Virginia

    Vol 16, Iss 27 Pocahontas County, WV - The leaders that gave our pioneers the most trouble were Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas; Cornstalk, Killbuck, and Crane. Killbuck annoyed the settlements for a long series of years, and when hostilities ceased went to his home in Ohio, and thereafter paid occasional visits to Wheeling. He became blind, and lived to be more than a hundred years old, Killbuck had for a comrade, whose efficiency as a warrior made him nearly as dangerous, named Crane, because of his unusually long neck and legs. Crane was an ugly thorn in the flesh, especially to those of the settlers that located on the South Branch, and made himself a conspicuous nuisance never to be forgotten. But little record is to be found of his exploits, but enough is known to give him the distinction of being considered nearly as dangerous as Killbuck.

    The Shawnees, the aboriginal people, were here to repel the pioneers for the reason they regarded the land as theirs by inheritance from their fathers, at whose burial mounds they observed solemn rights of worship, and whose exploits they so fervently chanted in war songs and funeral dirges.

    Indian troubles continued about thirty years with brief intervals of precarious peace. It is believed on very reliable tradition that for ten years before his death at the battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774, Colonel Charles Lewis was never at home more than a month at a time.

    The pioneer Scottish Virginians, ancestors of so large proportion of our Pocahontas people, wore remote from the seat of the colonial government, poorly provided with means of defense, and were exposed to all the troubles arising from the long and bitter struggle between the French and English for supremacy in the Mississippi Valley. History makes no formal mention of expeditions numbering hundreds of men going out as armed rangers upon the frontier. Nothing but a few unnoticed Acts of Virginia Assembly, acknowledging and commending such services, are available to show that companies of "Rangers," "Independents,'" or "Volunteers," led by a Lewis, a McClenachan, a Cunningham, a Preston, a Dickinson, a Dunlap, a Moffett, an Alexander, or some one else, armed and equipped at their own charges, penetrated the forests to punish or disperse hostile parties of Indians.

    For in times of avowed peace the Indians would allege nominal or supposed wrongs, and thereupon murder defenseless families, then disappear stealthily as panthers, hastening away to their well nigh inaccessible strongholds beyond the mountains. The Indian leaders, moreover, were foemen worthy of any antagonistic steel. The Emperor Pontiac appears to be the first to wage war against the Scottish Virginians. How was a war chief of the Ottowas, the most influential of the northern tribes, and was conspicuous among the native heroes whose devotion to the interests, of their people, wisdom and eloquence in council, skill in strategy, bravery in battle, have made for them a fame that the proudest warriors of all time might well envy.

    One writer speaks of Pontiac as a person of remarkable appearance and commanding stature. Another says that in point of native talent, course, magnanimity, and integrity he will compare without prejudice with the most renowned of civilized rulers and conquerors. It was Pontiac's war in 1763 that required the utmost strength of the Colonies and the strongest support of the British Government to withstand and overcome. It was in obedience to Pontiac's orders and plans that raiding parties pressed far into panic stricken settlements, and among the massacres were the Big Levels and Muddy Creek in Virginia, and the merciless slaughter in the Valley of Wyoming.

    Ten or eleven years later another terrific Indian war blazed forth. This was conducted by the Shawnee chief Cornstalk, who when a young warrior was under Pontiac. The Shawnees held all other men in contempt as warriors. Mr Stuart speaks of Cornstalk as distinguished for beauty of person, for agility and strength of frame, in manners graceful and easy, and in movements majestic and princely. He commanded the Indian forces at Point Pleasant, During that very memorable action he was frequently seen moving rapidly along the lines of picked braves, and his marvelous voice was board above the din of conflict cheering on with his battle cry "Be Strong! Be Strong!"

    Colonel Wilson, a British officer, says: "I have heard the famous orators of Virginia - Patrick Henry and Richard Lee - but never have I heard one whose powers of delivery surpassed those of Cornstalk."'

    As seen and regarded by us as we write, had Cornstalk been successful at the battle of Point Pleasant, the war for Independence could not have occurred when it did, and very probably never taken place. For English cavaliers, the French and Spanish missionaries with their Shawnee and other Indian adherents would have made it too uncomfortable for the Scotch-Irish and the Huguenots to remain, and there would not have been a Pocahontas County to write history about, as we know it, and are now preparing. The tide of that very eventful and pivotal battle was turned against Cornstalk and his chosen braves by the management of Jacob Warwick, a pioneer of Pocahontas County, who now sleeps in his lowly grave six miles west of the Warm Springs, Virginia.

    The close of Cornstalk's eventful career in life is one of the most touching events of the kind on historical record since the death of Socrates. Impelled by a magnanimous sense of duty unsurpassed in all barbaric history, in order to be faithful and true to the treaty of peace he had made with the pioneers. Cornstalk came to the fort at Point Pleasant, the scene of his humiliating defeat, to inform the garrison of efforts made by British emissaries to incite the Indians to war against the Virginians during the Revolution. He and his son Ellinipsico wore detained as hostages.

    In the meanwhile some of the garrison, infuriated by the treacherous death of a comrade by an Indian tramp, resolved to be avenged upon the hostages. Soon as Cornstalk divined their purpose, he turned to his son and said: "My son, the Great Spirit has seen fit that we die together, and has sent you here to that end. It is His will - let us submit. It is all for the best." He then faced the person making ready to slay him, bared his bosom, received seven shots from deadly mountain rifles, and fell lifeless. With him departed the spirit and prestige of the Indian power on the frontier. In thinking of this wonderful person, how very aptly the words apply:

    "The Lord of all The forest heroes, trained in wars, Quivered and plumed and lithe and tall And seamed with glorious scars."

    Such historical allusions seem needful to aid us now living in forming some adequate conception of what our worthy ancestors had to encounter and overcome in their endeavors to build up their homes, for themselves, and for their sons and daughters, their children and childrens' children. So comparatively silent is general history concerning border warfare that none but special students of pioneer times have anything like a correct apprehension how dangerous and skilful were Indian warriors fighting for hunting grounds, fishing streams, and ancestral graves. While it may be that little, relatively speaking, has been recorded of the events that make up pioneer history, yet it is impossible for those of us who revere our ancestral worthies not to revert often in thought to those sad twenty-five or thirty years in which the weapons must have been fashioned and the characters formed and matured for the stupendous war that was to be fought before the Rose of Sharon planted by Scottish-Virginia hands should bloom and adorn this goodly land and diffuse all around its liberty inspiring and soul saving fragrance. With so much at issue in a conflict to be led by savage and civilized leaders of the highest endowments, there is something so sublimely portentous in its significance as to prompt every pious patriot to exclaim in all fervency of spirit:

    "Sound, thou trumpet of God, come forth Great Cause, to array us. King and Leader appear! Thy soldiers sorrowing seek thee."

    Thus organized, Pocahontas took her place among the counties of Virginia, and Huntersville was designated for the County Seat. A location near George Baxter's present residence, in the vicinity of what is now Edray, had been selected by a committee on location and reported on favorably as the place for the permanent location of the County Seat. Inducements by John Bradshaw were so enticing and favorable, and the people at the head of Greenbrier so anxious on the subject, that Huntersville prevailed, and the report of the committee on location was overruled.

    In 1800 the population of the region coterminous with the present limits of Pocahontas County amount-ed to about one hundred and fifty-three persons, and were for the most part members of the first families that had permanent homesteads, whose heads were John McNeel, Thomas McNeill, Moses Moore, Peter Lightner, Henry Harper, John Moore, Felix Grimes. Samuel Waugh, James Waugh, Aaron Moore, Robert Moore, Timothy McCarty, Robert Guy, Jeremiah Friel, Jacob Warwick, John Slaven, John Warwick. Sampson Mathews, Josiah Brown, John Sharp, William Sharp, William Poage, John Baxter, Levi Moore. and John Bradshaw.

    From the census returns it appears that in 1830 the population of the county was 2,542; in 1840, 2,922: in 1850, 3,598: in 1860, 3,958; in 1870, 4.069; in 1880, 5,591; in 1890, 6,813, in 1900, 8,572.

    According to these official returns, the population of the county has increased from 2542 in 1830, to 8572 in 1900. The percentage of growth about 70.

    From 1830 to 1860, the period before the war between the States, the percentage of gain was about 35. From 1800 to 1900 the percentage of gain was about 53. From 1890 to 1900, the gain was 20 per cent, and was larger than any previous decade, and readily accounted for.

    The smallest rate of gain was between 1800 and 1870, about 2 per cent. In the decade the war occurred. The next less rate of gain was between 1850 and 1860 -- about 9 per cent. This indicates that just previous to the war the county was about ready to progress backwards, such was the disposition of people to look for homes in the far West, and the western counties of the State.

    John Slaven, son of John from Tyrone, was twice married. The first wife was a Miss Wade. There was one son, John Slaven, who never married. The second marriage was with Elizabeth Warwick, a sister of Andrew and William Warwick, on Deer Creek. Not long after this marriage he settled on the head of Greenbrier, and he is the ancestor of the Pocahontas branch of the Slaven relationship. By the second marriage there were five daughters and two sons.

    He was a person of remarkable muscular powers, and was a Revolutionary veteran, a noted hunter and successful trapper. He had thrilling descriptions to give of the many bloody engagements he passed thro, the hazardous risks he ran, and the bitter privations he endured in the service of his country. He lived to an advanced age, and was so weakened by the infirmities of age as to make use of crutches in moving around in his closing days.

    JEREMIAH FRIEL

    The Friel relationship trace their ancestry to one Daniel O'Friel, a native of Ireland, who probably came to Augusta county with the Lewises, 1740. He settled on Middle River, between Churchville and Staunton. His children were James, William, Jeremiah, and Anna. James O'Friel went to Maryland, Eastern Shore. William settled in Highland County. Anna became a Mrs Crawford and lived in Augusta.

    Daniel O'Friel seems to have been a person of considerable means. He sold his property for Continental money, with a view of settling in Kentucky, The money being repudiated, he was unable to carry out his plans. Upon Jacob Warwick's invitation, Jeremiah O'Friel came to Clover Lick. Mr Warwick gave him land on Carrich Ridge. This land was exchanged with Sampson Matthews, Senior, for lands on Greenbrier, now occupied in part by his descendants.

    Jeremiah Friel's wife was Anna Brown, daughter of Joseph Brown, who was living at the time on Greenbrier River, Their first home was on Carrich Ridge, then afterwards they lived on the river. Their children were Joseph, Daniel, Josiah, John, Catherine, Hannah, Ellen, Mary, and Jennie.

    The compiler in his attempt to illustrate the history of Jeremiah Friel's family has been mainly aided by his grandson, the late M. A. Friel, who took special pains to collect authentic information. It may be interesting to say about him that he stands on the old list as the first subscriber to "The Pocahontas Times"; and he claims to have owned and used the first kerosene lamp in Pocahontas, in 1865.

    Jeremiah Friel was in the expedition to Point Pleasant, 1774-, in the same company with Jacob Warwick. He was one of the soldiers detailed under Jacob Warwick to provide a supply of meat for the contemplated advance on the Indian towns in Ohio, in the morning: of that memorable battle, and was at work in the slaughter pens when the battle was going on. The hunters and butchers were rallied by Jacob Warwick and crossed over. At this the enemy mysteriously ceased firing and began to withdraw across the Ohio River, supposing that Colonel Christian had arrived with reinforcements. The importance of that action by Jacob Warwick and his men need not be dwelt upon here.

    Jacob Warwick and Felix Grimes seem to have been on very friendly terms. He once asked James Grimes what ho would charge for managing his affairs. While James was trying to estimate what he would be willing to do it for, Mr Warwick remarked that all he realized for what he was doing was what he could eat and wear.

    Arthur Grimes and Levi Moore, son of Levi, the pioneer, and afterwards a member of the Legislature, went on a scout to Clover Lick to see if Indians were around. Seeing no sign they want to the house, placed their guns just outside the door, and finding a bed within, lay down and fell asleep. Arthur dreamed of being bitten by a rattlesnake, sprang out of bed and awakened Moore. The dog was growling at Indians stealing toward the house. The men seized their guns and escaped, leaving the dog shut up in the house, The dog soon came to them, however. The Indians fired the building, cut a pair of moccasins from a dressed deer skin belonging to old "Ben," and amused themselves by striping the feathers from two live roosters to see their antics.

    When they reported to Jacob Warwick about the affair, he told them that whenever he dreamed of wild turkeys he was sure of having trouble with Indians very soon.

    JACOB WARWICK

    The compiler of these memorials, deeply impressed that something should be attempted to perpetuate the memory of these persons - Jacob Warwick and Mary Vance, his wife - has availed himself of such facilities as have been in reach. He is largely indebted to John Warwick, Esq., Judge James W. Warwick, and Mrs Elizabeth McLaughlin for the information from which these sketches are compiled. All these persons have since died, at a very advanced age. This article first appeared in the Southern Historical Magazine for August, 1892. Mrs McLaughlin, a daughter of William Sharp, lived with Mrs Warwick at intervals, as a friend and visitor in the family, and for whom Mrs Warwick manifested special attachment.

    The father of Jacob Warwick came to Augusta County, from Williamsburg, Va,, during colonial times, between 1740-50, He was a Lieutenant in the service of the British Crown, and was employed in surveying and locating land grants in Pocahontas County, which County included territory of which States have since been formed.

    Lieutenant Warwick located and occupied the Dunmore property for his own use. He married Elizabeth Dunlap, near Middlebrook. He was one of the English gentry whose families settled in Virginia in consequence of political reverses in England, and whose history is so graphically given in Thackeray's Virginians.

    After operating extensively in lands; and securing the Dunmore property in his own name, Lieutenant Warwick concluded to visit England. He never returned, and being heard of no more, he was given up for dead. In the meanwhile. Mrs Warwick settled on the Dunmore property, had it secured by deed to Jacob and afterwards married Robert Sitlington, but remained at Dunmore a number of years after her second marriage. Jacob Warwick seemed to have remembered but little of his own father, and always cherished the highest filial regard for Mr Sitlington. When Jacob attained his majority, Mr Sitlington moved to his own property near old Millboro, the estate now occupied by Mrs Dickinson, daughter of the late Andrew Sitlington. Upon her decease, Mrs Sitlington left a bequest of one thousand dollars to Windy Cove Church the annual interest of which was to to paid to the pastor of that congregation. For a long while it was managed by the Messrs Sloan. In the hands of Stephen Porter it was finally lost through financial failure.

    Upon reaching legal age and coming into possession of his estate, Jacob Warwick was married and settled at Dunmore. Just here let it be stated, that when it was decided that Lieutenant Warwick was dead, the grandfather of David Bell, of Fishersville, Va., was appointed guardian of Jacob Warwick. William and James Bell were the sons of this guardian, and James Bell was the father of William A. Bell and David Bell well remembered citizens of Augusta County.

    Dunmore was Mr Warwick's first home after his marriage. His wife was Miss Vance, daughter of Colonel John Vance, of North Carolina. He died on Back Creek, at Mountain Grove, Va. Colonel Vance's family moved to the vicinity of Vanceburg, Ky., except Samuel Vance, Mrs Warwick, and Mrs Hamilton. The last named was the mother of Rachel Terrel, of the Warm Springs, and John Hamilton, Esq., of Bath County. Governor Vance, of Ohio, and Senator Zeb Vance, of North Carolina, are of the same family connection. The Vances, originally, from Opecquon, near Winchester, Va.

    In business trips to Richmond, to sell horses or cattle, Mr Warwick formed the acquaintance of Daniel Warwick, a commission merchant, who attended to business for Mr Warwick, and thus became mutually interested and were able to trace a common ancestry.

    Mr Warwick remained at Dunmore a number of years. His children were all born there. He was industriously and successfully occupied in accumulating lauds, and managing large herds of cattle and droves of horses. His possessions on Jacksons River were purchased from a certain Alexander Hall, of North Carolina, Mr Hall owned from the Byrd place to Warwickton. One of his sons, being charged with horse theft, the penalty being death by hanging, refuged to Bath County. The elder Hall came to Dunmore to see Mr Warwick, and proposed to sell this land to provide means to send his refugee son to Kentucky so as to elude arrest. Mr Warwick had sent out one hundred head of cattle to be wintered in the cane brakes. This herd was taken by Hall as part payment for the Jackson River lands. The cattle rated at eight pounds a head (about forty dollars.) The (Clover Lick lands were rented from the Lewises.

    The accounts from Kentucky were so flattering that Mr Warwick decided to settle there. He actually set out for the purpose of locating and securing a new place for a new home. The persons in advance of the party with which he was going were slain by Indians near Sewall Mountain, and when Mr Warwick and those with him came up and saw their slain friends, all returned home. Mrs Warwick thereupon became so unwilling to emigrate from her Pocahontas home, that her husband concluded to exchange his Kentucky possessions with one Alexander Dunlap for a portion of the Clover Lick lands. The Dunlap patent called for four hundred acres of land; the actual survey made six hundred. There was a suit between Lewis and Dunlap about this possession. When matters as to these lands became satisfactorily arranged, Mr Warwick moved to Clover Lick, and lived in a row of cabins. After a few years he and Mrs Warwick thought it might be better for their children to live on the Jackson River estate. They moved to Bath, and remained there until the marriage of their son Andrew.

    Upon their return to Clover Lick, the log cabins were deemed unfit for occupancy, and arrangements were made to build a spacious mansion, Patrick Bruffey was employed to prepare the material. He began work in Mr Warwick's absence, Mrs Warwick instructed Mr Bruffey to hew the timbers so as to have a hall or passage, as it was then termed. He did so. When Mr Warwick returned, and found what had been dime, he was not pleased with his wife's plans, and had the logs changed accordingly. Mr Bruffey hewed the logs and dressed the plank, but did not build the chimneys. Mr Wooddell, near Greenbank, furnished the plank for sixty pounds (nearly three hundred dollars. ) The nails were forged by hand at the Warm Springs.

    Several mounds have been discovered near Clover Lick, In searching for material for the foundation of the large new house, the builders gathered some nice stones from a rock pile. They found human remains, and when Mr Warwick heard of it he emphatically ordered the stones to be replaced, and told them not to molest anything that looked like a burial place. Greenbrier Ben often spoke of the opening of a grave just in front of the Chapel; and from the superior quality of the articles found with the remains, all were of the opinion it was the tomb of a chief. Mr Warwick directed it to be carefully closed, and the relics were not molested.

    One of the main objects in having the new house so spacious was that it might be used for preaching services, and there was preaching there more frequently than anywhere else in this region, during a number of years. This historic mansion was finally removed to give place to the handsome residence reared by Dr Ligon, and which was burned in 1854.

    The main route for emigration from Maryland, Pennsylvania, and other points north and northeast, passed by Clover Lick to Kentucky and Ohio. As many as forty and fifty would be entertained over night. This made Clover Lick one of the most public and widely known places in the whole country. The approach from the east avoided hollows and ravines, keeping along high points and crests of ridges, so as to be more secure from ambuscades and Indian attacks. The original way out from Clover Lick, going east, after crossing the Greenbrier near the mouth of Clover Creek avoided Laurel Run, kept along the high point leading down to the river, and passed close by the McCutchen residence. Mrs Warwick had the first road cut out, up the Laurel Ran, in order to bring the lumber for the new house from Wooddell's in the Pine Woods, now Greenbank and vicinity. She gave the enterprise her personal attention.

    Quite a number of interesting incidents are given by tradition illustrating the character of Mrs Warwick. While renting Clover Lick, her husband and others were making hay. A shower of rain came up very suddenly and dampened their guns and horse pistols. Late in the afternoon the men fired them off, so as to load them with fresh charges. Some one hearing the report of firearms in quick succession brought word to Mrs Warwick, at Dunmore, that the Indians were fighting the men at the Lick. She at once mounted a large black stallion, put a colored boy on behind, and went at full speed and swam the swollen river in her effort to see what happened. This colored boy is old "Ben," who died at Clover Lick, and is remembered by many of the older citizens.

    Upon another occasion, when the Shawnees were returning from one of their raids to the east, forty or fifty of their warriors were sent by Clover Lick with the intention, it is believed, to pillage and burn, A scout from Millboro warned Mr Warwick of their movements. With about twenty others he waited for them in ambush on the crest of the mountain south of Clover Lick. The fire was very effective, and every man killed or wounded his victim. The Indians in their surprise hastily retreated, and were pursued as far as Elk Water in Randolph County. Upon hearing of the result, Mrs Warwick at once followed her husband and friends, attended by servants carrying provisions for them. She met them at the Big Spring on their return, and the weary hungry party were greatly refreshed by her thoughtful preparations.

    She was eminently pious, and was a member of the Windy Cove Presbyterian Church. She never felt her self more honored than when ministers would visit her home and preach. The visiting minister would receive a nice horse, or something else as valuable, as a token of appreciation. She was conscientiously rigid in her domestic discipline. Her brother once made this remark; "Mary, I used to think you were too strict with your family, and yon have been blamed for it. I see now you are right. You have not a child but would knee in the dust to obey you. I let my children have more liberties, and they do not care near so much for me."

    The Rev Aretas Loomis came from Beverly, for a time, every four weeks, and preached at the Warwick residence. She was highly emotional, and during the services often appeared very happy. As to her personal appearance she was tall, slender, and blue eyed, hair slightly tinged with auburn, and lithe and agile in her carriage. So she was distinguished for symmetry of person, beauty of feature, and force of character, all of which she retained even to an advanced age. She was very benevolent, and her kind deeds were done upon the principle of not telling the left hand what the right might be doing. Persons in her employ would always be overpaid. Polly Brown, whose lot it was to support her blind mother, received two bushels of corn every two weeks, and no one knew where the supply came from at the time. A person named Chaley Collins, who was renowned as an athlete, and whose name is given to one of the meadows of Clover Lick, did a great deal of clearing. It was reported that he was but poorly paid, but before Mrs Warwick was done with him his family was doubly paid by the substantial gifts dispensed with her open hands.

    Among her many other generous deeds, it is told how a rather worthless character, disabled by frozen feet, was received into her house, clothed and fed until he could walk. His name was Bosier. This man afterwards died from the effects of a burning tree falling on him, against which he had made a fire, while on his way from Big Spring to Mace's in Mingo Flats. George See, a grandson of Mrs Warwick, heard his cries and came to him. In his efforts to rescue him, he exerted himself so laboriously that ho was never well afterwards.

    It should be remembered also, that Mrs Warwick, in her old age, gathered the first Sabbath School ever taught in Pocahontas County. In the summer her servants would lift her on her horse, and she would then ride about four miles to a school house near where the Josiah Friel cabin stood, now in the possession of Giles Sharp. The exercises would begin at about nine o'clock. There was no prayer, no singing; but she would read the Bible, talk a great deal, and give good advice. The scholars would read their Bibles with her. The exercises would close at two in the afternoon. After this continuous session of five hours Mrs Warwick would be so exhausted as to require assistance to arise and mount her horse. It was her custom to go to William Sharp's, dine and rest awhile, and then go home later in the day. To use the language of one of her scholars, the late Mrs Elizabeth McLaughlin, who died near Huntersville in 1895, aged over ninety years: "She would give such good advice. If all would do as she told them, how well it might have been. She was the best woman to raise girls I ever saw, if they would take her advice how to act and how to do. She has talked to me for hours, and it was often thrown up to me that old Mrs Warwick made me proud because I tried to do as she advised me."

    The school was mainly made up of Josiah Brown's family, John Sharp's, William Sharp's, and Jeremiah Friel's. The lamented Methodist preacher, Rev James E. Moore, once belonged to her Sabbath school, and received from her his earliest religious instructions. By common consent it is agreed that he did more for his church than any two ministers who have ever preached in this region.

    Not a great while before her death, during one of Mr Loomis' ministerial visits, she received the communion. Upon receiving the elements, her emotions became so great that her husband and children, fearing results, carried her to her own room. For 4 weeks she was helpless from nervous prostration. All her children from Bath and Pocahontas were sent for. She died at the ripe age of eighty years, in 1823, at Clover Lick, and there she was buried. There were no service of any kind in connection with her burial.

    The purpose of these sketches is already manifest to the discerning reader -- to rescue, if possible, from total oblivion the name and services of an obscure but eminently worthy person. Jacob Warwick was one of the persons who made permanent settlements in what is now Pocahontas and Bath counties Virginia and West Virginia.

    It has been already stated that he commenced his business life at Dunmore; purchased Clover Lick, where he resided for a time; then moved to his immense possessions on Jacksons River, and then returned to Clover Lick, In addition to these estates he acquired some equally as valuable. He endowed his seven children with ample legacies, and besides bequeathed a competency to ten or fifteen grandchildren.

    Mr Warwick was an alert and successful Indian lighter, and had a series of conflicts, narrowly escaping with his life on several occasions; yet he was never sure of killing but one Indian. Parties now living remember seeing a tree on the lands of John Warwick, near Greenbank, where Jacob Warwick killed that Indian in single combat. It always grieved him that he had certainly sent one soul into eternity under such sad circumstances.

    Owing to his accurate knowledge of the mountain regions far and near, his services were in frequent demand by land agents and governmental surveyors. He and others went to Randolph as an escort for a land commission in the service of the colony. It was during the period when Kilbuck scouted the mountains with bands of Shawnees and Mingoes. Colonel John Stuart, of Greenbrier, says: "Of all the Indians the Shawnees were the most bloody and terrible, holding all other men -- Indians as well as whites -- in contempt as warriors in comparison with themselves. This opinion made them more fierce and restless than any other savages, and they boasted that they had killed ten times as many white men as any other tribe. They were a well formed, ingenious, active people; were assuming and imperious in the presence of others, not of their nation, and sometimes very cruel. It was chiefly the Shawnees that cut off the British under General Braddock, in 1755 - only nineteen years before the battle of Point Pleasant - when the General himself and Sir Peter Hackett, the second in command, were both slain, and the mere remnant only of the whole army escaped. They, too, defeated Major Grant and the Scotch highlanders at Fort Pitt, in 1758, where the whole of the troops were killed or taken prisoners."

    At the time Mr Warwick went over to Randolph with the commissioner, the season had been inclement, and it was believed the Indians would not be abroad. Indeed, such was their sense of security the party did not think it worth while to arm themselves on setting out on their business. While in the lower valley about Huttonsville, however, it was reported by one Thomas Lacky, a person of somewhat questionable veracity, that he had seen fresh Indian signs. As Mr Warwick and his party were unarmed, six citizens and friends of the escort armed themselves and proposed to go with them to the place where Lacky had seen the Indian trail. Upon coming near the place, Andrew Sitlington's horse showed fright, thereupon his rider saw Indians, but for a moment could not speak. This attracted Mr Warwick's attention, and looking in the same direction he saw the Shawnees creeping along to reach a suitable place to cut them off. He gave the alarm -- "Indians! Indians !" Finding themselves discovered the warriors fired hastily, wounding one of the party and Mr Warwick's horse. The horse sank to tho ground as if dead, but as Mr Warwick was in the act of throwing off his cloak for flight, the horse rose and darted off at the top of his speed, and carried his rider safely home to Dunmore before night. Those that were mounted all escaped -- Jacob Warwick, James McClain, Thomas Cartmill, and Andrew Sitlington. Of those on foot, John Crouch, John Hulder, and Thomas Lacky escaped. The following were killed: John McClain, James Ralston, and John Nelson. When these were attacked they were near the mouth of Windy Run. One man was killed running across the bottom. Three of the men escaped by climbing the bank where they were; two others, in looking for an easier place to get up the bank, were overtaken, killed and scalped. Not very far from this place is the laurel thicket where Colonel Washington was killed in 1861.

    The horse was found to to wounded in the thigh. The ball was extracted, and the noble animal lived long and became very valuable for usesful endurance, Most of the way home the day be was wounded that horse carried two persons a distance of thirty miles.

    Upon a subsequent occasion Mr Warwick went to Randolph County. It was night when he returned. His horse shied at something in the road, which he at once recognized as the fresh husks of roasting ears. The presence of Indians was at once suspected, and upon approaching the house cautiously it was found that the row of cabins were burned and the premises ransacked. In their glee, the Indians had caught the chickens, picked all their feathers off and let them go. The place had been loft in the care of a colored man named Sam and Greenbrier Ben, aged ten or twelve years. Sam made good his escape to the woods, but Ben hid in a hemp patch so near the cabin that when it was burned he could hardly keep still, his buckskin breeches were so hot. From his retreat Ben saw the Indians pick the chickens, leaving their tails and top-knots, and laugh at their grotesque appearance. He saw them run the wagon into the fire, after the cabin near the spring had become a smouldering heap of coals. This wagon was the first that ever crossed the Alleghanies. It was brought from Mountain Grove, up Little Back Creek, about three miles above where the Huntersville road first crosses the stream going east; then across Knapps Spur, along by Harper's Mill ; then straight across to Thorny Creek, through the Lightner place, past Bethel Church, to the Saunders place on Thorny Creek; thence up the ridge to the top, and then along down to the Knapp place on the Greenbrier River; thence to Clover Lick.

    The most memorable event of his life, however, was his being in the expedition to Point Pleasant, under General Andrew Lewis. The march from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant -- one hundred and sixty miles -- took nineteen days. It is most probable that he was in the company commanded by Captain Mathews. This conflict with the Indians was the most decisive that had yet occurred. It was fought on Monday morning, October 10, 1774.

    It is a matter of regret that .the recorded history of this battle does not accord full justice to the memory of a very deserving person. It is conceded by all, so far as there is any record, that up to the time when there occurred a lull in the battle the advantage was with the Indians. The question arises, why should a warrior as skillful as Cornstalk call a halt in the full tide of success, and suddenly cease firing and pressing upon a receding foe, with victory just in his grasp?

    Had it not been for this, no troops could have been safely detached for a flank movement. Flank movements are only a good policy for those who are pressing the enemy, and not for the retreating party. When Cornstalk ceased to press, the victory was decided in favor of the Virginians, and lost to him. Had the battle been lost to our people and the army sacrificed, unspeakable disasters would have befallen all settlements west of the Blue Ridge mountains; the Revolution would have been deferred for all time, possibly, and the whole history of America far different from what has been.

    How is that lull in the battle to be accounted for. which resulted in victory to the Virginians ? Dr Foote says, in his account, which is one of the most minute and extended of all in reach of the writer, that "towards evening, Lewis seeing no signs of retreat or cessation of battle, dispatched Captains Shelby, Hathews, and Stewart, at their request, to attack the enemy in their rear. Going up the Kanawha, under the cover of the banks of Crooked Creek, they got to the rear of the Indians unobserved, and made a rapid attack. Alarmed by this unlooked for assault, and thinking the reinforcements of Colonel Christian were approaching, before whose arrival they had striven hard to end the battle, the savages became dispirited, gave way, and by sunset had recrossed the Ohio. Colonel Christian entered the camp about midnight, and found all in readiness for a renewed attack." (Second Series p165)

    Colonel Kercheval, who claims to have derived his information from Joseph Mayse and Andrew Reed, of Bath County, states on their authority "that about two o'clock in the afternoon Colonel Christian arrived on the field with about five hundred men, the battle was still raging. The reinforcements decided the issue almost immediately. The Indians fell back about two miles, but such was their persevering spirit, though fairly beaten, the contest was not closed until the setting of the sun, when they relinquished the field." There were persons recently living in Bath, and the writer conversed with one, (September, 1873), almost in speaking distance of the residence where Joseph Mayse lived and died, who are certain that Mr Mayse gave the credit of that cessation in battle and falling back two miles on the part of the Indians, to Jacob Warwick and the persons with him. According to Judge Warwick's statement, -- and the writer's impression is that Mr Mayse's statement was emphatically confirmed by Major Charles Cameron, a lieutenant in the battle, -- Mr Mayse often repeated the fact that Jacob Warwick, an obscure private in the ranks, was detailed with a number of others, perhaps fifty or sixty in all, to bring in a supply of meat, that rations might be supplied for a forced march to the Indian towns, as Governor Dunmore had so treacherously given orders. These persons crossed the Kanawha about daybreak, and while at work in the hunting grounds and slaughter pens, they heard the firing beyond the limits of the camp, and so far up the Ohio they supposed it to be a salute to Governor Dunmore, who was expected at any time by the soldiers generally. But the firing continuing too long for this, it was surmised the troops were putting their arms in order for the contemplated march over the Ohio. Finally they suspected it was a battle. Mr Warwick was one of the first to ascertain this to he so, and immediately rallied the butchers and hunters, in order to return to camp and join the battle. This was noticed by the enemy, and Cornstalk was of the opinion that Colonel Christian was at hand. He ceased in the reach of victory, and took measures to withdraw from the field, unobserved by our exhausted troops. For nearly two hours they had been falling back, and when the flank movement was made to communicate with the hunters, supposed to be Colonel Christian's advance to join them. What fighting occurred afterwards was with the rear guard of Cornstalk's retreating army of demoralized braves.

    If all this be true, and considering the sources of information, the writer sees no reason to doubt its authenticity in the main, it illustrates how important results are sometimes made to depend, in the providence of God, upon fidelity to duty on the part of the most obscure, and it brings to light the leadings of God's hand in human affairs.

    This is not written in a complaining spirit, yet one feels like saying, if this be true, what a comment it furnishes on the justice meted out by the historic muse. The reputed hero of Point Pleasant appears in bronze, an honored member of the group wherein stand Henry, Jefferson, and Marshall, while the humble man whose hand turned the fortunes of that most eventful day sleeps in his obscure grave on the west bank of Jacksons River, six miles from the Warm Springs. Were it the grave of Campbell's "Last Man," it could not be in a much less frequented place.

    Major Warwick's sons and daughters were all born at Dunmore, Pocahontas Comity. The eldest daughter, Rachel, remembered when the settlers would fly to the fort near her home, when she was a little girl. The fort was near the spot now occupied by Colonel Pritchard's mill.

    She became the wife of Major Charles Cameron, a descendant of the Camerons so noted in the history of the Scottish Covenanters. He was in the battle of Point Pleasant, and was there called upon to mourn the death of his three brothers slain in that conflict. In person he was of medium stature, tidy in his dress, wore short clothes, very dignified in his manners, and was never known to smile after the heart-rending scenes he witnessed at Point Pleasant. He was an officer in the Revolution, and served as clerk of both courts of Bath County many years. He reared the late Charles L. Francisco, so long clerk of Bath, as his successor.

    Mrs Cameron drew a pension of nine hundred dollars for several years before her death in 1858. Major Cameron's residence was on Jacksons River, at the crossing of the Huntersville and Warm Springs pike. The two story spring house yet remains in good state of preservation, the upper part of which he used for his office, where he long and faithfully kept the legal records intrusted to his care, almost one hundred years ago.

    One son, Colonel Andrew W. Cameron, survived him. He became a very wealthy and popular citizen. He represented Bath in the Virginia Legislature. He removed afterwards to Rockbridge County and resided on an immense estate near Lexington, so as to secure educational and social advantages for his largo family of sons and daughters. He met his death in a sad way in the town of Lexington, where be had gone anxious to hear something of his sons John and Charles in the army.

    One of the passengers in the mail coach was a soldier with a musket. In the act of leaving the coach this weapon wan discharged, the contents inflicting a wound from which he expired almost instantly.

    Dr John H. Cameron, a popular physician of Deertield, Va., is his eldest son. Mrs Thomas White, Mrs D. White, and Mrs Judge Leigh, of Lexington, Va. and the late Mrs A. W. Harmon are his daughters.

    Mrs Jane Warwick Gatewood and Her Descendants. She was Major Warwick's second daughter, and became the second wife of William Gatewood, of Essex County, a near relative of President Tyler. Their home was at Mountain Grove, Bath County. Their sons were Warwick and Samuel Vance, and their daughters were Mary Jane and Frances.

    Warwick Gatewood married Miss Margaret Beale, of Botetourt County, Va., a relative of President Madison. Their daughter Eliza became Mrs Judge James W. Warwick, near the Warm Springs, and Catherine became Mrs Cæsereo Bias, once proprietor of the Red Sweet Springs. Mr Bias was rescued when an infant from a wrecked ship, and is supposed to be of Portuguese parentage. One of their sons, James W. Bias was a very promising candidate for the Presbyterian ministry, and died in North Carolina, where he was spending a vacation in charge of a church. Miss Kate Bias, her daughter, is a very efficient missionary in Brazil.

    Colonel Samuel V. Gatewood married Miss Eugenia Massie, near Alleghany Falls, Va. He succeeded to the old Mountain Grove homestead and built the fine brick mansion there. His daughter Susan became Mrs William Taliaferro, of Rockbridge County. Mary Pleasants, his second daughter, married Samuel Goode of the Hot Springs, Va. William Bias Gatewood, one of the sons, a prominent business man of Loudoun County, has recently died. Colonel A. C. L. Gatewood, another son, resides at the Big Spring, Pocahontas County. He was an officer in the Confederate service, 11th Virginia, (Bath Cavalry), and ranked among the bravest of his comrades. His daughter is Mrs Dr W. T. Cameron, a popular physician in the vicinity of Linwood.

    Mrs Jane Gatewood's daughter, Mary Jane, became Mrs Kennedy, a merchant in Memphis, Tennessee, where she died of yellow fever.

    Frances, the other daughter, became Mrs Patton, of Rockbridge. Her daughters, Mrs Crockett and Mrs Kent, were highly esteemed ladies of Wytheville and vicinity. Upon her second marriage Mrs Frances Patton became Mrs General Dorman, of Lexington, Va.

    Mrs Mary Warwick Mathews and Her Descendants

    This member of Major Warwick's family was married to Sampson Mathews, and for years occupied the old Warwick homestead at Dunmore. Her children were Jacob Warwick, Andrew Gatewood, Sampson Lockhart, Elizabeth, and Jane.

    Jacob W. Mathews resided on Sitlington's Creek, near Dunmore. His wife was a daughter of Rev John McCue, of Augusta County, and who is mentioned in history as a pioneer minister in Greenbrier and Monroe County. There were two daughters, Elizabeth and Mary. Elizabeth married Captain Felix Hull, of McDowell, Highland County. Captain Hull was a prominent merchant and popular citizen. He led a company of two hundred men into Grafton, W. Va., in May1861. He died in the service of the State of Virginia.

    Mary was married to Joseph McClung, a citizen of Greenbrier, near Williamsburg. Mrs Newman Feamster, in the Blue Sulphur District, is her daughter; Mrs Brownlee, of Birmingham, Ala., is another daughter.

    Andrew G. Mathews married Mary W. See, and lived several years at Dunmore, and then moved to Pulaski County, Va., where his later years were passed amid very pleasant surroundings. He was a highly respected citizen, and a prominent ruling elder in his church and well known throughout the Virginia Synod.

    His daughter Martha married Uriah Hevener, near Greenbank. Mrs James Renick, of Greenbrier County, is one of his daughters. Mrs Ellen Snyder, of Salem, Misses Eliza and Rachel Mathews at the old Pulaski homestead, are also daughters. Charles Matthews of Summers County, is his son. Mrs Samuel B. Hannah, near Greenbank, is a granddaughter of Andrew Q. Mathews.

    Sampson L. Mathews, the third son of Mary Warwick Mathews, married Nancy Edgar, of Greenbrier County. The town of Ronceverte now occupies the Edgar homestead. He was a very useful and intelligent citizen of Pocahontas. He was the first surveyor of the county and a member of the court a number of vears. His only child Mary, became Mrs William H. McClintic, and yet lives. Her five sons were educated at Roanoke College. Hunter was a prosperous citizen of Pocahontas, and met his death April, 1901, by a falling tree; Withrow is an enterprising citizen of Pocahontas; George is a lawyer at Charleston; Edward resides at Seattle, State of Washington. He was among those who visited Alaska, in 1897, searching for gold. Lockhart was State's attorney several terms and represented Pocahontas County in the Legislature. Elizabeth, the eldest daughter, was married to a Mr Miller, of Rockingham County, Virginia, emigrated to Missouri, and died young. June married Captain George Woods, of Albemarle County. Her home was near what is now Ivy Depot. She was the happy mother of six sons and two daughters.

    Margaret Warwick See and Her Family

    This daughter was married to Adam See, who lived near Huttonsville, Randolph County. He was a well known lawyer, an extensive owner of lands, an influential citizen and a devoted ruling elder in his church. There were four sons and seven daughters. The sons were George, Jacob, Warwick, and Charles Cameron. Eliza, Dolly, Christina, Mary, Rachel, Hannah, and Margaret were the daughters.

    George See's daughter, Georgiana, became the wife of the late Captain Jacob W. Marshall, who raised and commanded a very efficient company of mounted infantry for the Confederate service. He was also one of the original promoters of Marlinton, and was an active member of the Pocahontas Development Company. F. P. Marshall, Sheriff of Randolph County; Dr L. J. Marshall, of Marlinton, and Cecil Marshall are his sons. Mrs Samuel Holt, and Mrs E. I. Holt, of Hillsboro, are his daughters.

    George See's son Adam married Dolly Crouch and lived at the old home on Elkwater, Randolph County. Their daughter Florida became Mrs J. Calvin Price, near Clover Lick. She and her two beautiful little boys died within a few months of each other, several years ago.

    Jacob Warwick See married a daughter of the Rev, Dr. Geo. A. Baxter, one of the most eminent ministers and educators of his day, and settled in Pocahontas, on the property owned by Mr. Uriah Hevener. The last years of his life were spent in Tucker county. W. Va. When more than sixty years of age, he volunteered in the Confederate service, and died in Lynchburg Va., in a military hospital in 1862. His son Rev. Chas. S. M. See, a well-known minister, was with him and had his remains carried to Tinkling Spring Cemetery in Augusta county, where he now sleeps well after his busy life. In personal appearance he is said to have borne a very marked likeness to his venerated grand-father, and no doubt inherited his patriotic spirit along with his name.

    The third son, Charles Cameron, was among the most popular and widely known citizens of his native county, an ernest friend of liberal learning, and a zealous Christian gentleman. His wife was a daughter of Dr Squier Bosworth, an eminent physician of Beverly. Peter See, a prosperous and influential citizen of Augusta County, and a ruling elder in the old Stone Church, is his son. Mr Peter See's wife, Marv, is a daughter of Mrs Eliza Gamble, one of Margaret Warwick See's daughters, whose husband, Dr Robert Gamble, was a noted physician, a ruling Elder in the Augusta Church, and a very influential citizen of Augusta County.

    Dolly See was married to Hon. John Hutton, of Huttonsville, W. Va. This gentleman was a member of the Randolph court, and a delegate to the West Virginia Legislature, and did as much as any other man toward removing the disabilities of southern sympathizers.

    Christina See was married to Washington Ward, and lived on the old See homestead, nearly east of Huttonsville. Her sons, Jacob, Renick, and Adam, were all in the Confederate service, and were known by their comrades as men that never flinched from danger nor shirked a duty. All three with their families have migrated to the far west.

    Mary Sea became Mrs Andrew G. Mathews, owhom mention has been made. Hannah See became Mrs Henry Harper, near Beverly, a ruling Elder in the church and a highly esteemed citizen.

    Margaret See was married to the Hon. Washington Long, one of the wealthiest and most influential citizens of Randolph County.

    Rachel Cameron See was the wife of Hon. Paul McNeel, of Pocahontas County. He possessed an immense landed estate, was for years a leading member of the court, sheriff of the county, and was a member of the Virginia convention that passed the Ordinance of Secession. Their eldest son George resides near Hillsboro. He was a Confederate soldier. Andrew Gatewood raised a company for the Confederate service. He died a few years since. John Adam was a soldier, studied law, and now resides upon a line estate in Rockbridge County. Eliza, the eldest of the daughters, became the wife of Rev Daniel A. Penick, a Presbyterian minister in Rockbridge County. The other daughters are Mrs Edgar Beard, near Millpoint, and Mrs Captain Edgar, near Hillsboro.

    Andrew Warwick and His Family. Major Jacob Warwick had another son, Charles Cameron, but he died while at school in Essex County, Va., aged fourteen. Andrew was therefore the only son that lived to be grown, and to perpetuate his father's name. He was twice married. His first wife was a Miss Woods, of Nelson County: the second wife was a Miss Dickinson, of Millboro Spring, Bath County.

    Andrew Warwick's eldest son, James Woods, lately resided on Jacksons River on a section of the old homestead. He served a term as Judge of the courts of Bath and Highland counties. He received the appointment from the Virginia Legislature. He had never been a lawyer by profession, but such was his clear perceptions and common sense of the right thing to be done that he met the duties of his station with marked ability, and very acceptably to the people generally. He had three sons.

    John Andrew was a lieutenant in the Confederate service; received several wounds, from one of which be suffered many years. For several years he was in the west, leading the life of a frontiersman. He died in 1898.

    James Woods was a soldier; a teacher and Superintendent of Schools in Pocahontas County. Charles Cameron, lately deceased, was a cadet of the Virginia Military Institute, and at one time a civil engineer in the Mexican Railway service.

    Judge Warwick's daughter Mary, is the wife of Col. A. C. L. Gatewood. Lillie married James A. Frazier, of Rockbridge Alum Springs. Eliza is the wife of J. W. Stephenson, of the Warm Springs, a lawyer and attorney for Commonwealth, Bath County. Another daughter is Mrs Jacob McClintic near the Hot Springs.

    Andrew Warwick's second son, Jacob, married Miss Ellen Massie, of East Virginia, and most of his life was spent there. He was an extensive planter, and much esteemed for his elevated, pure character.

    John Warwick, the third son of Andrew, resided in Pocahontas County. As a member of the court, school commissioner, assessor of lands, and in other positions of trust, he was prominent as a citizen, and influential. His first wife was Hannah Moffett, the only daughter of Andrew Gatewood, of whom special mention is yet to be made. His second marriage was with Caroline Craig, youngest daughter of George E. Craig, merchant at Huntersville, Elder in his church, and a most estimable christian gentleman. Miss Emma Warwick, Mrs Ernest Moore, of Dunmore, and Mrs Dr Lockridge, of Driscol, are their daughters. Their sons John Warwick, merchant at Hinton, died in 1896; George Warwick died in Lexington, while a student at Washington and Lee College.

    Elizabeth Warwick Woods. This member of Jacob Warwick's family married Colonel William Woods, near Charlottesville, Va. There were no children born to them. He and his wife were particularly kind and benevolent: A great many persons remember them with gratitude for their ample hospitality.

    Mrs Nancy Warwick-Gatewood Poage and Her Descendants. This member of Major Warwick's family was first married to Thomas Gatewood, son of William Gatewood, of Mountain Grove; by a previous marriage, Jane Warwick, already mentioned, was the second wife of William Gatewood.

    Their home was at Marlin's Bottom, now Marlinton, Pocahontas County. Andrew Gatewood was the only child of her first marriage. Upon relinquishing all interest in the Marlins Bottom estate, he received the Glade Hill property, near Dunmore. He is remembered as a person of uncommon sprightliness. While a student at Washington College, he was regarded as the peer of his classmate, William C. Preston of South Carolina, in studies and oratorical talent in their academic rivalry. He married Sally Moffett. A son and daughter survived him, Charles and Hannah. The daughter became the first wife of John W. Warwick. Her only child was the late Mrs Sally Ligon, wife of Dr John Ligon, of Clover Lick. She was the mother of eight daughters and one son: The late Mrs C. P. Dorr, Mrs Dr McClintic, Mrs Louisa Coyner, Mrs Annette Coyner, Mrs Eva McNeel, Mrs Rosa Arbuckle, Mabel, Georgia, and Yancey.

    Upon her second marriage Mrs Nancy Gatewood became the wife of Major William Poage. Four daughters and one son were born of this marriage.

    Mrs Poage died one morning just at the dawning. Feeling death to be near, she requested Jennie Johnson, who afterwards became Mrs Jennie Lamb, to sing her favorite hymn:

    �Come, O Thou traveler unknown, Whom still I hold but can not see. Art Thou the man than died for me ? The secret of thy love unfold, With Thee all night I mean to stay. And wrestle till the break of day."

    Mrs Poage's eldest daughter, Rachel Cameron, was married to Josiah Board, of Locust. At 18 years of age, Mr Beard was a ruling Elder in the Falling Spring Church, Greenbrier County, and was the first clerk of Pocahontas County. During the Civil War, when over seventy years of age, he was taken prisoner by Federal troops. Something was said to rouse his ire, and he challenged the whole squad to single combat.

    Their family numbered eight sons and three daughters. William T, Beard, the eldest, was liberally educated, and became an honored, influential citizen. His wife was Mary, the only daughter of Richard McNeel.

    Henry Moffett Beard was a Lieutenant in the Confederate service, and for years was among the most prosperous Pocahontas farmers.

    Samuel J. Beard has long resided in Missouri.

    Joel Early Beard died in the Confederate service. His mother came to church one Saturday morning of a sacramental occasion, to the Brick Church, and the first intimation of her soldier son�s death was the fresh grave and the arrival of the body for burial. Her other sons were Charles Woods, John George, and Wallace Warwick were Confederate soldiers, and are influential citizens residing in the Little Levels of Pocahontas. Edwin Beard, the youngest son, is a merchant at Hillsboro. Mrs Alvin Clark, Mrs George McNeel, and Mrs Maggie Levisay are her daughters.

    Mrs Poage's second daughter, Mary Vance, who is said to have borne a remarkable resemblance to her grandmother, Mary Warwick, was first married to Robert Beale, of Botetourt County, and resided on Elk Pocahontas, where he died, leaving one child, Margaret Elizabeth, who married Dr George B. Moffett, one of the first graduates in medicine that ever resided in Pocahontas. One of their sons, James Moffett, lives in Chicago. It was at her son's home Mrs Moffett died a few years ago.

    Upon her second marriage Mrs Beale became the wife of Henry M. Moffett, the second clerk of Pocahontas, a very excellent man in every respect, and in his time one of the most influential of citizens. Their only son that survived them was George H. Moffett, a member of the Pocahontas bar, ex-speaker of the West Virginia Legislature, and at present a distinguished journalist in Portland, Oregon.

    One of her daughters, Mary Evelina, was married to Colonel William P. Thompson, a Confederate officer, whose late residence was in New York, and prominent in the management of the Standard Oil Company. The youngest daughter, Rachel, became Mrs Dr McChesney, of Lewisburg.

    Sally Gatewood, another daughter, became Mrs Dr Alexander McChesney, of Charleston. whose daughter, Mary Winters, is the wife of Rev A. H. Hamilton, a well known Presbyterian minister.

    Margaret Davies Poage, the third daughter of Mrs Nancy Warwick Poage, was married to James A. Price of Botetourt County, and lived at Marlins Bottom.

    Four of their sons were in the Confederate service - James Henry, Josiah Woods, John Calvin, and Andrew Gatewood.

    James Henry was captured at Marlins Bottom and taken to Camp Chase. He died in 1898.

    John Calvin was severely wounded in the same skirmish, shot down in the river, and afterward rescued by friends. He resides near Clover Lick.

    Josiah Woods graduated with distinction at Washington College in 1861. He was a lieutenant in Captain McNeel's company of mounted infantry. He was a teacher, superintendent of schools, and merchant in Randolph County; a member of the Randolph court, and for a term was presiding officer. He now resides at Marlinton.

    Andrew Gatewood Price was in the Confederate service in the Bath Cavalry. He was taken prisoner at Hanover Junction, and died a few weeks thereafter at Point Lookout, July 6, 1864, aged about twenty years. A lady near Richmond, seeing his name mentioned among the missing, wrote some very beautiful lines, that have been widely copied in books and journals, and his name has been sweetly embalmed and his memory not soon forgotten.

    Samuel Davies Price married Caroline McClure and lately resided on Jacksons River, where his widow and Mary Margaret Price, the only surviving daughter, was married to Andrew M. McLaughlin, of whom was purchased the land on which the town of Marlinton is built. They reside near Lewisburg, W. Va. Their eldest son, Rev H. W. McLaughlin, is a Presbyterian minister, in charge of the Greenbank and Dunmore churches. Lee and Edgar are their other sons; Anna Margaret, Lula, and Grace are their daughters.

    Concerning William T. Price, the eldest son of J. A. and Mary 1. Price, the following is taken from Herringshaw's Encyclopædia of American Biography:

    "William T. Price, cleryman, author, was born July 19, 1830, near Marlinton, W. Va. He was prepared for college at the Hillsboro Academy, and graduated in 1854 from Washington College, now called the Washington and Lee University, receiving a gold medal as the first honor graduate. In 1857, he completed his theological studies at Union Seminary and was licensed the same year to preach. His time has been devoted mainly to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church - for forty years; -- twelve years as home missionary in Bath and Highland counties; sixteen years as pastor of Cooks Creek Church, Rockingham County, Va. ; and twelve years as pastor of the Huntersville and Marlinton churches. He has contributed extensively to religious literature and is the author of several published works."'

    William T. Price and Anna Louise Randolph, of Richmond, Va., were married in 1865. Their children are Dr James Ward Price, Andrew Price, Susie A. Price, a student at the Woman's Medical College of Baltimore; Norman R. Price, medical student; Calvin W. Price, and Anna Virginia Price.

    Elizabeth Wood Poage, the fourth daughter, became the wife of Colonel Joel Mathews, of Selma, Alabama. A sad mortality attended her family; a few, perhaps none survive. Colonel Mathews was an extensive planter, and owned between two and three thousand slaves. He tendered a colored regiment to the Confederate Congress, but the Government was too punctilious to receive them as soldiers, and put them to work on fortifications. Major Dawson, a son-in-law, was a member of the Southern provisional congress.

    Colonel William Woods Poage married Miss Julia Callison, of Locust, and lived awhile at Marlins Bottom. His later years were passed near Clover Lick. He served many years as a member of the court. Two of his sons, Henry Moffett and William Anthony were slain in the war. Henry Motfett was n cavalry otticer. and was recklessly daring. He fell near Jack Shop. Mrs Sally W. Beery, of Mt. Clinton, Va., is his only surviving child: William Anthony was no less brave, and lost his life near Middletown, Va., while on a scout.

    The surviving sons of Colonel Poage, John Robert and Quincy Woods, are prosperous farmers on the grand old homestead near Clover Lick. These brothers married sisters, daughters of Jacob Sharp, whose mother was the intimate friend of Mrs Mary Vance Warwick, long years ago.

    Authentic tradition preserves some incidents that illustrate some of Major Warwick's personal traits. Soon after the affair at Point Pleasant, he went among the Shawnees on a trading excursion to secure skins and furs. On the last excursion of this kind he traveled as far as Fort Pitt, where he found little Gilmore, a boy who had been carried a captive from Kerrs Creek, Rockbridge, Virginia. To put him out of the reach of the mischievous boys, his master had lashed him to a board and laid him on the roof of a log cabin. Mr Warwick tried to ransom the captive, but too much was asked by the Indian foster parent, and so he planned to rescue the boy and bring him home to his surviving friends in the Virginia Valley. He went with the Indians upon a hunting expedition, and while moving from place to place to place he would frequently carry the Indian children behind him on his horse. and by turns he would carry the Gilmore boy too. Sometimes he would fall behind the party, first with au lndian boy and then with the white one, but still come up in time. Finally the Indians placed so much confidence in the trader as to be off their guard, whereupon he withdrew from the party with the captive and started for the settlements, and before the Indians became suspicious of his intentions, his swift horse had carried them safely beyond their reach. After an arduous journey he arrived home in safety and restored the captive to his friends.

    Mr Warwick was once at a house raising in the vicinity of Clover Lick, A young man made himself unpleasantly conspicuous boasting of his fleetness of foot. The Major took one of his young friends aside and told him if he would beat that youngster at a foot race and take some of the conceit out of him he would make him a present. The race came off in the afternoon, and was won by the young friend. Mr Warwick was delighted, and told him to come over to the Lick soon as convenient and see what was there for him. When he did so the Major gave him one of his fine colts.

    That youth became a distinguished Methodist minister, Rev Lorenza Waugh; traveled in West Virginia, Ohio, and Missouri, and finally went overland to California, where he died in 1899 at the advanced age of 95 years. During the greater part of this extended itineracy he used horses that were the offspring of the horse presented to him by Major Warwick.

    In a controversy about land on Little Back Creek, in Bath County, a challenge passed between him and Colonel John Baxter. This was about the only serious difficulty he ever had with any one, but the affair was amicably and honorably settled by mutual friends.

    His grandson, the late John Warwick, Esq., remembers the last visit paid to the old home in Pocahontas. He would have Greenbrier Ben, a faithful servant; to mount a large black mule; take his grandson, a lad of four years, in his arms and carry him from Jacksons River to Clover Lick - between thirty-five and forty miles - the same day. The party of three rested at noon in the home of John Bradshaw, the pioneer and founder of Huntersville. Squire Warwick remembered seeing the hands at work upon the court house, then in course of erection, and the interest manifested by his venerated grandfather, then more than eighty years of age, in what was going on.

    In person, Jacob Warwick was tall, stoop shouldered, and exceedingly agile and muscular. His grandson, the late Jacob See, is said to have resembled him more than any one else in personal appearance.

    Mrs Mary V. Warwick was a person of highly refined taste, and took all possible pains to make home attractive. When there was preaching at her house, all present were pressingly invited to remain for dinner. Her table service was really elegant, and a prince might well enjoy her dinners. She had a well supplied library of books in the nicest style of binding, and she made good use of them, too.

    Mr Warwick was jovial in his disposition, and extremely fond of innocent merriment. He delighted much in the society of young people, and even children. His pleasant words and kindly deeds to young people were vividly and affectionately remembered by all who ever knew him.

    After the decease of his wife, most of his time he passed at the home of Major Charles Cameron. He died at the breakfast table. When apoplexy came upon him he was merrily twitting Miss Phebe Woods about her beau, young Mr Beale. This occurred January, 1826, when he was nearing his eighty-third year.

    They carried his venerable remains about a mile up the west bank of the Jacksons River, and in a spot reserved for family burial, he was buried. When the writer visited his grave several years since, the place seemed to be in danger of forgetfulness. A locust tree stood near it and marked the place. Since then it has been nicely and substantially enclosed, and the grave marked by a neatly sculptured marble. In that lonely, but beautiful, valley retreat the strong, busy man has found repose.

    Thomas Galford was a very pronounced Confederate sympathizer, and as such he was regarded as a dangerous citizen to be at large in war times. In discharging what they deemed to be their duty, be was arrested by a detachment of Union soldiers, under the command of the late Captain Nelson Pray, and sent to Camp Chase, where he died during the war.

    In reference to the pioneer's daughter Elizabeth Galford, the tradition is that when she was fourteen years old she was sent on an errand to the mill, a quarter of a mile east of the residence. The child was never seen afterwards. While parties were carefully searching the creek, Indian signs were discovered and it was at once concluded that she had been taken captive. Vain pursuit was made, and the neighbors hastened to the fort. Indians, believed to be the same party, attacked the fort and killed a man named Sloan, and an Indian was wounded. The Indian was taken to a glade near Arbovale, and secreted until he was able to leave for the Ohio towns. Hence the name "Hospital Run."

    Some months subsequently Thomas Galford and Samuel Gregory went to the Indian towns, but could hear nothing of the child. The two men lingered about the town, inquiring for furs and tried to trade with the Indians, hoping thus to get the desired information about the missing child. Hearing nothing, they gave up all hopes, and turned their attention to a pair of fine horses. They stole them, hitched them some distance from the town, and then went back and waited in ambush for the warriors that might come in pursuit. Two were shot down and their ornaments taken, and these were kept for years. The bracelets were burned when Thomas Galford, Junior, lost his house. The captured horses were fine stallions. The bay was called Buck Rabbit and the other Irish Grey. Buck Rabbit was sold to John Bird, the ancestor of the Bird relation, on upper Back Creek. The other was bought by John Harnes, a trader from Staunton.

    Thomas Galford, the pioneer, and Jacob Warwick, on returning from a scout, thought they would have sport at the expense of William Higgins and Peter Ingram, whom they found digging potatoes near the fort at the mouth of Deer Creek. Higgins always claimed there was no indian that could ever make him run. While the two were busy with their digging, Galford and Warwick slipped up to the fence and fired simultaneously, hitting the ground close to Higgjns and scattering the dust all over him. He and Ingram ran with all speed to the stockade and reported that Indians had fired on them. The panic was soon relieved however, when hilarious laughter instead of war whoops were heard in the direction of the potato patch.

    ANDREW WARWICK

    One of the best known names in our pioneer annals was that of the Warwicks. John Warwick; the ancestor of the Greenbank branch of the connexion, was of English descent. It is believed he came to upper Pocahontas previously to the Revolution, and opened up a settlement on Deer Creek, at the place now in the possession of Peter H. Warwick and John R. Warwick. Mrs Warwick, whose given name can not be certainly recalled, was a member of the Martin family in the Valley of Virginia.

    John Warwick seems to have been a person of great enterprise, and braved the dangers of pioneer life with more than ordinary courage and devotion to duty. He had a fort raised upon his premises, to which himself and neighbors would resort when threatened by Indian incursions or raids. Being so near to Clover Lick, whose facilities for hunting and fishing were so much prized by the Indians, its erection seems to have been very exasperating to them, and were very troublesome to the settlers living in reach of the Warwick fort.

    The only Indian Major Jacob Warwick was ever certain of killing was shot from a tree not far from this fort. The warrior had climbed the tree to reconoitre the fort, and it is more than probable that the death of the scout interfered with the Indian plans and intentions of attack.

    In reference to John Warwick's children we have the following particulars: Their names were William, John, Andrew, Elizabeth -- of whom special mention was made in the Slaven sketches: Mary, who was probably the first lady teacher of schools in our county; Margaret, who became Mrs James Gay and went west; Ann, who became Mrs Ingram and lived in Ohio.

    As the Warwick relationship is so extended, it will be treated in groups in these biographic notes. In this paper the descendants of Andrew Warwick will be mainly considered and their history illustrated, concluding with a fragmentary reference.

    Andrew Warwick went to Richlands, in Greenbrier, for a wife and married Elizabeth Craig, and then opened up a home on Deer Creek. This property is now occupied by Major J. C. Arbogast. Their children were Jane, who was married to James Wooddell, near Greenbank; Margaret became Mrs Samuel Sutton, first wife; Nancy was married to Jacob Hartman, north of Greenbank, and went to the far west. Her children were Sarah Lucretia, Virginia, William; and James. Mary Warwick became the second wife of Isaac Hartman, and lived on property now held by Joseph Riley. Elizabeth Warwick was kicked in the face by a horse about the time she was grown to womanhood, and lingered for years in great suffering and finally died of the injury. Sally Warwick became Mrs George Burner, of Travelers Repose. Anna Warwick was married to Rev Henry Arbogast, and lived near Gladehill.

    Jacob Warwick, son of Andrew Warwick, married Elizabeth Hull, of Virginia, and settled on the Deer Creek homestead; moved thence to Indiana, and finally to Missouri. His children were Mathew Patton, Amos, Andrew Jackson, William Craig, Caroline, who became Mrs George Tallman; and Rachel, who was the youngest. They all went with their parents to the western states.

    This paper will be closed by a fragmentary reference to John Warwick, of John the elder.

    In the winter of 1861 there was an officer with the Ohio troops in the Cheat Mountain garrison by the name of Warwick. The writer has been informed that he claimed descent from the Pocahontas Warwicks, and made some inquiry concerning the Warwick relationship.

    The tradition is that John Warwick, Junior, married Margaret Poage of Augusta County. It is believed James Poage, her father, lived awhile on Knapps Creek, and afterwards moved to Kentucky.

    Upon his marriage John Warwick, Junior, settled on the lower end of the farm now owned by Captain G. W. Siple. Parties yet living remember seeing traces of the cabin he had built and dwelt in. He remained here but a short time however, and moved to Ohio about 1790.

    There were three little boys, one of them named John. The Union officer claimed to be a descendant of a John Warwick from West Virginia, a grandson, and was a son, doubtless, of one of those little boys that went to Ohio with their parents from their cabin home on Deer Creek. This Federal officer became a member of Congress, and achieved a national reputation by defeating William McKinley in a Congressional contest. Many no doubt will readily recall this interesting event in the history of Ohio politics.

    WILLIAM WARWICK

    The group of the Warwick relationship treated of in this paper includes the descendants of William Warwick, son of John Warwick, the early pioneer. Like his brother Andrew, William Warwick lost his heart in the Richlands of Greenbrier, and married Nancy Craig, a sister of Mrs Andrew Warwick. They settled on Deer Creek, where Peter H. Warwick now lives, and were the parents of three children: Robert Craig, Elizabeth, who became Mrs Benjamin Tallman; Margaret, who became Mrs John Hull, and lived on the head of Jacksons River.

    Robert Craig Warwick, the only son, at one time crossed the Alleghany to pay his sister a visit. One result of the visit was that he and Esther Hall were soon married, and the happy. young people settled on the Deer Creek homestead. They were the parents of three sons and six daughters. In reference to their children the following items are recorded: Catherine Hidy Warwick is now Mrs William Bird. Her children Elvira Louisa, now Mrs William McClune, near Millpoint; Robert Craig Bird, at Clifton Forge; John Henry Bird, Covington; George Newton Bird, Clifton Forge; William Lee Bird, Roanoke City, Virginia. Her husband, Major W. W. Bird, was a Confederate officer. He had command of Company K, 52d Virginia Regiment in the battle of McDowell, and was in charge of a regiment of reserves in the battle of New Hope. He was near General William Jones when he fell in that engagement, and received his last orders just a few minutes before his death. He was named for William Wallace, a renowned hero in Scottish history.

    Nancy Jane Warwick is now Mrs Jacob Lightner of Highland, Virginia. Her children were John Adam, now in the west; Robert, on Back Creek; William C, died in youth, Jacob Brown, on Back Creek; Peter H, lives in Greenbrier; James Cameron, a lawyer at the Warm Springs, Va. ; Mrs Malcena Catherine Creek, on Jacksons River; Mrs Virginia Rachel Wallace, of Highland; Mrs Mary Etta Gum, of Meadow Dale, Va. Sarah Elizabeth Warwick married Daniel Matheny, and lives at Valley Centre. Her children Esther Ann, Melissa, and Robert Matheny.

    Margaret Ann Warwick became Mrs Nelson Pray. Her family was quite a large one, but only one survives, Ella, who is now Mrs John Riley and lives in one of the western counties. One of Mrs Fray's daughters, Regina, received fatal injuries in a railway collision.

    Hannah Rebecca Warwick was married to Captain George Siple, a Confederate officer, 31st Virginia Infantry, and lives on Deer Creek in sight of the Warwick homestead. Her children were Nancy Jane, now Mrs Pierce Wooddell at Greenbank; Anna, Mrs William Jackson, at Dunmore; Mary Catherine, now Mrs Bernard McElwee at Dunmore; Clara Belle, William, and Joseph Siple.

    Louisa Susan Warwick was married to Eli Seybert, settled near Mt. Grove, Va., then went west. But one of her children survives, Mary Amaret, now Mrs Morgan Matheny, Top of Alleghany.

    William Fechtig Warwick was named for a pioneer Methodist preacher. He married Anthea Pray, and lives near Mt. Grove, Va. His children Paul, Pray, Robert, Nelson, Peter Hull, George Craig, Charles, Amelia, who became Mrs George Dilley, and is now Mrs Hopkins Wanless near Mount Tabor; Amanda Gabrielle, now Mrs John Landes, near Mt. Grove; Sally, and Louise Catherine. Three of the sons, Peter, Robert, and Nelson, went to Kansas.

    Peter Hull Warwick married Caroline Matheny, and settled on the Deer Creek home place. The children were Jesse, Otis, Forrest, and Elbert. By the death of Cecil, in 1896, at Cowen, Webster County, his mother's heart was so broken that she did not survive him very long.

    John Robert Warwick married Jennie Cleek, daughter of the late John Cleek of Bath County, and lives on a section of the Deer Creek homestead. Their children are Mary and Nancy. Lieutenant Warwick was a Confederate officer, 3lst Virginia Infantry, and served as a commissioner of the Pocahontas Court.

    Elizabeth Warwick became Mrs Benjamin Tallman, and lived on the property now held by Captain Siple. Her children were William, James, Robert, John, Cyrus, and Nancy. Nancy became Mrs Benjamin Tallman aud lives in Illinois.

    Margaret Warwick was married to John Hull, on Jacksons River. Her children were William Hull, who was one of the California forty-niners, and hasnot been heard of since; Robert, Andrew, Nora, Nancy Jane, who became the wife of Colonel Peter H. Kincaid, in Crabbottom ; Margaret, who is now Mrs Christopher Wallace, of Williamsville; Irene Esther, the first wife of James Fleisher, of Meadow Dale.

    This relationship has furnished our citizenship with good citizens, brave soldiers, industrious tillers of the soil, and good homekeepers, and deserves honorable mention in the short and simple annals of our own Pocahontas people.

    JOHN SUTTON, SR.

    July 27, 1894, was the last time the writer met the late John Sutton, Junior, whose painful death by a cancerous affction was mourned by a large circle of attached friends. Much of the morning was occupied in family reminiscence. His father, John Sutton the senior, was a native of Westmoreland County, and hence was neighbor of the Washington family. His home was on the Potomac not far from Mount Vernon. For some years John Sutton, Senior, was manager for Jacob Warwick at the Dunmore farm, late in the last century. Finally he bought land and settled where his son, John Sutton, Junior, lived. Mrs Sutton was Rachel Gillispie, daughter of Jacob Gillispie, who owned nearly all the land in sight of Greenbank looking north and east. Mrs Jacob Gillispie was Rebecca Berry, a half sister of Mary Vance Warwick, the widow Berry having married Mr Vance, who lived at Mountain Grove. Jacob Gillispie's family consisted of nine daughters and six sons.

    John Sutton, Senior, paid a visit to his old home on the Potomac where it is said to be twelve miles across. His friends seemed astonished when he told them he had seen the head spring and drank of its water on Laurel Fork, near what is known as the Wilfong Settlement.

    Thus far the writer has been able to furnish some historical items that illustrate the family history of two very estimable persons [William Poage & William Sharp]. As related elsewhere, these people were the intimate friends of Jacob Warwick and his wife. Mr Sharp lived to a very advanced age, having survived his wife many years. He lived to see his children married and settled. His appearance was venerable, and nature had done very much for him in the way of natural endowments of mind and vigor of body.

    Everyone has heard of Major Jacob Warwick's famous servant Ben who accompanied liim on all his warring, hunting and surveying trips, and to whom his mastor granted his freedom. At the Augusta court the following order was entered in reference to his life and character:

    "Ben, a man of color, who is entitled to bis freedom under the last will and testament of Jacob Warwick, deceased, bearing date on the 7th day of March, 1818, of record in the Clerk's Office of this county. This day motioned the court, (the common wealth's attorney being present) for permission to remain in this county: whereupon, it is the opinion of the court, that the said Ben be permitted to remain and reside for his general good conduct and also for acts of extraordinary merit, it appearing to their satisfaction that the said Ben hath given reasonable notice of this motion.

    "The acts of extraordinary merit, upon which the order of the court is founded, are the following: "It appearing from the evidence of Mr Robert Gay that at an early period when the county of Bath (now Pocahontas) was invaded by the Indians, he protected with fidelity the possessions of his master, and assisted in defending the inhabitants from the tomahawk and scalping knife.

    "In addition to this public service it appears from the evidence of Messrs Waugh and P. Bruffey that he rendered most essential service to his master in saving his life on divers occasions.

    "Upon these meritorious acts the court grounded their order." View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    MORE ? History of Highland County Virginia

    Vol 11, Iss 45 Biographic paragraphs taken from the book, A History of Highland County Virginia, Chapter XXIII, page 223, gives us some insight into the families and particular mention of the Highland Men of more or less prominence.

    Such as?

    John Bradshaw, son of the pioneer, was county surveyor eighteen years and was also a veteran teacher, a number of persons of some prominence being his pupils. He wrote the will of John Graham, which, through no fault of his, led to a noted lawsuit. Eighteen hours of rigid cross-examination failed to bring out any flaw in his testimony. His son, Captain Robert H., had a promising career cut short by his death at Port Republic.

    Thomas Brown?Tomaso Bruno in Italian?merits mention as our only pioneer of that nationality. He is said to have been a sea captain in the War of 1812, about which time he came to America. He lived a while near the city of Washington.

    Andrew H. Byrd, the legislative father of Highland County, served twelve years in the House of Delegates. His son, John T., was in the legislature one term, but declined a renomination. In the great war, he served with much ability as a leader of Confederate cavalry. Prior thereto he was a major of militia. As a farmer, he is one of Highland's best. His sons, Clifton E., Adam M., and H. Houston, are graduates of the University of Virginia, and all are in professional life, the last named being the present Commonwealth's Attorney of Bath.

    The father and paternal grandfather of the pioneer Campbell were Presbyterian divines. His son Thomas possessed fine mathematical ability and was the first surveyor of Highland. Austin W. was one of its best read citizens and perhaps the first one to join the Masonic Order. Walter P., now engaged in the real estate business at Roanoke, was Commissioner of the Revenue for 21 years. Still other members of the connection have held positions of honor and trust.

    Cornelius Colaw was a justice of the war period. His son, John M., received the Master's degree from Dickinson College in 1892, and after taking his Bachelor's degree from the same college studied law at the University of Virginia. For three years he was principal of the Monterey High School. Though an active attorney, Mr. Colaw has cultivated his strong mathematical gift. He is a member of the American Mathematical Society, a frequent contributor to mathematical journals, and the author of mathematical textbooks.

    Collingwood A. Dickson, a well-read merchant of Trimble, is a son of General Sir Collingwood Dickson of the British Army.

    William W. Fleming, a native of Nova Scotia, came to Highland shortly before the formation of the county. He was a man of strong intellect cultivated by constant reading. His personality was felt in every phase of public enterprise, and in particular he was a sturdy friend to the cause of education. He was recognized as an honest, upright, and intelligent citizen.

    NOW ? This Highland County Gentleman is of particular interest to this NW Okie, because ? This is the same Captain David Gwin that my grandmother Constance Warwick McGill did her research on for her DAR certificate. Captain David Gwin, a wealthy landowner of Jackson's River, was a steadfast soldier in the wars with the Indians and British. He was one of the men who went to the relief of the Wilson family, and his military career continued until the close of the Revolution.

    Jacob Hevener, Jr., was a wealthy and prosperous stockgrower of Crabbottom, as have been his sons also. Benjamin H. Hiner graduated in law in 1892, but even before his admission to the bar he was nominated as Prosecuting Attorney of Pendleton, holding that office eight years. In 1908 he was a candidate for Congress, and though defeated he ran ahead of his ticket by 1,500 votes. Mr. Hiner is a very active attorney.

    The Hull family, particularly, Peter Hull/Hohl, is another ancestor of NW Okie that finds its way into the Gwin and Warwick families around "Crab bottom." The Hull family was very prominent in our early annals. The pioneer himself was a man of large means for his day. Peter, his oldest son, increased the estate, owning a large portion of the Crab bottom, his possessions in 1818 including 16 slaves, 19 horses, 43 cows, and 60 sheep. He was an officer in the Revolution, a colonel of militia subsequent thereto, and a legislator also. He was very influential, but also domineering. Major Peter Hull, his son, lived at McDowell, where he was a heavy landholder. He also sat in the Legislature and held various local offices. This branch of the Hull family is locally extinct in the male line. The late Joseph, a well-to-do farmer and upright citizen, is kindly remembered by his associates.

    John Sitlington, son-in-law to Colonel Peter Hull, was a large landowner and cattleman, first in Crabbottom and afterward at McDowell. He was also in local public life.

    Lucius H. Stephenson took up the study of law at Lexington in 1859, and practiced his profession at Monterey until his death in 1911. He was Commonwealth's Attorney 26 consecutive years, a Visitor of the Virginia Military Institute, and a Director of the National Valley Bank of Staunton. He was also an incorporator and promoter of the Citizens' Bank of Highland. Mr. Stephenson was not only an energetic, painstaking, and successful attorney, but a prosperous man of business. He acquired large possessions and during his long and active life he wielded a great influence among his fellow citizens. In matters of local history he was exceptionally well informed. -- For more on A History of Highland county Virginia Click this link.
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    NW Oklahoma Marriages Of 1941

    Vol 15, Iss 1 Alva, OK - Here are some other OkieLegacy archives we found while doing our Winter cleaning. It gives a list of marriages of 1941 back during the beginning of World War II.

    Irwin-Frieze - Thursday, ca. 1941 - California Girl Becomes Bride of Berton D. Frieze - Of interest throughout the community is the wedding of Miss Zella Irwin, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Irwin of Freedom, and Mr. Berton D. Frieze of Alva. The single ring ceremony was performed by Rev. Otto Hoyer, minister of the Lutheran church Thursday evening at eight-thirty at the home of Mrs. Clara Frieze, 802 Barnes, Alva, Okla.

    Simms-Marsh -Thursday, ca. 1941 - Miss Jean Simms, Charles Marsh Are Married - A marriage of interest to their many friends, is that of Miss Jean Simms, daughter of Mr. And Mrs. O. O. Simms, and Charles Marsh, son of Mr. And Mrs. C. A. Marsh, Webster City, Iowa. The wedding vows were read Thursday afternoon at 3:45 at the home of the bride's parents, with Rev. M. F. Langley officiating.

    Callison-Hull - Friday, April 4, 1941 - Miss Eleanor Callison, Edward Hull Are Married Friday Evening - Miss Eleanor Almeda Callison was united in marriage to Edward Earl Hull, at 5:15p.m. Friday at the home of the bride's parents, Mr. And Mrs. E. R. Callison, 1027 Choctaw. Mr. Hull is the son of Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Hull, 1024 Normal. He is a member of the U. S. Army stationed at Fort Knox, Ky., but is soon to be transferred to Pine Camp, New York, where they will make their home.

    Young-Donley - Sunday, April 13, 1941 - Nanci Ann Young, Lowell Donley Are Married Sunday - A marriage of interest to their many friends is that of Miss Nanci Ann Young, daughter of Scott Young, and Lowell Donley, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Donley. The marriage vows were read Sunday at three o'clock in the Methodist parsonage with Rev. George Parkhurst officiating. The single ring ceremony was used.

    Shirley-Bradbury - Tuesday, May 6, 1941, Yuma, Ariz. - Miss Vera Shirley, Robert A. Bradbury Are Married May 8 - Of interest to the people of Alva is the marriage of Miss Vera Shirley, formerly of Alva, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Orville Shirley, Alva and Robert A. Bradbury, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Bradbury, Tacoma, Wash. The wedding vows were read Tuesday, May 6, in Yuma, Ariz.

    Tidwell-Adams - Sunday, June 15, 1941 - Miss Hazel Tidwell, Robert Lee Adams Are Married June 15 - A wedding of interest to their many friends is that of Miss Hazel Tidwell, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Tidwell, and Robert Lee Adams, son of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Adams, Hardtner, Kans. The marriage vows were read at the Cedar Grove church, Sunday, June 15, at one o'clock by Rev. M. F. Bess.

    Howell-Hickerson - Sunday, June 15, 1941 - In a pretty ceremony Sunday morning, June 15, in Alva, Oklahoma, Miss Mary Dorine Howell, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Walter G. Howell, Alva, became the bride of Mr. Herman H. Hickerson, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Hickerson, Alva. The wedding vows were read at ten o'clock in the First Methodist church parsonage at Enid, with Rev. F. S. Crowe officiating.

    NW OK Marriages - 1940s

    Thompson-Marcy - Friday, 1940 - Lenore Thompson and Fred Marcy Married Friday Mr. and Mrs. Earnest G. Thompson of Helena, announce the marriage of their daughter Lenore, to Fred E. Marcy, son of Mr. and Mrs. Burton E. Marcy of Topeka, Kans. The wedding vows were read Friday night at the Methodist parsonage with Rev. George Parkhurst officiating.

    Kish-Polson - Saturday, ca 1940 -Miss Emma Kish Is The Bride of Rodney Polson - A marriage of interest to the people of Alva is that of Miss Emma Kish, daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Kish, and Mr. Rodney Polson, son of Mrs. Mary Polson, Wichita. The single ring ceremony was read Saturday morning at nine-thirty in the Sacred Heart church with Father Leo Claus officiating.

    Healy-Beller - September 21, 1940, Bueyeros, NM - (written by Bueyeros Correspondent) - Emmett Healy, of Wichita, Kans. and Miss Theresa Beller, Bueyeros, were united in the holy bonds of matrimony at 9 o'clock on the morning of September 21 at Bueyeros church, Rev. Fr. G. Patrick Smith officiating.

    Oldham-Leach - Sunday, October 20, 1940 - Pretty Sunday Rites Unite Young Couple - Miss Verna Maxine Oldham, daughter of Mrs. Oliver Pinkney Oldham, became the bride of Robert Hanson Leach, son of Mr. and Mrs. Earl G. Leach of Wellington, Kansas at a pretty ceremony Sunday afternoon, October 20, at 4 o'clock in the First Presbyterian Chapel of Alva, Oklahoma. Rev. Ray Vaughan was assisted by Rev. L. T. Knotter of the First Presbyterian church.

    Montgomery-Frieden (sic) - Friday, November 22, 1940 - Montgomery-Frieden Engagement Announced - Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Montgomery, 804 Barnes Avenue, announce the engagement and approaching marriage of their daughter, Electa Lee, to Dale E. Freiden (sic), son of Mr. and Mrs. E. Freiden of Burlington, Okla. The wedding will take place on Friday, November 22, at 7:00 in the home of the bride's parents.

    Smith-Dale - Saturday, November 23, 1940 - Smith-Dale Marriage Announced - Mr. and Mrs. Melvin T. Smith, 910 Locust, announce the marriage of their daughter, Helen Marie, to Stephen Homer Dale, son of Stephen M. Dale of Follette, Texas. The marriage took place Saturday night, November 23, in the parsonage of the Christian church with Rev. Ray Vaughan of the Christian church officiating.

    Evans-Calkins - Saturday, February 1, 1941, Tulsa, Okla. - Julia Evans To Wed Edwin Calkins of Tulsa - A marriage of interest to the people of Alva is that of Miss Julia Joy Evans, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Evans of Alva, and Edwin Crain Calkins, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Calkins of Omaha.

    Dautel-Eutsler - Saturday, December 7, 1940 - Dautel- Eutsler Marriage Announced - Of interest to their many friends is the marriage of Miss Betty Jo Dautel, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. M. O. Dautel, 818 Normal Street and Mr. Bradford Eutsler, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Eutsler.

    Stout-Clark - Wednesday, 1941, Lawton, Okla. - Stout-Clark Marriage Announced - Of interest to the Alva people is the marriage of Miss Fern Stout of Higgins, Texas, and Paul Clark, son of Mr. and Mrs. Sam Clark, of Alva.

    Wesner-Rath - Thursday, 1941 - Miss Sylvia Wesner, Roger Rath Are Married Thursday - Mrs. Maude Wesner announces the marriage of her daughter Sylvia, to Mr. Roger Rath, son of Mrs. Charles Rath of Denver, Colorado. The marriage took place in the First Baptist church Thursday evening at 7:30 with Rev. M. F. Langley officiating, using the single ring ceremony.

    Brickman-Broyles - January 1, 1941 - Brickman-Broyles Engagement Announced -Mr. and Mrs. Ben Brickman announce the engagement and approaching marriage of their daughter, Esta Belle, to Mr. Floyd Broyles of Denver, Colo. The wedding date is set for New Years Day, January 1, 1941. In an attractive home wedding Miss Esta Belle Brickman, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Brickman, became the bride of Mr. Floyd E. Broyles, son of Mrs. O. O. Davis of Denver, Colorado, at noon on New Year's. Rev. L. T. Knotter of the Presbyterian church officiated using the double ring ceremony.

    Reed-Schwab - Saturday, January 26, 1941 - Reed-Schwab Approaching Marriage Announced - Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Reed, 405 E. Barnes, wish to announce the engagement and approaching marriage of their daughter, Rose Ella, to Mr. Kenneth Delano Schwab, of Cherokee. Kenneth Schwab, son of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Schwab of Cherokee.

    Clark-Parker - Saturday, February 8, 1941, Lawton, Oklahoma - Cleta Lucille Clark and Harold Parker Married Saturday - Mr. and Mrs. Harry Clark, Tegarden, announce the marriage of their daughter, Cleta Lucille, to Harold Eugene Parker, son of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Parker of Avard. The wedding was an event of February 8th at Lawton, Okla. Mrs. Parker will make her home with her parents at the present time, while Mr. Parker is taking a years training at Fort Sill, Okla.

    Mott-Clark - Saturday, February 22, 1941 - Vona L. Mott, Glenn W. Clark Marriage Announced - Mrs. W. H. Mott of Carmen announces the marriage of her daughter, Vona L. to Glenn W. Clark, son of Dr. and Mrs. A. W. Clark Saturday, February 22 in the Christian church of Enid with Rev. Robert Martin officiating.

    Otte-Schupbach - Sunday March 16, 1941, Pasadena, Calif. - Miss Fern Otte, Ralph A. Schupbach Married March 16 - Miss Fern Otte, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Otte, became the bride of Ralph A. Schupbach, son of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Schupbach, Sunday, March 16. The single ring ceremony was read by Rev. J. A. Schlicting in the Mount Olive Lutheran church, Pasadena, Calif.

    Miller-Hansen - Wednesday, March 12, 1941 - Miss Mildred Miller - Mr. Charles Hansen Are Married Wednesday - Miss Mildred Miller, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. O. B. Miller, Alva, became the bride of Charles Hansen, son of Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Hansen, of Goodwell, Wednesday evening, March 12, at the Christian church parsonage. Rev. G. R. Vaughan read the wedding vows using the single ring ceremony. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    If The Women Voted Alone

    Vol 14, Iss 42 Chicago, IL - Have you heard about the Woman, Jane Addams, famous head of Hull House and leader in the Suffrage Movement, in 1912, who wrote of a hypothetical Society where the men were asking for the ballot and Jane Addams gave the arguments the women could very properly use against the men? Would that same"Hyporthetical Society" and the questions be asked of the men today?

    In The Day Book, dated 5 February 1912, Chicago, Illinois, Jane Addams ask you to consider a society, a hypothetical society, where the women were the voters and the men the disenfranchised. This is supposing that the men were asking for the right of the ballot and using every argument at their command to obtain the consent of the women.What might the women say to their masculine petitioners?

    1. "Our most valid objection to extending the franchise to you is that you are so fond of fighting and you always have been ever since you were little boys. You would be likely to forget that the real object of the state is to nurture and protect life and, out of sheer vainglory, you would be voting away huge sums of battleships, one of which could last only a few years, and yet would cost $10,000,000."
    2. Could you not say to disenfranchised men, "We have carefully built up a code of factory legislation for the protection of the workers. We know you men have always been careless in housekeeping affairs and if you were made responsible for factory legislation it is probable you would let the workers in the textile mills contract tuberculosis through needlessly breathing the fluff, or the workers in machine ships inhale metal filings, both of which are now carried off by an excellent suction system which we women have insisted upon, but which is almost impossible to have installed in a man-made state, because the men think so little of dust and its evil effects.
    3. We have also heard that in certain states, in order to save the paltry price of a guard which would protect a dangerous machine, men legislators allow careless boys and girls to lose their fingers and sometimes their hands, thereby crippling their entire future."
    4. "You have always been so eager to make money, what assurance have we that, in your desire to get the largest amount of coal out of the ground in the shortest possible time, you would not permit the mine supports to decay and mine damp to accumulate until the percentage of the accidents among miners would be simply heart-breaking."
    5. "Worse than anything else we have mentioned is the fact that in every man-ruled city a great army of women are so set aside as cast outs, that it is considered a shame to speak the very name which designates them, because their very existence is illegal. They may be arrested whenever any police captain chooses, they may be brought before a magistrate, fined and imprisoned. The men whose money sustains their houses, supplies their tawdry clothing, and provides them with intoxicating drinks are never arrested, not, indeed, considered lawbreakers."
    It was reported in 1912, one hundred and nine months ago, these wise women governing the state with the same care they have always put into the government of their families would further charge men who are seeking for the franchise that men do not really know how tender and delicate children are. They might put them to work in factories, as indeed they have done in man-made states ever since the beginning of the factory period.

    If the enfranchised women would speak thus to the disenfranchised men, the latter would at least respect their hesitation, in regard to an extension of the ballot to them. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    HOHL/HULL's & History of Alleghany County, VA

    Vol 13, Iss 12 Virginia - According to A Centennial History of Alleghany County of Virginia, by Oren Frederic Morton (1857-1926), on page 206, there is mention of Peter Thomas HOHL, who married Susannah F(D)IEFFENBACK(H) in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. It said that Susannah was the second wife of Peter Thomas HOHL and the mother of his fourteen children, but I have found differently in my research.

    During the Revolution War, Peter Thomas HOHL changed his surname to HULL; moved to the Calfpasture of Virginia; and about 1763 to the Crabbottom area of Virginia.

    It said there was a Peter HULL/HOHL that married Barbara Keith, and was a Captain in the Revolution War and sat in the State Legislature. I do not have a Barbara Keith in my records and not quite sure which "Peter HULL?HOHL she married.

    It also mentioned other children of the pioneer were Adam, who married Esther Keister and had about ten children; William; George, who went to Greenbrier; David; John.

    Another son called himself Peter HULL married a Linkenfelter, and lived in Rockbridge. This other Peter HULL had a son John, who settled in Highland county, Ohio, in 1811. A son of this John HULL was Dr. Albert Y. HULL, prominent in Iowa as an editor and abolitionist. While a member of the state legislature, he was the chief instrumentally in moving the capitol to Des Moines, where he and his father owned some land.

    J. A. T. HULL, a son of Dr. HULL, was a Congressman from Iowa, and for nearly twenty years was chairman of the committee on Military affairs. John A. HULL, son of this Congressman, received the distinguished service medal in the World War for his work in the Judge advocates's department.

    Henry, son of the second Peter, was born February 6, 1780, purchased the Matthew Patton farm in Pendleton, and married Hannah Harness. His children were: William (born 1803) married Irene Scott; John H. (born 1804) married Sally Lackey; Joseph (born 1806), single; Sarah C. (born 1808) married Jacob Palzell; Laban (born 1810) married Martha Tucker and went to Missouri; Eliza A. (born 1811), single; Jemima C. (born 1813), single; Rebecca A. (born 1816), single; and so on to page 207.

    Like I said earlier, I do not have all the HULL's listed here with their wives and immediate families. Perhaps some of this information will ring a bell with someone out there. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    (1496) Leonardo Da Vinci Flying Machine

    Vol 13, Iss 1 Italy - It was January 3, 1496, Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine he had constructed. This was way centuries before the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk. But did the Wright brothers get some of their ideas from Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks? Leonardo's notebooks suggested that Leonardo tested his flying machine on 3 January 1496. It did not succeed and Leonardo did not try to fly again for several years.

    Leonardo da Vinci was often been described as the Italian archetype of the Renaissance man or universal genius. He was a scientist, a mathematician, an engineer, an inventor, an anatomist, a painter, a sculptor, an architect, a musician and a writer. It is primarily as a painter that Leonardo was and is renowned.

    You should remember one of his works, the Mona Lisa. Was she smiling and why was she smiling? Was she the mother of Da Vinci? Who was she really? A mistress?

    Another of Leonardo's works was The Last Supper. Both of these artworks occupy a unique position as the most famous, reproduced and imitated portrait and religious painting of all time.

    As an engineer, Leonardo conceived ideas vastly ahead of his own time, conceptualizing a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, and the double hull, and outlining a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics.

    As a scientist, Leonardo greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and Leonardo's desire to fly was expressed in many studies and drawings. His later journals contain a detailed study of the flight of birds and several different designs for wings based in structure upon those of bats which he described as being less heavy because of the impenetrable nature of the membrane.

    One design that he produced showed a helicopter to be lifted by a rotor powered by four men. They say it would not have worked since the body of the craft itself would have rotated in the opposite direction to the rotor.

    While Leonardo designed a number of man powered flying machines with mechanical wings that flapped, he also designed a parachute and a light hang glider which could have flown. View/Write Comments (count 1)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Highland County Virginia Pioneers

    Vol 11, Iss 45 The following outline sketch of PIONEER and SUB-PIONEER families came from the book, "A History of Highland County Virginia." I have marked two main paternal ancestors of my family lineage below with double-asterisks (**). Actually, I have run across most of the surnames below spread throughout my paternal family tree.

    We now present lists of "Pioneer" and "Sub-Pioneer" families. Following each surname are the following particulars, so far as our information permits: 1. The given name of the settler; 2. His residence before coming here; 3. The year in which we find the first mention of his being here; 4. The place of his settlement; 5. The section of the county in which his descendants in the male line are chiefly or wholly found.

    * Arbogast. Michael - 1766 - CB (W. H. Arbogast's) - CB and Mry.
    * Armstrong. John and William - Loudoun - 1794 - BP, 1 mile S. of D Hill - upper BP, CP, and JR.
    * Beathe. Joseph - 1778 - Crab Run - McD.
    * Benson. George -1776 - CP, Benson's Run - lower CP.
    * Benson. Mathias - 1787 - Dry Br. - V'pool.
    * Beverage. John - N. J.? - 1780 - h'd of SC - SC and Mry.
    * Bird. John - Germany - 1780c - Big BC, n. Valley Center - BC and Mry.
    * Blagg. William - Albemarle - 1780 - 1 mile NW. of D Hill same locality.
    * Bodkin. Richard - 1746 - BP, 4 miles S. of McD. - upper BP and CP and Mry.
    * Bradshaw. James - England - 1770c - BP, n. Poverty - same locality and McD.
    * Briscoe. Isaac - 1798c - Little BC n. Naples - same locality.
    * Bussard. Rudolph - Penna. - 1796c - CB, Wimer Run - BV and Mry.
    * Campbell. Alexander - Md. - 1797 - BC, mouth of Campbell Run - BC and Mry.
    * Chestnut. William - 1781 - BC, n. Valley Center - same locality.
    * Colaw. Frederick - Penna. - 1799 - CB, Wimer Run - same locality and Mry.
    * Cunningham. Robert - 1761 - CB, n. New H. - Mry.
    * Curry. Richard - Ireland - 1782c - BC, n. Bath line - n. McD.
    * Davis. Paschal - Penna. - 1793 - CP, Benson Run - Davis Run.
    * Devericks. Thomas - 1766 . H'waters - same locality.
    * Douglas. Thomas - 1781 - Crab Run - upper BP.
    * Ervine. Benjamin - Ireland - 1800c - BC, n. Mill Gap - McD.
    * Ervine. William - Rkm. - 1815c - upper CP - same locality and McD.
    * Evick. George - Pdn. - 1784 - SC - McD.
    * Fleisher. Peter - Germany - 1765 - SB, at Pdn. line - same locality, Meadowdale, and BP.
    * Fox. Michael - 1792c - CB, upper Wimer Run - same locality BV, and Mry.
    * Gibson. Samuel - Albemarle - 1810c - V'pool Gap - same locality and Mry.
    * Graham. Robert - Aug. - 1752c - BP, 2 miles above Clover Cr. - same locality.
    * Gum. John - 1766 - CB, Frank's Run - B. Dist. and SC.
    * Gum. Adam - CB - B. Dist.
    ** Gwin. David - Aug. - 1780 - JR, 1 mile from Bath line - BV.
    * Gwin. Joseph - Aug. - 1781 - lower CP - same locality.
    * Halterman. Charles - Germany - 1786 - SC - same locality.
    * Hevener. Jacob - Pdn. - 1794 - H'town - CB and Mry.
    * Hevener. John - Pdn. - 1815c - upper CB - same locality and Mry.
    * Hicklin. John - 1756 - BP, below Clover Cr. - same locality.
    * Hicks. John - 1810c ? - BP, 3 miles above McD. - BV.
    * Hidy. John - 1800c - lower CB - same locality.
    * Hiner. John - Shen. - 1775 - Pdn. line, NE. of D Hill - all districts.
    * Hodge. John - England - 1805c - upper Shaw's F'k - same locality.
    ** Hull. Peter - Aug. - 1765 - middle CB - same locality and upper JR.
    * Jack. John - 1812c - Crab Run - CB.
    * Johns. Isaac - N. J. - 1785c - lower Shaw's F'k - same locality.
    * Jones. (A) Henry - N. Y. - 1795 - h'd of CP - all districts.
    * Jones. (B) James? - 1795c - h'd of SC - Mry.
    * Jordan. John - 1766 - CP, n. Palo Alto - CB and n. Mry.
    * Kelly. William - 1810c? - Dry Br. - same locality.
    * Killingsworth. Richard - 1782 - BP Mn - same locality.
    * Kinkead. Thomas - Ky. - 1800c - middle CB - same locality.
    * Lantz. Bernard - before 1766 - CB, Frank's Run - lower SB.
    * Lightner. Adam - Penna. - 1790c - BC, n. Bath line - same locality.
    * Lockridge. Andrew - Aug. - 1774 - BP, below Poverty - same locality.
    * Malcomb. Joseph - 1752c - BP, above Clover Cr. - BP, above McD.
    * Matheny. David - 1790c - BC, n. Mill Gap - same locality and Mry.
    * McAllister. Thomas - 1800c? - BV - same locality.
    * McCoy. John - Aug. - 1773 - 1 mile S. of D Hill - same locality.
    * McCrea. Robert - 1790c - upper BP Mn - same locality.
    * McGlaughlin. John - 1794c - JR, n. Pinckney - same locality.
    * McNulty. John - Ireland - 1810c - JR, above V'pool - CB and McD.
    * Mullenax. John - 1781 - lower CB - CB and Alleghany Valley.
    * Nicholas. George - 1770 - FW - CB.
    * Peck. Garrett - 1782c - SC, above FW - n. Mry.
    * Pullin. Loftus - 1746 - BP, 1 mile above Clover Cr. - BP and Mry.
    * Ralston. Samuel - Aug.? - 1815c - BP, 3 miles NW. of McD. all districts.
    * Rider. William - 1780 - BC, n. Valley Center - same locality.
    * Samples. John - Ky. - 1804 - h'd of SC - same locality.
    * Seybert. Henry - Pdn. 1775c - SC - same locality.
    * Siron. John - Penna. - 1792c - BP, Siron's Mill - upper BP.
    * Slaven. John - Ireland - 1775c - Meadowdale - same locality, CB, and Mry.
    * Stephenson. James - Penna. - 1790c - JR, above V'pool - all districts.
    * Steuart. William - Scotland - 1755c - mouth of Shaw's F'k CP and BP.
    * Townsend. Ezekiel? - 1780 - Little BC, n. Bath line - same locality.
    * Trimble. James - Scotland - 1797 - SC, n. Mry. - around Mry.
    * Wade. John - Md. - 1780 - BC, n. Green Hill - BC.
    * Wagoner. Christian - 1772 - CB, Frank's Run - CB and SC.
    * White. John - Germany - 1785c - lower CB - SC.
    * Wiley. Robert - 1773 - Dry Br. - lower JR and BC.
    * Wilson. William and Samuel - Aug. - 1758 - D Hill - all districts.
    * Wooddell. John - 1830 - BP - n. D Hill.
    * Woods. Samuel - Albemarle - 1800c - BC, n. Green Hill - same locality and V'pool.

    Sub-Pioneers

    * Alexander. John W. -R'bridge - 1856 - BP, 1 mile S. of McD. same locality.
    * Brown. (B) Thomas - 1833 - BV - n. Bolar.
    * Chew. Ezekiel - 1820c - CB, Frank's Run - same locality.
    * Cobb. (A) John A. - Buckingham - 1849c - Little Crab Run - JR.
    * Corrigan. Michael - Ireland - 1855c - JR, n. Pny.
    * Deihl. Amos - Frederick - 1855c - CP, above turnpike ford same locality.
    * Eagle. Christian - Aug. - 1825 - n. D Hill - same locality.
    * Fisher. James - Pdn. - 1856 - CB, n. H'town - n. New H.
    * Fleming. William W. - Nova Scotia - 1845c - Mry. - same locality.
    * Gilmer. Samuel - Penna. - 1826 - BC, n. Valley Center - same locality.
    * Griffen. William - N. Y. - 1815c - JR, n, Bath line - n. Fny.
    * Hansel. Charles W. - Bath - 1840c - lower CB - McD. and Mry.
    * Helms. James - Rkm. - 1834c - BP, below Clover Cr. - same locality.
    * Hinegarner. Godlove - 1830 - JR - same locality.
    * Hook. Robert S. - Rkm. - 1825 - CP, n. Vilna - same locality and McD.
    * Houlihan. Michael - Ireland - 1858c - JR, n. Pny. - same locality.
    * Hupinan. Peter - Aug. 1835 - lower BP - same locality.
    * Keister. William R. - Pdn. - 1845c - BP, n. McKendree - same locality.
    * Kramer. Conrad - Aug. - CB - same locality.
    * Lamb. John - Aug. - 1830c - 2 miles NW. of McD. - same locality.
    * Lunsford. John - 1800c - Alleg. Mtn., n. pike - Mry.
    * Maloy. Patrick - Ireland - Davis Run - same locality.
    * Marshall. William - Hardy - 1846 - lower CB - same locality.
    * Masters. Andrew M. - Pdn. - 1850c - n. McD. - same locality.
    * Mauzy. David L. - Rkm. - 1850c - middle CB - CB.
    * Michael. John - Aug. - 1825c? - n. Palo Alto - BP.
    * Newman. Jacob - Shen. - 1845c - CB, Wimer Run - same locality.
    * Price. Townsend - Rkm. - 1856 - BP, n. McKendree - same locality.
    * Revercomb. George - Aug. - 1830 - lower BP - n. Poverty.
    * Reynolds. Stephen J. - Aug. - 1850 - H'waters - same locality.
    * Shumate. Augustus - Rkm. - 1849 - Mry. - all districts.
    * Sipe. John E. and William A. - Rkm. - 1854 and 1856 - SC same locality.
    * Siple. Joel and George - Shen. - 1834 - n. D Hill - McD.
    * Strathy. Wilmot - Scotland - 1855c - unlocated - SC.
    * Sullenberger. Samuel - Penna. - 1820c - New H. - Mry.
    * Swecker. Benjamin - Rkm. - 1845c - CB, Frank's Run - CB.
    * Swope. Peter - Aug. - 1848 - CP, later, D Hill - lower BP.
    * Terry. James - Louisa - 1819c - BC, n. Mill Gap - JR and BC.
    * Vance. Benjamin - Aug. - 1846 - BP, at Davis Run - same locality.
    * Wees. Haman - Foca. - Middle Mn. - same locality.
    * Whistleman. George - 1830c - BP Mn, n. Palo Alto - n. McD.
    * Whitelaw. Alexander - Orange - 1845c - Mry.
    * Will. William W. - 1844c - CB, Wimer Run - same locality.
    * Wilson. John - Lewis - 1840c - CP, at turnpike ford - same locality.
    * Wright. Thomas - Bath - 1815c - lower BP - same locality.
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    1st Teachers' Institute In Woods County, 1894

    Vol 5, Iss 8 Alva, Oklahoma - Professors Williams, Monroe, and L. T. Wilson were instructors. The phot was taken during the Summer 1896. Those pictured & numbered from 1 to 70 are: 1. H. L. Ross, 2. Isa M. Park, 3. Mrs. H. L. Ross, 4. Edna Snoddy, 5. Will McCully, 6. Albert Stewart, 7. A. J. Ross, 8. Ed Madison, 9. W. R. Spillman, 10. W. E. Gardner, 11. Muriel DeGeer, 12. W. P. Myers, 13. Prof. Williams, 14. Mrs. J. W. Mazey, 15. Flaudie Hullet, 16. Miss Pulis, 17. Mrs. Noah, 18. Miss Pulus, 19. Mabel DeGeer, 20. Sam'l Griffin, 21. F. J. Fash, 22. ?, 23. Flo Tilbury, 24. Maggie Sheil, 25. ?, 26. L. T. Wilson, 27. S. V. Luallen, 28. Mary McSherry, 29. Mrs. Jos Fash, 30. Carrie Lucas, 31. C. B. Keith, 32. R. O. Renfrew, 33. J. M. Maus, 34. Edith Fash, 35. Claud McCrory, 36. Malcolm Keith, 37. Nannie Fell, 38. Nellie Lucas, 39. Edna Hankins, 40. Addie Webb, 41. Prof. Monroe, 42. Ida B. Lee, 43. Dyas Gadbois, 44. Grace Hankins, 45. Georgie Newell, 46. Maggie Keegan, 47. Rev. A. Connet, 48. Kate Henton, 49. Clara Griffin, 50. Mr. Thomas, 51. Lida Dean, 52. ?, 53. Maud Beelge, 54. Ina McCurdy, 55. Pearl Moyer, 56. E. T. Gibbin, 57. Ida Reeves, 58.Mabel Goodwin, 59. ?, 60. Mary Wright, 61. Willie Lowe, 62. Mr. Lowe, 63. M. McFeeter, 64. J. D. Simpson, 65. Josie Randall, 66. Almeda Sniggs, 67. Mrs. O. B. Reitz, 68. O. B. Reitz, 69. Frank Park, 70. Mrs. Hall. View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    United States Declares War On Spain (1898)

    Vol 12, Iss 16 It was 1898 that America had a short war with Spain and was the nation's first step on the parkway to becoming a world power.

    With the U.S. victory brought possession of the Philippines and a vested interest in the politics of the Pacific region that would ultimately lead to conflict with Japan.

    The outcome found America embroiled in an insurgency in the Philippines that closely mimicked the conflict in Vietnam over 60 years later.

    If you remember, Cuba (another Spanish colony) had been in rebellion since 1895. Do you recall in your high school history class of the US Battleship Maine that arrived in Havanna Harbor in January 1898, which had a dual mission: To protect American interests and present and present the Spanish with a show of force.

    It was at 9:40p.m., the evening of February 15, 1898 when an explosion ripped the forward hull quickly sending the ship to the bottom of the harbor, killing 260 of the 345 crew members.

    The US Naval Board of Inquiry stated that an external explosion (a mine placed beneath the ship) was attributed to the sinking. They say that the finger of blame pointed to Spanish treachery.

    US Congress clamored for action. President McKinley reluctantly succumbed to pressure and asked Congress to declare war on April 21. Congress obliged on April 25, 1898. The war lasted 3 months and cost the U.S. about 400 killed or wounded. The United States gained the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam. The US emerged as a power to be reckoned within the world stage and Cuba gained independence fromSpain.
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    Seven Falls - Colorado

    Vol 5, Iss 12 Seven Falls, Colorado - Seven Falls - Colorado Brief history of Seven Falls and South Cheyenne Canon ".....Later owners realized little profit from the land until 1882 when James Hull purchased the property for $1300. Mr. Hull was a naturalist who was disturbed to note the scenic beauty of the cañon was being threatened by the felling of trees for their lumber value. Hull had already purchased 160 acres west of Seven Falls for $500 and later secured an additional 80 acres by preemption in 1885. With 400 acres including the heart of the cañon Hull became one of Colorado's earliest environmental protectors and the first owner to fully appreciate the true value of this scenic masterpiece...." Map & Directions Historical Parks of Colorado Springs, Colorado View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    Pioneer Pauline Estella (Johnson) Whitney - 02/04/1917-03/27/2008

    Vol 10, Iss 13 Obit - Pauline Whitney (February 4, 1917 - March 27, 2008) VIEW/SEND CONDOLENCES Another great pioneer of Northwest Oklahoma passed away March 27, 2008, at Waynoka, Oklahoma, at the age of 91 years, 1 month, and 23 days.

    Sandie, this NW Okie and McGill family is sending an "In Memory Donation..." for Pioneer Pauline Estella (Johnson) Whitney. One of her sons, Everette & Louise Whitney, and family, have been one of the greatest influences of this NW Okie's life.

    Pauline Estella (Johnson) Whitney's funeral services will be held at 2:00 p.m. Monday, March 31, 2008, at the Waynoka First United Methodist Church with Rev. Don Hull officiating. Interment will be in the Waynoka Municipal Cemetery under the direction of Marshall Funeral Home of Waynoka, LLC.

    Pauline Estella Whitney, daughter of the late Anderson W. and Lenola Ethel (Norman) Johnson, was born February 4, 1917, in Southeastern Woods County, Oklahoma, and passed away March 27, 2008, at Waynoka, Oklahoma, at the age of 91 years, 1 month, and 23 days.

    Pauline attended Twin Oakes rural school through the eighth grade and graduated from Waynoka High School in 1934 as the Salutatorian of her class. On May 27, 1935, she was united in marriage to Vernon Everette Whitney at Alva. They made their home on the family farm until moving to Waynoka in 1959. She worked awhile at Miller's Cafe and then at Thrift-T-Wise Supermarket for 12 years. After that she helped her husband on the farm until her health began to fail. Vernon passed away April 28, 2001.

    Pauline loved to sing and with her brother, Paul, who played the guitar, entertained at many rural school programs, nursing homes, and senior citizen affairs.

    Besides her parents and her husband, she was preceded in death by five sisters, Tena Miller, Essie Strong, Ruby Unruh, Irene Webster, and Edna Mease; and three brothers, Harry, Paul, and Bill Johnson.

    Pauline is survived by three sons, Everette Whitney and his wife, Louise, of Waynoka, Lowell Whitney and his wife, Ladonna of Waynoka, and John Whitney and his wife, Jane, of Angleton, Texas; one daughter, Janice Earhart and her husband, Howard, of Alva, Oklahoma.

    Also surviving are 12 grandchildren and their spouses: Angela Pearson and Dennis of Buffalo, Vernon Whitney and Mary of Clinton, Chris Whitney of Seattle, Washington, Mike Whitney and Connie of Burleson, Texas, Brian Whitney and Gwen of Waynoka, Brett Earhart of Waukomis, Lora Bromley and Gerald of Gardner, Kansas, Jeff Earhart and Stacy of Savannah, Georgia, Drew Earhart of Oceanside, California, Jill Craft and Ben of Lockhart, Texas, Jay Whitney and Tracy of Manville, Texas, and Jacquie Hornback and Bobby Joe of Lake Jackson, Texas; other relatives and friends.

    Memorial contributions may be made through the funeral home to the Waynoka Nursing Home Activity Fund or the Waynoka First United Methodist Church."
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    HULL Genealogy

    Vol 9, Iss 22 "Greetings from Toronto, Canada. Henry HULL was baptized in Sutton Benger, Wilts, a son of Richard and Hannah HULL. In 1842, in Andover, Hants, Henry married Sarah Ann DOWLING (c1815 - 1904). Henry and Sarah farmed at Church Farm, East Woodhay, Hants, where Henry was a yeoman. Both were buried in East Woodhay, with m.i.. Henry and Sarah had issue, including:

  • 1. William Frederick HULL (1849 - 1939), born in East Woodhay in 1849. In 1904, in Kensington district, William married Bessie HODDINOTT. They farmed in West Woodhay, where they were buried. They had issue.
  • 2. Henry James HULL (1850 - 1905), born in East Woodhay in 1850. In 1894, he married his cousin, Mary LAWRENCE (c1866 - 1929). They lived in "The Yews" in East Woodhay, where they had issue.
  • 3. Matilda Anne HULL (1855 - 1933), born in East Woodhay in 1855. In 1875, she married William CLARKSON (c1841 - 1936). William and Mattie farmed in Well / Cell / Zell House Farm, East Woodhay. No known issue.
  • I seek to contact any researcher or relation of this family and to share HULL family history notes." -- Peter Ferreira - Email: peterferreira@rogers.com
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    1947 Case #3442 - W. B. Hull vs. State

    Vol 10, Iss 22 "Hi, Linda! Do you have any follow up on this case? Did he go to jail?"-- Steve - OkieLegacy Comment
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    Woods County Friendship Quilt Names...

    Vol 6, Iss 11 Names on Woods County Friendship quilt"I have an unfinished quilt-top handed down to me from my Woods County ancestors.  It is a friendship quilt, with the names of members embroidered on their squares.  Some of them were dated as well.  The earliest was 1935 and they ran through 1945.   My great grandmother, Ida Barnett Martin's name is on one square. I recently ran across the list we made of the names some years back, and thought I'd share them with you.  I sent it to Sandie Olson of the Waynoka Historical Society, and she recognized most of the names, including some related to her.  I note that the name Paris (Leona) is represented.  Can you tell who she was? My wife Martha, an avid quilter, plans to finish the quilt, eventually. After I sent you the list of names on the quilt, I got out the box it was stored in.  Ida's quilt blockThe quilt-top with the names of the list is a finished top.  My wife Martha is now enthused enough to plan to finish it.  That quilt does not have my g-grandmother Ida Barnett Martin's name on it.  Garver quilt blockHowever, there were also some other finished squares in the group, including the one I remembered with Ida's name on it.  I now believe these are two different quilting groups. The Martins lived in Alva in their younger days, before and after Hugh was sheriff.  Later, they lived at Dacoma, until their deaths.  Ida's group's squares are already quilted and are embroidered.  I scanned a couple of the squares, and attached here.  I had to look up Reydon, Oklahoma .  I wonder why someone from Reydon made quilt squares for Woods County .  Do you know anything about the Garvers? " -- Charlie Cook in Louisiana Bayou Country

    [Editor's Note: Leona Paris mentioned above is (we believe) the same Leona Pearl Hall that married Alfred Henry Paris, 14 March 1932, Hopeton, OK., with  Rev. Maggie Hull, of the P. H. Church of Hopeton officiated the ceremony at Hopeton, OK in the presence of Hazel McDermott of Dacoma and Carl Hall of Alva.  In 1932... Alfred would have been 25 years and Leona would have been 19. Alfred Henry Paris was Vada Paris' (my mother) cousin. Volney Paris was one of the brothers to my Ernest Claude Paris (my grandpa). Volney married Juliett Cook and had the following children:  Alfred H. Paris (married Leona), Ralph V. Paris (married Mildred), Irving R. Paris (married Rena Murrow), Viola Paris, Pearl Paris (married William Stengle).  Alfred & Juliett Paris' children: Louise Paris (married Arthur Durkee), Cleta Paris (married Jackie Zook).] View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


    1905 - News At The Capital

    Vol 9, Iss 39 Charters Granted... "Here is an article that appeared in The Oklahoman, dated September 1, 1905, pg. 2, headlines: News At the Capital.

    "Territorial charters were granted today as follows: The Western Coal & Lumber Company of Oklahoma City, with $25,000 capital stock. The incorporators are John L. Hicks, Loyd Hicks and L. G. Russell."

    Simon's Opinion... "Attorney General Simons last evening rendered an opinion to the effect that the $5,000 appropriation, made by the last legislature for the purpose of making a topographical map of Oklahoma, can be drawn upon to defray the expenses of making the map of the district, inundated by the Deep Fork and other streams in eastern Oklahoma. Auditor Baxter will now draw warrants on this fund."

    Many Grains to Ear... "Secretary Tom Morris has in his office today samples of corn, grown on his farm in the cottonwood river bottom, three miles south of Guthrie. The ears are very large and according to Mr. Morris average twelve hundred grains to the ear. He claims this is a "beater" in Oklahoma."

    Want Surplus Land Open... Ardmore, I. T., Aug. 31, 1905 -- "The republican club at Overbrook has memorialized the president and congress asking that the surplus lands in Indian Territory be purchased and opened for settlement by bona fide settlers according to the homestead laws now in force. The resolutions complain of high rents paid the white "grafters," and of the lack of schools."

    Will Investigate Asylum... "The charges filed with the governor relative to the alleged brutal treatment of James Brownlee, an aged inmate of the insane asylum from Lincoln county, will result in another investigation of that institution in the near future. There have been numerous investigations made in the past, and practically all of them have proven that the charges were ungrounded. The governor, however, is anxious to probe all such matters to the bottom. It is claimed that asylum attendants choked Brownlee with a towel until his tongue protruded."

    Street Car Company Sued... "Col. C. R. Buckner, attorney for the heirs of Mrs. Mary Bausch, who was killed underneath a Springer avenue car here last week, today commenced an action in the district court against the street car company, asking $10,000 for the death of the woman. Conductor Reid and Motorman Stevenson have been held to the grand jury under bond on a charge of manslaughter in the second degree."

    Jaw Almost Severed... "Otte Zimmermann, telegrapher for the Johnston Commission company here, returned today from a hunting trip in the southern part of the county, and says that James Wallace, a farmer, met with a serious accident, while shaving during an electrical storm. Wallace had the razor posed against his cheek ready for a downward stroke, when the lightning struck near the house and so frightened the farmer that the razor descended with great force and almost severed his jaw. Zimmerman was in the house at the time, having taken refuge from the storm."

    Cancelled His Date... "Governor Tom Ferguson has cancelled his date to speak at the old soldiers' reunion at Baxter Springs, Kansas, on september 1, for the reason that Territorial Secretary Grimes is also out of the territory at present, and the law provides that both the governor and the secretary may not be absent from the territory at the same time. Although a telegram came from Secretary Grimes that he would arrive home last evening, yet he did not get in until eight hours after the train departed, which would have carried Ferguson to Kansas. This would have left the territory without a governor for that length of time, and to avoid such a contingency the governor decided to stay at home."

    Comes Under Thoburn Law... "Governor Ferguson today forwarded to C. A. Hullet of Thorns, Tex., a copy of the quarantine law, passed through the last legislature by the efforts of Secretary Thoburn, to prevent cottonseed coming into Oklahoma from boll weevil infected districts. Hullett desired to move to Oklahoma, but the railroad agent refused to load his bed quilts and mattresses because they were stuffed with cotton, and possibly would contain boll weevils."

    May Investigate White... "According to Secretary Tom Morris of the Oklahoma Live Stock Sanitary board, no decision has as yet been made by the board as to what preceeding to take against Dr. White of Pawhuska, who impersonated himself as an officer and ordered some glandered horoses killed at Newkirk, last Tuesday. It is generally believed by the board members that White is mentally unbalanced."

    Guthrie, Okla., Aug. 31, 1905... "As a result of the charges, filed against William T. Judkins of Kiowa county, the Oklahoma Live Stock Sanitary commission today dismissed Judkins fromthe Service of the board as a territorial cattle inspector. he was appointed last spring, from Kiowa county, after the legislature had authorized the appointment of four additional inspectors. When asked today regarding the dismissal of Judkins, Governor ferguson said the prinicpal charge against the inspector was that he refused to obey the orders of the board. No successor to Judkins has as yet been named."
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    1947 Criminal Case #1091, 1947, Alva, OK

    Vol 10, Iss 19 "I'm not sure what this might be about ... simply a guess, since McGill, Brown, & Gardner were all landowners along State Hwy 14. It might have been over the purchase of right-of-way for highway. Nels Nelson was the sheriff & Randall was the deputy. When you are in Alva go to the COURT CLERKS' OFFICE. I think the old records are available. I was the County Clerk ... so I'm not sure about court records!" -- Eleanor

    [Editor's Note:The Fall Criminal case of 1947, W. B. Hull vs. State of OK... If Nels Nelson was Sheriff and Dewey Randall was Deputy Sheriff at the time during this criminal case #1091, in Woods County, Oklahoma, a squabble over pruchase of right-of-way wouldn't be on the criminal docket, would it? If anyone has any information concerning W. B. Hull criminal case we would love to hear from you. If you get to the Woods County Courthouse, could someone check out the 1947 criminal court records in the Court Clerks Office and see if they can find out anything on Criminal Case #1091, OK State v. W. B. Hull? Thanks for your help! Did W. B. Hull also go by the name of "Bertie?"]
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    Hull Family In America

    Vol 10, Iss 8 "Hull Family in America book listed on eBay _ Hull Family History Book - eBay (item 110226639161 end time Feb-28-08 11:05:20). Hull Family in America book." Email: Wvlyle@aol.com
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    Samuel Wood Hull & Mary Louisa Frost

    Vol 10, Iss 47 "Looking for additional information or sources for:

    Samuel Wood Hull -- (12 apr 1803, New York? - 20 May 1820 Northfield, Rice Co, MN) Said to be related to: Richard Hull, came in 1634, and was a founder of New Haven, Conn. And of Yale University and was also a member of the General Courts. The earliest crcord of the Hull family we can find is that Henry Hull, in the eighth century gave the land at Cambridge, England for St. Johns Hospital, which was afterwards turned into St. Johns College.

    Mary Louisa Frost -- (20 Sep 1808, New York ? 2 Sep 1884) Said to be related to: Elder Edmund Frost, came from England in 1635, to Cambridge, Mass. He helped plan Harvard College in 1637 and helped found it in 1639 and was one of its first governors. He gave all he could to Harvard and he with his wife is buried just outside the Harvard gate. His church is gone but the cemetery is still there. Thank you in advance." -- Sue Fitz
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    1944 - Hardtner KS Community News

    Vol 10, Iss 17 The Hardtner, KS community news was written by Jeff, published in the July 9, 1944, Woods County News.

    "Another fine week past and no rain to refresh the crops and grass. Oats are in need of a few days of sunshine so they will dry out enough to be threshed. Wind is blowing from southeast and I amy say it has earmarks of another rain in near future.

    "Mrs. Gerald Graves and daughter Julia spent Sunday with mr. and Mrs. G. E. Sterling.

    "From the looks of some corn fields it won't be long until things pick up as they are tasseling and shooting.

    Most all ground is plowed, one-wayed and listed, the earliest I can recall for many years, and there is plenty of moisture for a good job of work.

    Mrs. G. L. Graves visited her mother Sunday afternoon. Mrs. Alice blunk.

    "It is rumored that Prof. Wallace has purchased the Edd Sterling property in North part of town.

    "Mrs. Myrtle B. Hull purchased Janet Baker's property in North part of town.

    "Ord Hensley has purchased Mac Huston property so it is rumored.

    Wind and rain came early Sunday evening between a 1-4 and 1-2 inch of rain.

    "Achenbach memorial Hosptial News...
    "Miss Genevieve Mantz of Hardtner and mrs. Fleta James of Alva were admitted July 8 for medical care.

    "Mrs. Annabelle Kisling of Roswell, N.M., was admitted July 10 for tonsillectomy and was dismissed July 11.

    "Mrs. J. B. Zundle of Hartley, Texas was admitted July 9 for surgery.

    "Mr. Otto Bower of Hazdelton, Kansas was dismissed July 8.

    "Mrs. Martha Wilson of medicine Lodge, Kansas and Mrs. Neal Underwood of Wichita, Kansas were dismissed July 10.

    "Mr. Ervin dooley of Diamond, Missouri, Mr. F. W. Stebwien of Bushton, Kansas were dismissed July 11.

    "Mr. Richard Guthrie and baby of Kiowa, Kansas, Mrs. Edwin Lombard and baby of Kiowa, Kansas and Mrs. Fleta James of Alva, Okla. were dismissed July 11.

    "Mr. James Harbaugh of Kiowa, and Audrey Campbell of Hardtner, Kansas were admitted July 12 for surgery.

    "Mr. Frank Hadley of Alva, Okla., was dismissed July 12.

    "Ida Jane Mosher of Hardtner, Kansas was admitted July 12 for tonsillectomy and was dismissed July 13.

    "Mrs. I. S. Fox of Waynoka, Okla., was admitted July 12 for medical care....."[See Photo Clipping in above article for more Hardtner, KS names.]
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    Jack & Jean Kelsey's Story

    Vol 9, Iss 26 written by Jack Kelsey -- Jack Kelsey was born June 1, 1925 on his father's farm, which he now owns and has been in the Kelsey family for over 90 years. Jack is the last living Kelsey of the Oliver Hadley Kelsey family living in the state of Oklahoma. Oliver Hadley Kelsey was Jack's grandfather.

    The Kelsey family came to New York from Ireland during the potato famine. Oliver Kelsey married Lola Rittenhouse, daughter of a Chaplain in the Civil War. After the Civil War, Oliver Kelsey returned to New York where he was a minister of the Methodist church.

    In the Oklahoma Run of 1893, Oliver Kelsey staked a homestead 5-1/2 miles northeast of Waynoka. In 1894, Oliver moved his family to the homestead. Oliver hauled lumber from Kansas by team and wagon to build a house on the homestead.

    Oliver Hadley Kelsey passed away at an early age and left his wife to raise six children -- Lola was a school teacher.

    As a small child, Jack remembers the "Dust Bowl" days very well. He calls those years the "3 D's" -- "Dust, Depression & Drought." It was a very hard time for farmers in that time period, but Jack's dad managed to furnish enough food and necessities for the farm.

    They milked cows and sold cream to the "Waynoka Creamery," which was a Co-op. It was located across the street from where the "First State Bank" is located today. Jack's mother had lots of chickens and sold eggs tot he grocery store and most of the time it was enough to buy the groceries.

    Jack and his two brothers, Roscoe and Roland -- 12 and 10 years older than Jack -- all went to Rose Valley Grade School, then to Waynoka High School. Jack graduated from Waynoka High School in 1943.

    Jack's great passion was flying. At a very young age, Charles Lindburgh established an airport at Waynoka -- across the road from Jack's father's farm. Lindburgh was flying the old "Tri-Motor Ford" airplane. They would land airplanes there in the evening and haul the passengers to town in a very nice bus -- much like our fifth-wheel trailers today. After arriving in Waynoka, they would eat at the "Harvey House" and lounge in their depot. They could take the passenger train that evening and ride to Clovis, New Mexico or they could catch another TAT plane in the morning for California. This lasted only a short time, but the TAT Airport continued to be used extensively.

    During World War II, Vance Air Base used the airport for part of their training exercises. Jack saw many airplanes come and go stirring his passion for flying.

    Following graduation from high school, Jack drove to Woodward, Oklahoma to take flying lessons. While Jack was in the army, his dad and brothers established a landing field in the pasture on the farm across from the old TAT Airport.

    His father purchased a "1946 Aeronca Champion (two-place airplane)" and hired an instructor, who taught many people to fly from "Kelsey Field." Upon returning home from the army, Jack took up flying again and received his private and multi-engine license. Jack owned several airplanes. His last airplane was a twin-engine Cessna.

    After graduation from high school, Jack helped his father on the farm until he was drafted into the army. Jack was sent to Camp Livingston, Louisiana, where he received 17 weeks of infantry training. Two historical things happened while at Camp Livingston -- one was the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the other was the end of World War II in Europe.

    After Jack finished training at Camp Livingston, he received orders to go to Fort Ord, California where he would receive more training and eventually be transferred to an island in the Pacific where they were gathering troops for the invasion of Japan. Jack boarded a train in Alexander, Louisiana and changed trains in Arkansas to head West to Oklahoma. After getting on the train, he sat down by a lady who introduced herself and said, "Do you know they dropped the Atomic Bomb on Japan?"

    Jack replied, "What is an Atomic Bomb?"

    The lady replied, "I don't know, but it looks like the war is about over."

    While Jack was at home with his family for two weeks in Waynoka, the war ended in the Pacific. When Jack's leave was over, he boarded the train in Waynoka and headed for Fort Ord, California for more training and eventually boarded the Cape Mears Troop ship. Twenty-eight days later, they landed in Manila on the Island of Luzon -- part of the Philippine Islands. Jack and all the soldiers on the ship boarded a freight train and rode to a replacement camp north of Manila near Clark Field. Clark Field was a very important Air Base. Jack was assigned to a Quartermaster Corp near Manila, which was actually a large trucking company hauling supplies all over the Island of Luzon. Jack was interviewed and when they found out he could type, he was placed in charge of the night shift at the shop where they worked on large trucks. Jack held that job for a few months, then was assigned as Battalion Mail Clerk. He had a weapons carrier assigned to him because he had to go to Manila every day to deliver and pick up mail. Jack toured the Island of Luzon extensively -- including the Island of Corregidor which was where General McArthur and his troops made their last stand.

    One of the most historical things I ever attended was on July 4, 1946, when United States gave the Philippines their independence. The Philippine people had worked extremely hard to build a large stage for this occasion in downtown Manila. Dignitaries from all over the world flew in for this great occasion. President Harry Truman could not be there, so he sent Senator Tidings and Robert Hannigan, Postmaster General of the United States. Jack made his way down to the front of the stage with his 16mm camera -- there were stairs leading up to the stage. The guards thought Hack was part of the Press and asked if He wanted to get up on the stage to take close-up pictures of all the dignitaries. Jack obliged and obtained an excellent close-up picture of General McArthur. Jack still has that film today.

    After serving his time in the army, he was sent back to California for his discharge and returned home to Waynoka, Oklahoma. On November 30, 1946, Jack married his high school sweetheart -- Norma Jean Hull, daughter of John and Grace Hull. Jack & Jean were married in Wellington, Kansas in the home of Brother Judson Woodbridge.

    Norma Jean Hull was born and reared on her parents farm southeast of Waynoka and graduated from Walnut Grove Grade school. Jean graduated from Waynoka High School in 1943. Upon graduation from high school, Jean moved to Wichita, Kansas and entered American Business College. On completing this,, Jean went to work for Boeing Aircraft company as a secretary -- working there until the end of the war. From she moved to Stillwater, Oklahoma and enrolled at Oklahoma A&M college. Jean continued her education there until they were married.

    Jack & Jean made their home on his father's farm where Jack was born -- moving the house one mile south from his grandfather's farm. They remodeled the house and lived there 18 years. They built a new home and moved to Waynoka in 1965. Jack served as Mayor of Waynoka for 5 years and served on many other committees.

    [Editor's Note: We only published a part of Jack & Jean Kelsey's Story here in The OkieLegacy. If you want to read his full story, you may contact the Waynoka Historical Society to see about ordering the history book that they are helping organize and compile with legacies of Waynoka, Oklahoma residents.]
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    1947 Case #3442 - W. B. Hull vs. State

    Vol 10, Iss 21 Dec. 23, 1946... The following was in the Alva Review Courier, dated December 23, 1946, Monday, Alva, OK, with this big frontpage headline: Anti-Aircraft Fire Draws Legal Action

    "W. B. Hull, rancher who lives southwest of Alva was free on $2,000 bond today, the result of charges filed after it's alleged "anti-aircraft" fire put three holes in an airplane flown by Merle McGill Sunday.

    McGill, rancher who lives in the same area, and J. T. Gardner, another rancher of that community who was a passenger in the light plane, landed at the Municipal airport here and filed charges of assault with intent to kill against Hull.

    McGill and Gardner told officers they were fired on while hunting coyotes from the low flying airplane 15 miles southwest of Alva. The practice of hunting coyotes from small planes has become common in Oklahoma during the past few years.

    The plane had a bullet hole in each wing and one in the cockpit. Gardner said the bullet which went through the cockpit narrowly missed him.

    Hull, 54, was arrested shortly after the shooting by the sheriff's force and the highway patrol detachment. Preliminary hearing for Hull was scheduled for January 2, 1947. McGill is a former president of the famous Playing Farmers of Oklahoma association."

    In the January 2, 1947, Thursday, Alva, OK, Alva Review Courier the frontpage headlines read: Hull Hearing Is Continued. Case Reset For January 18.

    Preliminary hearing for W. B. Hull, charged with assault with intent to kill, as the result of allegedly firing at a small airplane, was continued this morning to January 18, 1947. The hearing was scheduled before J. J. Glaser county Judge.

    Hull was charged on the complaint of Merle McGill and Marion Gardner. All three three are ranchers living southwest of Alva.

    The case is the outgrowth of Hull's allegedly firing at McGill and Gardner as they flew low over his property. They told officers they were hunting coyotes."

    Jan. 20, 1947... On January 20, '47 this news article appeared in the same local paper:

    On January 20, 1947 the same local newspaper run this frontpage headlines which read: Hull Held for Trial In Plane-Shooting Case

    "Woods County's 'anti-aircraft' firing case drew a full house of interested and curious spectators Saturday morning as W. B. Hull, Alva rancher, was bound over to district court for trial on a charge of assault with a dangerous and deadly weapon.

    The preliminary hearing was on a charge of assault with intent to kill, filed after Hull allegedly fired at an airplane piloted by Merle (Gene) McGill with Marion Gardner as a passenger, they are also ranchers and neighbors of Hull's living southwest of Alva. Hull was released on bond of $1,000.

    Two Witnesses
    McGill and Nels Nelson, deputy sheriff, were the only witnesses at the hearing, before J. J. Glaser, county judge.

    McGill told the story of a coyote hunt undertaken the morning of Decmeber 22, 1946, with Gardner as a passenger in his light airplane.

    McGill told of being shot at four times, three bullets striking his airplane. He said one of the bullets missed Gardner by six inches and another narrowly missed the gas tank of the plane. He identified Hull as the man who fired the shots.

    Defense counsel conducted an over all details of the flight and what happened during and after the alleged shooting.

    Nelson then told of the arrest of Hull, and of examining the field in which Hull allegedly stood at the time he fired at the plane.

    The defense offered no testimony. Judge Glaser then called counsel to the bench and said he would bond Hull over on a charge of "assault with a dangerous and deadly weapon," instead of "assault with intent to kill."

    The Judge said that the penalty under which Hull as held over, trial carries a sentence of up to five years on conviction."
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    1920 - A Good Father Called Home...

    Vol 7, Iss 37 [Taken from Renfrew's Record, dated January 2, 1920, frontpage.] -- "Dr. J. M. Wright, one of our most highly respected citizens, died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Louis Miller, 827 Seventh Street, Monday evening, December 29, 1919, at 11:30 o'clock.

    He had been in failing health for several years, but it was only the weakness incident to his advanced age. he was weaker than usual the past two weeks and as the end came he quietly folded his hands across his breast and fell asleep.

    Dr. Jesse Martin Wright, son of Rev. William and Amelia Hull Wright, was born on a farm near Lewiston, in Fulton County, Illinois, April 7, 1836, and was 83 years, 8 months and 22 days old at the time of his death. He grew to manhood in his native county.

    On the breaking out of the Civil War Dr. Wright responded to President Lincoln's first-call for 75,000 men for a term of three months. When mustered out he immediately enlisted in the 15th Iowa Inft., and served as assistant surgeon of that regiment. He was engaged in the great battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, but his work was chiefly in field of base hospitals.

    Dr. Wright and Miss Mahala A. Wilson were married at Canton, Illinois, January 29, 1863.

    At the close of the war Dr. Wright moved to Iowa and located at Osceo, Ia. In 1877 he moved to Cowday county, Kansas, and practiced his profession at Arkansas City, Burden and Tisdale, until the death of his beloved wife, April 23, 1902. The last 18 years of his life was spent in the home of his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Miller of this city. The Doctor was the son of a Methodist preacher and from early childhood he was a loyal and devoted member of that church. He was regular in attendance at church and liberal in contributing to the church finances. He was also a regular attendant of the Sunday school and was one of the charter members of the Commercial Class. he was unanimously chosen president of the class at its annual elections for many years and held that position at the time of his death. He was also a member of the Masonic order.

    The Doctor belonged to a family of four boys and four girls, three of the boys being physicians. One of the brothers, Dr. W. T. Wright, of Cedarvale, Kansas, and two sisters, Mrs. P. H. Snively, of Lewiston, Illnois, and Miss Hattie L. Wright, of Newton, Kansas, survive the Doctor.

    Doctor and Mrs. Wright were the parents of four children, two of whom, Geo. E. Wright of Blackwell, and Mrs. Blanche Miller of this city, survive their father.

    Funeral services were held in the M.E.Church Wednesday afternoon at 3:00 o'clock, conducted by the pastor, Rev. E. C. Anderson. The Commercial Class of the M. E. Synday School attended the services in a body and six-pall bearers were selected from that class. The floral offerings were profuse and beautiful. The church was crowded with members of all churches and other friends who came to pay their respects to the memory of one of Alva's most honored citizens.

    The remains were shipped over the Santa Fe the following morning to Tisdale, near Winfield, Kansas, to be laid beside those of the beloved wife in the quiet cemetery there.

    The sympathies of hosts of friends are with the bereaved family in the loss of a kind and loving father." View/Write Comments (count 0)   |   Receive updates (0 subscribers)  |   Unsubscribe


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